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NOVEMBER 1984 VOL. 9, NO. 12 



$3.50 IN UNITED STATES 

S4.25 IN CANADA / £2.10 IN U.K. 

A McGRAW-HILL PUBLICATION 

0360-5280 



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THE SMALL SYSTEMS JOURNAL 



New Chips 



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We interrupt this marine fc 




Microsoft Chart, 
bminess graphics. 



Microsoft Multiplan, 

electronic spreadsheet. 



MacProject. 
project management. 




Dow Jones Spreadsheet Link, 
stock analysis and communications. 



Blemon, 

database management 



Dow Jones Market Manager, 
stock analysis* 




MacWrite 
word processing. 



theBase, 
database management. 



MacDrmc. 
graphic illustration. 




Home 1 'Mac Accountant, 
persona! finance 



ITdSolver, 
equation processor 



Habadex. 
database and communications 



The programs above are just a jew examples oj 'new software Jin Macintosh. Some are available now. others will he released in tk> coming weeks. * Mailable 4th quarter. 198-f. ** Available 1st quarter. 1985. 
© 1984 Apple Computer inc. Apple the Apple logo MacDrau; MacProject, MacTerminal and MacWrite, are trcuiemarks of Apple Computer Inc. Macintosh is a trademark licensed to Apple Computer Inc. For an 
authorized Apple dealer nearest you call (800) 538-9696. In Canada call (800) 268-7796 or (800) 268-7637. 



r some important programs, 




Ihink'/dnk. 
idea processor. 



Dollars and Sense, 
personal finance. 




The Lotus Macintosh Product, 
integrated business software** 



Main Street Filer, 
database management 

















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Helix. 
relational database. 



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Every business day, a new 
software program is being 
developed for the Macintosh™ 
Personal Computer. 

Software for word pro- 
cessing. Spreadsheets. Business 
graphics. Project management. 
Database management. And 
data communications. 

As well as software that 
enables Macintosh to do things 
that have never been done on 
a computer before. 

Which means the worlds 
easiest-to-use business computer 
is well on its way to becoming 
the worlds most useful busi- 
ness computer. 

Any authorized Apple 
dealer will gladly demonstrate 
that fact. 

Just ask to see the com- 
puter that's software compatible. 

With human beings. 





PFS:Mle. 
database management. 



Peachtne's Back to Basics, 
accounting package. 




NOVEMBER 1984 • BYTE I 




V 



k\\\lH 




FEATURES 



Introduction 100 

The Data General/One by Gregg Williams and Ken Sheldon 102 

This battery-powered portable offers remarkable power per pound. 

Garcia s Circuit Cellar: The Lisner 1000 by Steve Garcia 110 

Steve's low-cost, high-performance speech-recognition system uses the General 
Instruments SP1000 chip. 

A Go Board for the Macintosh by Bruce E Webster 125 

The ancient strategy game finds a new setting in MacFORTH. 

A Travesty Generator for Micros by Hugh tenner and Joseph O'Rourke. . 129 
Nonsense imitation requires clever text processing. 

The Pick Operating System, Part 2: System Control 

by Rick Cook and }ohn Brandon 132 

The concluding article of this series covers programming capabilities and 
control elements. 

AGAT A Soviet Apple II Computer by Leo D. Bores, M.D 134 

More than 2 5 years after Sputnik, the Soviets bring out an Apple II. 

THEME: NEW CHIPS 



Introduction 140 

Introduction to Semiconductors by Alan R. Miller 143 

A professor discusses what they are and how they work. 

The MC68020 32-bit Microprocessor 

by Paul F. Groepler and James Kennedy 159 

The latest member of Motorola's 68000 family includes on-board cache and 
virtual memory. 

The Xtar Graphics Microprocessor by Terry Coleman and Skip Powers. . . 179 
Two Xtar executives tell how this chip set draws filled-in polygons 
at superhigh speed. 

RISC Chips by \ohn Markoff 191 

RISC means longer programs but faster execution. 

Gallium Arsenide Chips by Phillip Robinson . . . *. 211 

A new semiconductor technology offers blazing speed. 

The 80286 Microprocessor by Paul Wells 231 

Intel's marketing manager for special programs, a former engineer, writes on the 
head of the iAPX 286 family. 

The PF474 by Steve Rosenthal . . 247 

This coprocessor is optimized to perform string-search operations on text files. 

REVIEWS 



Introduction 258 

Reviewer's Notebook by Rich Malloy 261 



ABOUT THE COVER: A DOUBLE-EXPOSURE 
TECHNIQUE WAS USED TO INSERT A SIDE VIEW 
OF THE DATA GENERAL/ONE INTO ITS OWN 
LIQUID-CRYSTAL DISPLAY. 



BYTE is published monthly by McGraw-Hill Inc Founder: lames H McGraw (1860-1948). Executive editorial, circulation, and advertising offices 70 
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weeks for delivery of first issue Printed in the United States of America. 



B YTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



COVER PHOTO BY PAUL AVIS 



BYTE 



November 




VOLUME 9, NUMBER 12, 1984 



The HP 150 Computer by Mark Haas 262 

The 8088-based touchscreen computer. 

The Columbia Multipersonal Computer-VP by Peter V. Cailamaras 276 

An IBM PC-compatible, transportable system. 

Leading Edge and MultiMate by C I Puotinen 287 

TWo word-processor programs for the IBM PC. 

polyFORTH and PC/FORTH by Ernie Tello 303 

Two FORTH development systems for the IBM PC 

Samna Word HI by Rubin Rabinovitz 319 

A word processor for the IBM PC. 

The Mannesmann Tally Spirit 80 Printer by Mark J. "Welch 335 

The Brother HR-15 Letter-Quality Printer by Peter V Cailamaras 341 

Review Feedback 348 

Readers respond to previous reviews. 

KERNEL 



Introduction , 359 

Computing at Chaos Manor: NCC Reflections by \erry Pournelle 361 

Can hobbyists survive in an industry dissolving in hype? 

Chaos Manor Mail conducted by \erry Pournelle 381 

BYTE West Coast New Developments 

by John Markoff, Phil Robinson, and Ezra Shapiro 387 

Three West Coast editors report on a dBASE compiler, new printer technology 
pfs:Plan, and how to make the Macintosh talk. 

BYTE Japan: Technology Shock by "William M. Raike 401 

Our Tokyo correspondent discovers some surprising U.S. trends, 

BYTE U.K.: A Plethora of Portables by Dick Pountain 413 

A whole family of Apricots and a pocket computer from Psion are in the news. 

Mathematical Recreations: Toggling Functions by Michael W Ecker. . .425 

This month's recreation involves an eccentric jailer's strange way 
of granting amnesty 

Circuit Cellar Feedback conducted by Steve Garcia 430 

Steve answers project-related queries from readers. 



EDITORIAL: THE MYTH OF 
THE ISO-TECH1E 6 

MICROBYTES 9 

Letters 14 

Fixes and Updates 33 

Whats New 39, 520 

ASK BYTE .48 

Clubs and Newsletters 59 



Book Reviews. . . 
Event Queue. . . . 
Books Received . . 
Application Note. 
Unclassified Ads. 



65 

83 

495 

505 

573 



BYTE's Ongoing Monitor Box, 
BOMB Results 574 

Reader Service 575 



Address all editorial correspondence to the Editor, BYTE, FOB 372, Hancock, NH 03449. Unacceptable manuscripts will be returned if accompanied 
by sufficient first-class postage Not responsible for lost manuscripts or photos Opinions expressed by the authors are not necessarily those of BYTE 

Copyright © 1984 by McGraw-Hill Inc All rights reserved. Trademark registered in the United States Patent and Trademark Office Where necessary, 
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London WC1R 4EJ England. 
Subscription questions or problems should be addressed to: BYTE Subscriber Service. POB 328. Hancock, NH 03449 





SECTION ART BY RANDALL ENOS 



NOVEMBER 1984 • BYTE 



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BYTE 



EDITOR IN CHIEF 

Philip Lemmons 

MANAGING EDITOR 

Gene Smarte 

CONSULTING EDITORS 

Steve Ciarcia 

IERRY POURNELLE 

SENIOR TECHNICAL EDITORS 

Richard Malloy, Reviews 
G. Michael Vose. Features 
Gregg Williams 

TECHNICAL EDITORS 

Thomas R. Clune 

Glenn Hartwig 

Richard Krajewski 

Bruce Roberts 

Ken Sheldon 

Richard S. Shuford 

Jane Morrill Tazelaar 

Stanley Wszola 

Margaret Cook Gurney. Associate 

Alan Easton. Drafting 

WEST COAST EDITORS 

Ezra Shapiro, Bureau Chief, San Francisco 

John Markoff, Senior Technical Editor. Palo Alto 

Phillip Robinson. Senior Technical Editor. Palo Alto 

Donna Osgood, Associate Editor. San Francisco 

Brenda McLaughlin. Editorial Assistant. San Francisco 

managing editor. user news 

George Bond 

USER NEWS EDITORS 

Anthony f. Lockwood. What's New 

Mark Welch, Mkrobytes 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Dennis Allison, at large 

Mark Dahmke. video, operating systems 

Michael W. Ecker. mathematical recreations 

Rik Jadrnicek. CAD. graphics, spreadsheets 

Mark Klein, communications 

Alan Miller, languages and engineering 

Dick Pountain. U.K. 

William M. Raike. japan 

Perry Saidman, computers and law 

Robert Sterne, computers and law 

Bruce Webster, software 

Richard Willis, at large 

COPY EDITORS 

Elizabeth R. Cooper. Chief 
Dennis Barker 
Anne L. Fischer 
Nancy Hayes 
Lynne M, Nadeau 
Paula Noon an 
Joan V. Roy 
Bud Sadler 
Warren Williamson 

ASSISTANTS 

Peggy Dunham 

Martha Hicks 

Beverly Jackson 

Faith Kluntz, Copyrights and Permissions 

Lisa jo Steiner 

ART 

Rosslyn A. Frick. Art Director 
Nancy Rice. Assistant Art Director 

PRODUCTION 

David R, Anderson. Associate Director 

Denise Chartrand 

Michael J. Lonsky 

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Sherry McCarthy, Chief Typographer 

Nan Fornal 

Len Lorette 

Leila Mattson 

Donna Sweeney 



PUBLISHER 

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ASSOCIATE PUBLTSHERJPRODUCTION DIRECTOR 

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PUBLISHERS ASSISTANT 

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ADVERTISING SALES 

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marketing communications 

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Sharon Price, Graphic Arts Designer 
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ACCOUNTING 

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TRAFFIC 

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RECEPTIONISTS 

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personnel 

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Patricia Burke. Personnel Coordinator 



Editorial and Business Office: 70 Main Street. Peterborough New Hampshire 03458 (603) 924-928 1 
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Officers of McGraw-Hill Publications Company: President: John G, Wrede. Executive Vice Presidents Paul F McPherson. Operations. Walter 
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Patten Vice Presidents: Kemp Anderson. Business Systems Development: Shel F Asen. Manufacturing: John A Bunyan, Electronic Information 
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Officers of the Corporation: Harold W McGraw, |r. Chairman: loseph L Dionne. President and Chief Executive Officer: Robert N. Landes. Senior Vice 
President and Secretary. Ralph I Webb. Treasurer 



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UNIX is a trademark of Bell Laboratories, 

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NOVEMBER 1984 -BYTE 5 



EDITORIAL 



TtaE Myth of the Iso-TfcCHiE 

Time and again we encounter the mis- 
conception that BYTE readers, 
because they have intense interests in 
personal computers and related tech- 
nologies, have little interest in 
anything else. It is almost as if some 
people think our subscribers' tech- 
nical interests isolate and disable 
them— prevent them from doing seri- 
ous work or earning their livings. This 
view might be called the myth of the 
Iso-Tfechie. 

We have some new data from the 
1984 BYTE Subscriber Profile Study 
that tells how our subscribers use 
their microcomputers for business 
purposes and for personal, nonbusi- 
ness purposes. This data is based on 
a survey of 1200 subscribers. It shows 
that Iso-Techies are as rare as 
Sasquatches. 

Here is the breakdown of the per- 
centages of subscribers or their com- 



panies using microcomputer software 
for specific business applications: 

Word processing 84% 

Software development . .... 58% 
Planning, forecasting, 

spreadsheet 54% 

Graphics 45% 

Accounting 45% 

Engineering 44% 

Math/science 44% 

Telecommunications 38% 

Inventory 35% 

Payroll 26% 

Sales/marketing 24% 

Industrial control 22% 

T&x management 14% 

Investment management . ... 11% 

Here are the percentages of BYTE 
subscribers who perform specific ap- 
plications when using personal com- 
puters for nonbusiness purposes: 

Word processing 69% 

Programming 60% 




Designing/modifying 
hardware and software 

for personal use 50% 

Recreation (playing games 

written by others) 45% 

Record keeping 38% 

Personal finance 3 5% 

Learning about computers . . 31% 
Spreadsheets 29% 

In fact, most BYTE subscribers use 
their computers for many different 
purposes. They enjoy learning about 
computers but also apply their com- 
puters to the many different activities 
in their busy lives. Rather than limit- 
ing their range of activities, personal 
computers extend the range. 

How do BYTE subscribers manage 
to do all these things with their micro- 
computers? It's both simple and 
amazing. They own an average of 15.5 
software packages and plan to buy an 
average of 4.7 more in the next year. 

On reflection, the versatility of the 
BYTE subscriber shouldn't surprise 
anyone. Computers are general- 
purpose tools that can be turned to 
almost any specific application. BYTE 
subscribers know a great deal about 
computers and understand their ver- 
satility In confronting any new task, 
the sophisticated personal computer 
user first asks how a computer can 
make the task easier and the result 
better. It would be surprising if 
sophisticated personal computer 
users restricted their machines to a 
single use or only a few uses. Any 
such view is bound to be a myth. 

The myth of the Iso-Techie is as 
wrong as some people's belief, fueled 
by misuse of the term in the general 
press, that hackers are criminals. It 
may be too late to dispel that miscon- 
ception in the popular mind, but 
perhaps there's still time to stop the 
mythical Iso-Techie from lodging there. 
—Phil Lemmons, Editor in Chief 



BYTE* NOVEMBER 1984 



CONDOR 

Data 

Management 

Software 



much mm 
Inventory < 
systems, edua 

With Condor you get the power and He 
relational database system complete with a 
Step ' ' MENU system to guide the new user, 
help is integrated into the Menu system. A complete 
REPORT WRITER is also included, that even the new- 
comers in our field recommend, 
With Condor, setting up a new database of information, 
is as simple as typing on a blank sheet of paper . . . typi- 
cally, it takes a minute, maybe two. You are then ready to 
enter your data into the database you just created, again just 

like typing on a sheet of paper 
Then, you can SORT, SELECT, COMPUTE, POST, or PRINT your 
information in almost any way that you desire. Plus, you can easily pass 
information from Condor to your word processor's mail-merge, or pass spread- 
sheet information into Condor. It 's all very easy, and also very English. 
Begin with Condor jr. ($195), the advanced file manager. Upgrade later as your business and your data 
grow, to Condor3 ($650-orless the $195 if you bought Condor jr.), the fully relational data 
management system. It's the same system that hardware manufacturers like DEC, Sony, Zenith, 
and Hewlett-Packard have selected to market with their personal computers. There are well 
over 100,000 satisfied users. To find out how condor data management soft- 
ware can make your business easy to handle, see your personal computer 
dealer, or call 1-800*221-8479 (In Michigan call 
0-3 1 3- 760-3992 collect) for your nearest dealer. He 7/ prove 
our point. That Condor is the data management software powerful 
enough to be useful to business, yet simple enough for business to use. 

IBM is the registered trademark of International Business Machines Corp. 



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IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. 



8 BYTE* NOVEMBER 1984 



Circle 366 on inquiry card. 



MICROBYTES 



Staff-written highlights of late developments in the microcomputer industry. 



IBM Announces Productivity, Business Software 

In late September, IBM unveiled two new integrated-software lines: the Personal Decision 
Series and the Business Management Series. The Personal Decision Series includes Data, a 
database manager; Reports*, an advanced reports generator; Plans, a spreadsheet; Plans+, 
which adds features to Plans; Words, a word processor; and Graphs. The Data program is 
required to use any of the others. Data is $250; the other programs are $150 to $300 each. 

The Business Management Series includes General Ledger, Payroll, Inventory Accounting, 
Accounts Payable, Accounts Receivable, and Order Entry and Invoicing. 

Integrated Software for UNIX 

Horizon Software Systems, San Francisco, CA, announced Latitude, an integrated word- 
processing/spreadsheet program for UNIX. A document may contain both text and spread- 
sheet tables. When the cursor moves from an area of text to a numeric table, the command 
line changes to reflect the options available. Versions are now on sale for Altos, AT&T, Onyx, 
Sun, and DEC systems; Horizon plans to offer a version for XENIX on the IBM PC AT when 
it becomes available. The multiuser software costs $995 on small machines, including Altos, 
the AT&T 3B2/300, and the PC AT. 

Language Standardization to Continue 

In late August, the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) announced that 
Canada had agreed to pay for the ISO's subcommittee TC97/SC22, formed after a recent 
ISO reorganization to develop international standards for programming languages. For a few 
weeks this summer, no ISO member nation had funded the SC22 secretariat, and there was 
some danger that international language standardization would grind to a halt. The United 
States will provide funding for the parallel subcommittee TC97/SC21, which works on stan- 
dards for graphics, databases, and other higher-level areas. 

In domestic standards work, the American National Standards Institute technical commit- 
tee X3J2 has decided to incorporate the Graphical Kernel System (GKS) as the standard 
way of writing graphics routines in BASIC A conflict still remains to be resolved with the 
X3H3 committee, which is writing the standard for GKS, over the way BASIC will use the 
graphics module. 

Voice Communications Added to IBM PC 

Digital Pathways, Palo Alto, CA, planned to announce SoundWare, a $449 voice communica- 
tions system for the IBM PC XT, at the November COMDEX show in Las Vegas. Included in 
the package are a half-size card and software to control the system. Software features in- 
clude message playback, auto-diai capabilities, remote access, password security, voice-file 
transmission, Touch-Tone dialing and decoding, and provision for an audit trail. 

Mutual Broadcasting Offers Data Broadcasting via Radio 

The Mutual Broadcasting System plans to use spare satellite transponder capabilities to 
offer a data-communication service called Multicomm. Mutual has leased subcarriers from 
each of its 850 affiliate radio stations to broadcast data or voice information, including elec- 
tronic mail and software. Each message contains a code indicating which receivers should 
receive the message. The receivers would cost about $200 each. Mutual says that New York 
state may use the service to broadcast software to schools. If the service is successful, 
Mutual says that its parent corporation, Amway, may use its sales force to sell receivers that 
could be used to download software to home computers. 



{continued) 
NOVEMBER 1984 • BYTE 9 



printers, yet gives you characters just I llA I I KSS See [t f your ne ,? r eS „ authorized 

as sharp, just as clear. JL 11C JL JL Vj^J*J TI dealer. Or call toll-free: 



MICROBYTES 



VisiCorp, Software Arts Settle Suit, Offer New Packages 

VisiCorp and Software Arts settled their lawsuits in September. As part of the settlement, 
VisiCorp stopped selling the VisiCalc spreadsheet program and has changed the name of 
its Visi On Calc program to Visi On Plan. The two companies started a legal battle this 
spring, each accusing the other of not providing adequate support for VisiCalc. 
Software Arts now sells a VisiCalc package with two versions of the program for $150. 





Ayear^s worth of reports, plans, schedules, 

charts, graphs, files, facts and figures 

and it could all be lost in the blinkof an eye* 



The most important part of 
your computer may be the part you've 
considered least — the floppy disk. After 
all, there doesn't seem to be much dif- 
ference between one disk and another. 
But now Fuji introduces a floppy disk 
that's worth a second look. 

We designed our disk with the 
understanding that one microscopic 
imperfection can erase pages of crucial 
data. That's why every Fuji Film Floppy 
Disk is rigidly inspected after each pro- 
duction process. And that's why each 
one is backed with a lifetime warranty. 

We've even considered how 
carefully a disk has to be handled, so we 
designed user-friendly packaging that 
makes it easier to get the disk out of the 



box. And we provided plenty of labeling 
space, so you won't have any trouble 
telling which disk is which 

So think twice before buying a 
floppy disk. And then buy the one you 
won't have any second thoughts about. 
Fuji Film Floppy Disks. 








FUJI. 




Nobody gives you better performance. 



Circle 1 74 on inquiry card. 



G 1984 Fuji Photo Film U.S.A., Inc., Magnetic Products Div., 350 Fifth Avenue, NY, NY 10118 



LETTERS 



More Letters on the Mac 



I've read everything you've printed about 
the Macintosh, including Jerry Pournelle's 
criticisms in the July issue. I've been using 
my Mac for about a month and I think 
something more needs to be said about 
the importance of the Macintosh's graph- 
ics capabilities. 

As Jerry grudgingly admits, it is a fun 
machine. Fun is important for learning, for 
thinking, and for creativity. We need fun 
as much as we need food, love, and sex. 
And the fun is in the power this machine 
gives people to create graphics. 

Yet what people (reviewers, Apple 
employees) seem to focus on is the user 
friendliness of the icons-on-a-desktop 
metaphor. It is nice. I like it. It is certainly 
better than what I've got on my old 
machine. But that is not the point. Mac- 
Paint is the point. MacPaint gives people 
visual power. We know that one 
hemisphere of the brain is more or less 
verbal while the other hemisphere is more 
or less visual. This machine is for the visual 
brain; it is the greatest tool (other than the 
much more expensive Xerox Smalltalk 
machines) for the visual brain since 
Renaissance Italy gave us perspective 
drawing and the nineteenth century gave 
us the camera. But we aren't quite 
prepared for it. 

Sure, we can do interesting, even cute, 
things with the Mac's typography. Sure, we 
can crank out bar charts, pie charts, and 
Sine graphs. We can do maps 50 ways and 
play with line drawings to our heart's con- 
tent. We can also think visually and relate 
visuals to verbals with a facility not readi- 
ly available before. But only if we realize 
that that is what this machine is about- 
thinking with the Macintosh. 

There are many stories about great 
thinkers who work in images. Watson and 
Crick with the double-helix— why did they 
actually build a three-dimensional model 
of the helix while they were working up 
the basic idea? Or consider the following 
passages from a letter by Albert Einstein: 

The psychical entities which seem to 
serve as elements in thought are cer- 
tain signs and more or less clear im- 




VAR: variety 
CMP: component 



Figure 1: Directed-graph notation. 



VAR (map 
VAR (oak, 
VAR ( pin 


le, tree) 
tree) 
oak, oak) 


CMP ( leaves, tree) 
CMP (trunk, tree) 



Figure 2: Propositional notation. 

ages which can be "voluntarily" re- 
produced and combined. . . .The 
above mentioned elements are in my 
case, of visual and some of muscular 
types. Conventional words or other 
signs have to be sought for laborious- 
ly only in a secondary stage, when the 
mentioned associative play is suffi- 
ciently established and can be re- 
produced at will. [The Psychology of Inven- 
tion in the Mathematical Field, by Jacques 
Hadamard, New York: Dover Pub- 
lications, 1954.] 

I need not belabor the point. But getting 
at the visual brain is hard, and we all need 
help. The graphics capabilities of the 
Macintosh can provide us with that help. 

Thinking is hard. It requires external sup- 
port. That's why we doodle and make 
semicoherent jottings. That's why we write. 
Writing is an external support for thought; 
it is an instrument of thought. But writing 
works best for the verbal brain. Learning 
the mechanics of writing— how to form the 
letters— is relatively easy. But it's different 
with images. 

Becoming proficient in the mechanics of 
freehand drawing— e.g., drawing a picture 
of a horse that looks more like a horse 



than a camel or rabbit— is much more dif- 
ficult, Technical drawing is easier, but it is 
more difficult than writing. The Macintosh 
could change that. 

This is particularly important as we stand 
on the threshold of the information age- 
whatever that is. The intellectual world of 
information, of computing, is an intense- 
ly visual one. From chip design through 
flowcharts to data structures— lists and 
trees— we think in images. If it were easier 
to draw good diagrams, more good dia- 
grams would be drawn. And if more good 
diagrams were drawn, then more people 
could grasp what computing is all about. 

Consider an area that is of particular in- 
terest to me, knowledge representation (a 
subfield of artificial intelligence). One nota- 
tion that is used by many researchers is 
the directed graph (see figure 1). Informa- 
tion structure can be represented in vari- 
ous notations. If you want to prove 
theorems, you'll choose the propositional 
notation (see figure 2). If you want to pro- 
gram it into a computer, then you'll have 
to think in terms of a linked list. But if you 
want to think about how ideas fit together 
and teach this to others, then the graph 
notation is the most useful. Furthermore, 
if you are dealing with structures only 3 
or 4 times more complex than the one I've 
shown— and you are typically dealing with 
structures 10 to 100 times more complex- 
then the propositional form is unreadable. 
You can't do any useful work with it. But 
the visual representation is still useful. 
Even if your graph covers half your desk. 
you can work with it. 

The graph is a notation system in which 
the visual form can represent the struc- 
ture of the information in a perspicuous 

{continued) 



LETTERS POLICY: To be considered for pub- 
lication, a letter must be typed double-spaced on 
one side of the paper and must include your name 
and address. Comments and ideas should be ex- 
pressed as clearly and concisely as possible. 
Listings and tables may be printed along with 
a letter if they are short and legible. 

Because BYTE receives hundreds of tetters each 
month, not all of them can be published. Letters 
will not be returned to authors. Generally, it takes 
four months from the time BYTE receives a let- 
ter until it is published. 



14 BYTE ♦ NOVEMBER 1984 



WHO SAYS'YOU CANT TAKE IT WITH YOU'? 




When we at Intertec intro- 
duced our new HeadStart™ com- 
puter we said "it's the fastest, 
smallest, most powerful business 
computer in its class" 

What more could we say? 

How about "it's also portable" 

Every HeadStart computer 
comes with its own easy-carrying 
handle. You can choose between 
a full size keyboard or a special 
compact version that snaps easily 
on the front of the screen. Either 
way, you get all the great features 
that make HeadStart unique. A 
big twelve inch screen, eight and 
sixteen bit processors, upgrad- 
able to one megabyte and it's 
networkable up to 255 users. 

We named our new business 
computer "HeadStart" because 



that's exactly what itll give you. 
And because it's also portable, 
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Well, almost 

For more information call us 
at (803) 798-9100 or write: 
Intertec, Dept "HeadStart," 2300 
Broad River Road, Columbia, SC 
29210. 




intertec 

See us at 

C©fl!>il7Fall '84 

Las Vegas-Booth #4333 



HeadStart Standard Features: 

Size: 15.75" wide, 12.75" deep, 11.30" high. 
Weight: 25 lbs. 

Processors: Z80A (8 bit) and 8086 (16 bit). 
Memory: 128Kto 1MB depending on model. All models 
are expandable to 1MB. 

Disk Storage: 500K to 1MB (unformatted) on a 3W 
Micro-Disk. RAM disk feature emulates second system 
drive. Optional 3)^" or 5!4" external drives. 
Display: 12" (diagonal )P31 phosphor, non -glare screen, 
25 lines x 80 or 132 columns. 
Keyboard: Detachable with 104 total keys. A port- 
able version snaps onto the front screen for easy 
transportability, 

Disk Operating Software: 'CP/M 80 for 8 bit 
"MS DOS for 16 bit. LAN DOS for multi-user 8 or 16 
bit operation. 

'Concurrent CP/M 86 optional. 
Interfaces: One RS 449/RS 232 compatible serial port 
One Centronics compatible parallel printer port 
External data bus. Coaxial communications interface. 
External disk I/O interface. Optional network print 
spooling interface. 

Networking: Up to 255 HeadStarts may be connected 
via a coaxial, multi-user network into one of 2 optional 
data storage systems, 

Optional Data Storage Systems: Two models are avail- 
able. A 10MB, 5 JT system is expandable to 20MB. A 
50MB, 8" system (25MB fixed, 25MB removable) is 
expandable to 545MB in 165MB increments. 

'CP/M 80 and Concurrent CP/M 86 are registered trademarks of Digital Research. 
"MS [X)S is a registered trademark of Microsoft. 



Circle 220 on inquiry card. 



NOVEMBER 1984 'BYTE 15 



LOOK NO FURTHER! 

we'll get you low 
prices and fast 
service, or else! 



ALPHA OMEGA 




COHPUTER PRODUCTS 



COMPUTERS 



IBM PC 256K, IBM Color Graphics Card, 
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Monitor $2099 

Many other configurations available. 



DISKETTES 



SCOTCH 3M SSDD $23 

MAXELL MD2 DSDD 39 



PRINTERS 



C. ITOH 8510 P. 120 cps $349 

EPSON FX80 160 cps .395 

EPSON FX100 160 cps 639 

EPSON LQ 1500 1189 

OKIDATA Microline 92 160 cps 419 

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GEMINI 10X 120 cps 269 

GEMINI 15X 120 cps 389 

NEC 3550 35 cps L/Q 1715 

JUKI 6100 L/Q 18 cps 415 

C. ITOH F-10 40 cps 1049 



MODEMS 



HAYES Smartmodem 1200 $482 

HAYES Smartmodem 1200B IBM 409 

HAYES Micromodem lie 249 

BIZCOMP IBM Int. 1200 345 

ANCHOR A. Mark XII 300/1200 .259 



MONITORS 



TAXAN 12" Amber $125 

TAXAN 121 IBM green 159 

AMDEK 310A for IBM PC 169 

AMDEK 300G 12" Green 135 

AMDEK 300A 12" Amber 145 

AMDEK Color 1 + 13" 299 

PRINCETON HX-12 RGB 495 

PRINCETON SR15 Super Hi Res . . . SAVE 



APPLE PERIPHERALS & SOFTWARE 



VIDEX Videoterm 80C w/softswitch . . .$209 

VIDEX Ultraterm 279 

MICROSOFT 16K RAMcard 69 

MICROSOFT 280 Softcard 245 

MICROSOFT Premium Pack 479 

MICROSOFT Premium Softcard HE ... .345 
HAYES Mach II Joystick 33 



PROMETHIUS Vz Height Drives 165 

WIZARD IPI Parallel Interface 75 

PROMETHIUS Versacard 149 

KENSINGTON Systemsaver 68 

COOL & TIME (fan, surge, clock) 75 

KOALA Pad .79 

PFS Filing System 81 

PFS Report 81 

DBase II 329 

Wordstar 249 

Home Accountant 49 

Multiplan 119 

DB Master Version 4 249 

DB Utility 1 or 2 95 

Bank Street Writer 49 

Magic Office System for lie 179 

Magic Window II 109 

Multiplan Macintosh 159 

Microsoft Basic Macintosh 115 

Thinktank for Macintosh 79 

Filevision for Macintosh 125 

Macintosh Carrying Case 69 



IBM PERIPHERALS & SOFTWARE 



TURBO 10 Int. 10MB Hard Disk $949 

TANDON TM100-2 360K 219 

TEAC V 2 Height 360K 145 

MICROSOFT Mouse 139 

QUADRAM Quadboard W/64K-384K ... .319 

QUADRAM Quadlink .569 

QUADRAM Quadcolor I 209 

64K RAM Kit 200 ns 55 

AST 6-pack plus W/64K 279 

STB w/64K clock, par, serial, game . . . .295 

HAYES Mach II Joystick 35 

Irma 3270 Emulator 975 

Home Accountant + SAVE 

Multimate .319 

PFS Filing System 85 

PFS Report 81 

Lotus 1,2,3 319 

Lotus Symphony 435 

DBase III 409 

DBase II 329 

Framework 379 

Wordstar 249 

Wordstar Propack w/Mailmrg, Spellstar .309 

Multiplan 119 

Flight Simulator New RGB .39 



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All products are in factory sealed packages. We guarantee all items for 30 days. Within this period, defective merchandise returns must 
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change without notice. g ee our gd Qn page 35 Cjrc | e | 4 on j nqu j ry car( j 



LETTERS 



way. Well-drawn graphs allow you to catch 
important and interesting information 
structures in a single glance. The proposi- 
tional notation doesn't allow this. A single 
glance at a list of propositional forms tells 
you nothing; you have to read each one 
line by line and assemble them painstak- 
ingly in your mind. The visual notation ex- 
tends the range of a single mental opera- 
tion (i.e., what you see in a single glance) 
far beyond that available with the proposi- 
tional notation. It thus makes the material 
easier to work with. 

The Mac makes it easy to use visual 
notations and to invent new ones. But, as 
I say, only if we know that is what we are 
looking for. Right now the Mac is being 
sold with a user-friendly interface and 
graphics capabilities that make it easy to 
do standard sorts of things. That's fine But 
what we really need are new visual cate- 
gories, images designed to convey 
abstract concepts, images to think with. 

Those who have Macs, no matter what 
their graphics and artistic skills, can play 
with images in a way they couldn't before. 
The result may well be a new "cultural 
genetic" lottery. Somewhere in that 
chaotic soup of icons, graphs, images, and 
patterns there is going to be some impor- 
tant new stuff, stuff that would have been 
much longer in coming if it had been up 
to the relatively small number of people 
with freehand graphics skills. This possi- 
bility is what makes the Mac such an ex- 
citing machine. 

Now, if only the Apple marketing peo- 
ple could grasp this and go with it. Then 
Apple might be able to live up to its 
pretentious 1984 TV ad. Then the com- 
pany might be able to give us an intellec- 
tually significant alternative to Big Blue. 
Bill Benzon 
Troy, NY 

The July BYTE contained several inac- 
curate comments about the Apple Macin- 
tosh. The first, in Phil Lemmons's editorial 
"Patronizing the Naive User" (page 6), mis- 
represents the difficulty of ejecting a disk. 
The method Mr. Lemmons describes to 
eject a disk is the most difficult of several 
alternatives available to a Macintosh user. 
Anyone— including my 4-year-old 
daughter— who uses the Macintosh for 
more than a short time quickly discovers 
that the command E will eject a disk when 
all files have been closed, and that the 
command Shift 1 will force an ejection 
even when a file is open. 

1 do not feel patronized by having disk 
ejection under software control. Rather, I 

[continued) 




In troducing 

the ^B^ Cpnntjer '; 1 

The speedy new 
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at 300 cps 



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See the MPI family of products 
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Circle 294 on inquiry card. 



M 






^>r 



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1 . Model # 5SVA&T - Designed to house one 
full size or 2 half height 5 V floppy disk drives in 
the vertical position. As an added feature, the 
mounting holes are duplicated in reverse so 
the user can mount the drives door left or door 
right. The power supply is a custom linear, 
proven in thousands of installations over the 
years! 

Retail $60.00, ($67.00 for half hgt 

version) 1 year warranty 

2. Model * 5DVA&T - The 5DV is custom 
designed for 2 full size 5 W floppy disk drives to 
mount vertically. The mounting holes are dup- 
I icated in reverse so the drives may be mounted 
door left or right. The power supply is our 
custom linear. 

Retail $85.00 1 year warranty 

3. Model # FD-PC8 - This unique enclosure is 
designed to match the styling and size of the 
IBM-PC and can mount on top of, under or 
along side the PC, It is designed to house 
Shugart 8 inch half height floppy disk drives, 
and affords mainframe compatibility using 8 
inch floppy diskettes. 

Retail $399.00 1 year warranty 

4. Model * DH8A&T - The DH8 is designed 
for one or two standard size 8 inch disk drives 
such as Shugart 800 series, Qume DT-8, and 
SIEMENS. The power supply is 206 series com- 
mercial grade with a 2 year warranty! Cooling 
fan standard. There is a space designed in 
above the disk drive area for mounting circuit 
boards if needed. Specify double or single 
sided connectors. 

Retail $295.00 2 year warranty 

5. Model # FD-PC-jr. - For those needing 
expansion of their PC-jr, here is a matching 
enclosure to house your disk drive. We have 
the controller available also. The case has an 
injected molded front bezel to duplicate the 
looks of the jr. 

6. Model # FD-PC5 - This unique enclosure is 
designed to match your IBM-PC perfectly. 
Injected molded front bezel with ail steel 18 
gauge construction for shielding and strength . 
It boasts a custom linear supply that delivers 5 
amps continuous current. The FD-PC5 is pre- 
drilled to hold any &W half height floppy or 
hard disk or any 5V4" full size floppy or hard disk. 
We even have adaptor brackets to mount a 
Syquest 5 meg removable! 

Retail $295.00 1 year warranty 

18 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



7. Model#5DHHHA&T-The5DHHH(sdesigned 
to house 1 or 2 half height floppy or hard disk 
drives in the horizontal side by side mode. A lit 
on-off switch is mounted in the front where if s 
convenient, and uses our custom linear power 
supply. A blank plate is available for one drive 
installations. 

Retail $125.00 (floppy model) 

$195.00 (hard disk model) 
1 year warranty 

8. Model # SH8A&T - Will house one full size 8 
inch floppy or one or two half height 8" floppy 
disk drives. Uses a commercial grade 206 series 
supply, and carries a full 2 year warranty! 

Retail... ..$199.00 

9 Hard disk & Floppies, we carry only the 
top brands like Shugart and Qume! Don't be 
fooled by the cheap immitations. We carry only 
the best, with the strongest warranty around. 
For example, all Shugart disk drives carry a 1 
year warranty. So call for the latest pricing to 
upgrade your PC, Zenith, Heath, Radio Shack, 
Tl or one of the many other computer systems 
on the market! 

10. We also carry data cables for your system. We 
can custom make them to your specs, or a How 
us to help you choose whaf s right for you. 

Floppy Disk Services, inc. is entering our 6th year of 
supplying disk drives and custom enclosures to the 
computer industry. Companies that demand qua- 
lity such as CBS-TV, IBM and NASA to name a few, 
purchase our products. Space restrictions do not 
allow us to show all our products, so call toll free for 
our FREE catalog of products. Or better yet, let one 
of our sales staff help you make the right choice 
— Ask about our REPLACEMENT warranty policy. 

Dealer inquiries invited. All products available in 
OEM quantities. Prices and specs subject to change 
without notice. 



39 Everett Dr., Bidg, D 
<w~ r t -« Lawrenceville, NJ. 08648 
!fflWM (609) 799-4440 



TOLL FREE (800) 223-0306 

Circle 168 on inquiry card. 




LETTERS 



feel this is an example of good design that 
makes it difficult for a user to compromise 
the integrity of a disk. I see little difference 
between this and the Safety program that 
a Kaypro 1 user should use to park the 
hard-disk head before powering down. In 
both cases, the software performs a useful 
function but can be overridden by a 
knowledgeable user (who should be aware 
of the possible consequences of his ac- 
tions). The fact that a 4-year-old child has 
used my Macintosh for two months with- 
out supervision but has never trashed a 
disk is evidence enough for me of the 
value of this approach. 

lerry Pournelle's problems with disk 
copying and time to load MacWrite may 
simply reflect the long lead time between 
article submissions and BYTE's ap- 
pearance on the newsstand. In mid-May 
Apple released revised Macintosh soft- 
ware that included a Disk Copy utility and 
a new finder with an automatic start-up 
option. With the Disk Copy utility, a com- 
plete disk can be copied in four passes- 
still not as conveniently as on a two-drive 
system, but enough of an improvement to 
make life with the Macintosh bearable. 
How Jerry manages to take "a couple of 
minutes to get the Macintosh to run a sim- 
ple text editor" is beyond me. With Mac- 
Write as the start-up application, my Mac 
takes exactly 20 seconds from power-on 
to a screen ready for writing. Since I don't 
like the default font and format provided 
by MacWrite, I generally avoid the 
automatic start-up and open a Preformat- 
ted document. This approach takes a lit- 
tle longer, but in any case 45 seconds 
should be the outside time limit needed 
to get going in MacWrite. 

I am not trying to say that the Macin- 
tosh is without faults, as it clearly is not. 
Among the worst of these is the perpetua- 
tion of a disk-drive controller that lacks 
direct memory access. The integrated Woz 
device, so hyped by Steve Jobs in Phil 
Lemmons's interview with the Macintosh 
design team (February, page 58), may be 
reliable and cheap to build, but the drives 
are maddeningly slow. Double-sided 
drives and hard disks will help, but the 
Macintosh will probably never live up to 
the performance of the potential of the 
MC68000 because of the I/O bottleneck. 
And while mice are nice, every so often 
I would love to have real cursor keys. 

Selden S. Deemer 
Ann Arbor, MI 

As Macintosh owners with 10 months of 
Macintosh use among us, we would like 

[continued) 



INTRODUCING AST GRAPHPAK. 



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Center (714) 863-1333 Ext. 5249 for your nearest 
dealer. AST Research 
Inc, 2121 Alton Avenue, 
Irvine, CA 92714. 
TWX:753699ASTRUR. 




R€S€RRCH INC. 



IBM PC and XT trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation 
Symphony Lotus and 1-2-3 trademarks o! Lotus Development Corporation 
Framework trademark of AshtonTate Multiplan trademark of Microsoft 
Dow Jones trademark of Dow Jones & Co., Inc Easy-Link copyright Western 
Union CompuServe is an H&R Block Company GraphPak and SuperPak 
trademarks ol AST Research Inc 

Circle 449 for Dealer inquiries. 
Circle 450 for End-User inquiries. 



Buy now* 




Because now when you choose Microsoft 8 Word, the high 
performance word processor for the IBM* PC, you get 
Microsoft Spell, a special version of The WORD Plus™ spelling 
corrector. A $150 value. Absolutely free at participating dealers. 

It watches your p's and qk 

Microsoft Spell is a proofreader that catches your typos 
and misspellings. When you can't remember if its i before e, 
Spell remembers for you. 

And you can customize it to spell your favorite technical 
words, from aepyomis to cryptococcosis. 

Spell is just one of many extras you get in this package. 

For example, Microsoft Word includes the most advanced 
mail merge, for all your multiple correspondence. Plus a free 
'Learning Microsoft Word' disk that brings you up to speed 
immediately 

And Word works with the very latest printers— even laser 
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20 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



Spell free* 



The critics loved it 

When Softalk IBM reviewed Word, they were delighted to 
discover that Word was "fun to use!' 

PC Magazine called it "a well thought out, finely-executed 
product" that is "twice as productive" as WordStar 8 

And Time, which also featured Microsoft in a recent cover 
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Word is a natural match for IBM PCs and their 
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So if you want to make your writing letter perfect, call 
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call (206) 828-8088. 

Microsoft is a registered trademark and MS-DOS and The High Performance Software are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. IBM is a registered trademark 
of International Business Machines Corporation. The WORD Plus is a trademark of Oasis Systems. WordStar is a registered trademark of MicroPro International Corp. 

The $150 value of Microsoft Spell is based on the current list price for The WORD Plus. 




Circle 38 on inquiry card. 



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/ -800-523-2702 

BAY TECHNICAL 
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HIGHWAY 603. P.O. BOX *87 
BAY ST LOUIS MS 39? 20 (60 1| 467-821 1 

22 B YTE • NOVEMBER 1984 




LETTERS 



to respond to some of the criticisms of the 
Macintosh that appeared in your July 
issue. 

First, Phil Lemmons's exaggerated de- 
scription in his editorial of the "three-stage 
qualifying examination" that must be 
passed to eject a disk from the Mac is 
ludicrous. As anyone who has tried it 
knows, instructing the Mac to eject the 
disk is easy using the mouse or the key- 
board. Nor can any of us recall feeling like 
"a humble petitioner before a mysterious 
and powerful computer." Come on, what 
kind of purple prose is this? Furthermore, 
all three of us are long-time computer 
users who hardly fall into the "naive" 
category; yet none of us feel the Mac is 
"condescending." Interacting with other 
computers, including some large main- 
frames, seems like a step back into the 
Stone Age after a session with the Mac. 

We also found some of Jerry Pournelle's 
comments ("Computing at Chaos Manor: 
The AT&T Computers," page 305) to be in- 
consistent with our own experience with 
the Mac. One of us uses Microsoft Multi- 
plan on a daily basis to create project-cost 
breakdowns, which is contrary to jerry's 
implication on page 314 that Multiplan is 
fatally flawed. He also strongly implies on 
the same page that Microsoft BASIC for 
the Mac is so full of bugs, especially in the 
area of mouse utilization and graphics, 
that it is virtually unusable. To the contrary, 
one of us has developed a rather complex 
BASIC program (1 5K bytes) that is used to 
generate architectural perspective draw- 
ings. This program uses the mouse as the 
primary operator control and calls a 
number of the Mac's ROM-based graphics 
routines. lerry also makes the claim that 
the "only application software for the Mac 
that's actually on the market is Bruce 
Tonkin's The Creator database." We would 
like to call his attention to page 413 of the 
same issue where he will find descriptions 
of three Mac programs that are on the 
market. 

Jerry implies that the language Mac- 
FORTH is not available and that it prob- 
ably won't be available any time soon 
(page 377). One of us already has the 
package. He also implies that external disk 
drives are not available. Two of us already 
own and use external Apple disk drives. 
Finally, Jerry states on page 312 that the 
". . . Macintosh is a wonderful toy; but it's 
not very much more." If this is true, then 
the three of us have been wasting a lot of 
company time. Collectively, we have used 
MacWrite and MacPaint to generate nu- 
merous letters, technical memos with 
mathematical equations embedded in the 



text, Vugraph masters for electronic equip- 
ment layouts, organization charts, design 
review forms, equipment specifications up 
to 100 pages in length, Multiplan spread- 
sheets as large as 144 rows by 41 columns, 
and 30 pages of proposal artwork. In fact, 
the ease with which MacPaint can be used 
to rapidly create finished charts, figures, 
and Vugraphs represents a major reason 
for our decision to purchase Macs. Also, 
the BASIC program we mentioned earlier 
has been used to generate several archi- 
tectural perspective drawings. 

We do not wish to whitewash the Mac's 
flaws, the most glaring of which is the large 
amount of software promised but not yet 
delivered. However, this problem is not 
unusual for a genuinely new computer, 
and in view of the Mac's popularity we do 
not doubt that this will be remedied by 
the marketplace in time. 

E. B. Knick 

D. C. Mestayer 

V. C Reynolds 

Melbourne Beach, FL 

In regard to the July editorial "Patroniz- 
ing the Naive User," I commend you. It is 
nice to know that there is someone out 
there who thinks along the same lines 1 
do. I knew there was something that 
bothered me about Apple's Macintosh 
(beside its name) and I think you hit the 
nail on the head. 

I do not respect people who con- 
descend to me nor do I respect computers 
that do the same. I wish the designers of 
such computers would remember when 
they were computer naive and the initial 
excitement of discovering how computers 
work. Apple touts the Mac as being a 
"computer for the rest of us"; but the rest 
of us are not as dumb as the company 
thinks. 

Charles P. Jazdzewski 
Central Point, OR 

Let me remind everyone that 1 like the 
Macintosh. My critical comments were 
prefaced with the statement 'Macintosh 
will be nothing less than wonderful when 
it has two drives and more memory It 
is without doubt the friendliest of today's 
computers.'' I have personally bought a 
Macintosh. I have ordered a number for 
the office (we also have IBM and Tandy 
products and have ordered some HP 
portables}. I regard the Macintosh's user 
interface as largely successful. But 1 don't 
think Macintosh is perfect or that it 
should be treated as holy 

I do wish to confess that my frustration 
with Macintosh's disk procedures disap- 



Circle 39 on inquiry card. 



LETTERS 



peared when I finally received my second 
drive and no longer spent half my wak- 
ing hours swapping disks. 

I think Bill Benzon's letter contains 
more insight into the Macintosh's power- 
ful appeal than any other letter we have 
received. 

Now, if only there were more memory 
and software! 

Phil Lemmons 
Editor in Chief 

I was very amused by Susan Gold's 
remarks (June Letters, page 33) about the 
Macintosh not being a practical business 
tool. She, like so many millions of people, 
has not taken the time to sit down and use 
the Macintosh or thoughtfully analyze its 
potential as a business machine. 1 own a 
small business and would not purchase 
anything but a Macintosh. One thing that 
has been overlooked by all who have 
evaluated the computer is that when you 
spend several thousand dollars for a com- 
puter system, you will spend three times 
that amount training your employees to 
use it (unless you don't mind firing 
everyone that is not computer-literate). 
This is not the case with the Macintosh. 
The Macintosh is the least-expensive com- 
puter on the market today, when you 
count the cost of training your employees 
to use it. Not only that, I find that produc- 
tivity has increased because it's so fun and 
easy to use. 

Ronald L. Lawrence 
Renton, WA 

This is an open letter to Ms. Susan Gold: 

Ms. Gold, I've read your letter given the 
editorial heading "Mac Flak," in the June 
issue of BYTE. If you check volume 6, issue 
10 of InfdWorld you'll find that I wrote a 
similar letter criticizing the Apple Macin- 
tosh Computer but much more scathing- 
ly. I just hope your own letter doesn't 
come back to haunt you and make you 
feel as foolish as I feel. 

You see, after sending that letter I began 
to visit the computer stores and "mess 
around" a little more with the Mac. The 
crazy thing began to grow on me. It was 
shortly thereafter that I purchased one 
and I find that I've been eating the words 
in that letter ever since. 

Ms. Gold, I've learned to swallow my 
pride and admit I was wrong. I've learned 
to adapt to the future and the future is 
in machines like the Macintosh. It gives the 
user untold power in computing and the 
future only looks brighter with all the ad- 
ditional software and hardware that is go- 
ing to be coming out for the Mac. Remem- 



ber, many thought the original Apple II 
wasn't a serious machine either. With 
10,000-pIus pieces of software out for it 
1 guess that rumor has been dispelled. And 
it will go the same way with the Macintosh. 

A few other points: my Mac (with exter- 
nal drive, numeric keypad, keyboard, and 
the Mac itself) takes up less room on my 
desk than my IBM Selectric III, And I am 
running it with a surface area of 6 by 8 
to 8 by 8 inches for the mouse, and I don't 
find it clumsy at all. 

Now, isn't it about time that you went 
out and really tried a Macintosh, to see 
what it can do for you? 'Cause one thing 
the Mac ain't ... it ain't no toy, that's for 
sure! 

Craig A. Pearce 
Berwyn, IL 

In response to the letter by David Nibbelin 
in the June issue (page 14): Mr. Nibbelin 
would do better to investigate all con- 
sumer finished goods that are made with 
parts derived from imported steel. And 
remember, stay out of buildings made 
with imported steel beams! The bottom 
line for any properly run company is the 
quality/cost ratio. Mr. Nibbelin's efforts 
might be directed at those who do not 
make the superior product that Sony's 
drive is, instead of pointing an accusing 
finger at the way Apple conducts its busi- 
ness to produce a fine product at a price 
Americans can afford. 

Julia L. Muldawer 
Covington, LA 

On Caching 



I read with interest the very lucid article 
on disk caching "Maximizing Hard-Disk 
Performance" (May, page 307) by Roy 
Chaney and Brian Johnson, At Microcosm 
Research we have been involved in this 
area for some time and have had a prod- 
uct (MicroCache) on the market for the 
past three years. 

We can endorse most of the authors' 
findings but would like to make a few 
observations. 

With hard disks and caches of several 
hundred kilobytes, the algorithm used is 
not overly critical, as explained in the ar- 
ticle. However, for smaller caches or 
floppy-disk systems, the algorithm is much 
more critical. As a result, we used a com- 
bination of the least-recently-used algo- 
rithm they preferred, tempered by an al- 
gorithm they did not mention— the least- 
frequently-used. This is further adjusted 

{continued} 



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PORT 



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NOVEMBER 1984 'BYTE 23 



LETTERS 



with regard to the physical location of the 
data of the disk. This has enabled us to 
provide significant performance improve- 
ments with caches from 16K bytes upward. 
Readers may have gotten the impression 
from the article that the memory-address- 
ing capabilities of 16-bit processors are 
necessary for effective caching. This is not 
so. Eight-bit systems can also employ 
caching. In fact, it is often more desirable 



on 8-bit systems because the applications 
software tends to use overlays extensive- 
ly to overcome the limitations of a re- 
stricted address space. Caches are ideal 
for handling these frequently used over- 
lays. The 8-bit version of MicroCache 
copes with memory addressing by accom- 
modating whatever additional bank- 
switched memory is available for the 
machine (up to 8 megabytes). 



What do you get when you cross 
1200 baud, free on-line time, 
and extra features at a price Hayes 
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The MultiModem 
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information utilities. 
Check out bulletin 
boards. Dial into corpo- 
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files with friends. 

On-Line Time? 

With the Multi- 
Modem you get 
CompuServe's 
DemoPak, a free two- 
hour demonstration of 
their service, and up to 
seven more free hours 
if you subscribe. You 
also get a $50 credit 
towards NewsNet's 
business newsletter 



Features & Price? 

Of course, the 
MultiModem gives you 
automatic dial, answer, 
and disconnect. Gives 
you the Hayes- 
compatibility you need 
to support popular 
communications soft- 
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Crosstalk, Data Cap- 
ture, our own MultiCom 
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Circle 296 on inquiry card. 



Trademarks-- MultiModem, MultiCom 
PC: Multi-Tech Systems, Inc. — Compu- 
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an H & R Block company - NewsNet 
NewsNet, Inc.-- Crosstalk Microstuf, 
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ware — Smartmodem: Hayes Microcom- 
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I was surprised that they found an 
overall degradation in performance with 
small caches. This has not been our ex- 
perience. Some caches we have seen 
(usually thrown together by a RAM-board 
manufacturer so that it can say it has a 
cache) have the opposite problem: they 
are okay for small caches but slow the sys- 
tem down when more than about 100K 
bytes of RAM is used. A cache-searching 
system that is very fast for all sizes of 
cache is essential. 

For small caches it is worth including a 
facility that enables the user to "lock" 
time-critical files in the cache so that they 
are not ejected by the caching algorithm. 

Printer buffers are effectively very crude 
caches using a first-in/first-out algorithm 
with background writing. Adding this facili- 
ty to the disk cache is easy and can greatly 
improve the overall throughput of the 
machine. It is a much more cost-effective 
way of buffering printout than using add- 
on boxes because the RAM is dynamical- 
ly shared between the disks and the 
printer. When the printer is the major 
source of delay it gets more of the RAM, 
releasing it for disk caching as soon as the 
characters are passed on to the printer. 

The authors' system was primarily con- 
cerned with caching hard disks. If floppy- 
disk systems are to be catered to, then it 
is necessary to cope with the situation 
when disks are changed. If disks are 
changed without the cache knowing about 
the change then there will be chaos! The 
data on the cache from the previous disk 
will get mixed up with the data on the new 
disk. MicroCache is the only caching 
system that we know of that avoids this 
problem by automatically detecting disk 
changes on the IBM PC and other popular 
machines. 

Peter Cheesewright 
London, England 

On Service Contracts 



in your July publication, Michael W. Fitz- 
patrick wrote of his costly experience in 
having his Columbia VP portable com- 
puter repaired by Bell & Howell Service 
Company (Letters, page 31). 1 am respond- 
ing to his letter in the hope that I can spare 
Mr. Fitzpatrick and other computer users 
from similar experiences in the future. 

Mr. Fitzpatrick equated repairing a 
defective motherboard to repairing a car 
engine. While there is some similarity, in 
that eventually a defective part may be 
replaced, the means by which the defec- 

[continued) 




Introducing the Hercules Graphics Card 
for the technical user. 



OK. We confess. The 
Hercules Graphics Card in 
the picture above isn't a 
special version for the tech- 
nical user. 

In fact, it's exactly 
the same as the standard 
Hercules Graphics Card 
running programs like 1-2-3™ 
and Symphony™ in more 
than 100,000 IBM® PCs. 

We just wanted to make 
the point that the Hercules 
Graphics Card is not only 
big with business users— it's 
also the most popular high 
resolution graphics card for 
the technical user. 

Why? We run more 
software than anyone else. 

The Hercules Graphics 
Card is supported by more 
technical software than any 
other hi-res graphics card. 

There a re word proc- 
essors that 
can produce 
publication 
quality documents with 
mathematical formulas. 

There are programs 
that enable your PC to 
emulate a graphics terminal 





and run mainframe graphics 
software. 

There are toolkits of 
graphics utilities that can be 
linked to popular program- 
ming languages. 

There are CAD pro- 
grams that can provide 
features normally associated 
with $50,000 systems. 

And we supply free 
software with 
each card to do 
hi-res graphics 
with the PC's 
BASIC. No one else does. 

Hardware that set the 
high performance standard. 

When we introduced the 
Hercules Graphics Card in 
August, 1982, it set the 
standard for high resolution 
graphics on the PC. 

But we didn't stop there. 
In the past two years, we've 
continually refined the 
original design. 

Today's Graphics Card 
gives you two graphics 
pages, each with a resolu- 
tion of 720h x 348v, and a 
parallel printer port- 
standard. 




A 2K static RAM buffer 
elegantly eliminates scrolling 
flicker. And our exclusive 
safety switch helps prevent 
damage to your monitor. 

Convinced? Good. Now, 
how about a little color? 

Should you want IBM 
compatible 
color graphics 
for your sys- 
tem, then the 
new Hercules Color Card is 
the smart way to go. 

It gives you a parallel 
printer port and a size small 
enough to fit in one of the 
XT's or Portable's short slots. 

And both Hercules 
cards are compatible with 
the new AT™ and backed by 
our two year warranty. 

Call 800 255-5550 Ext. 
408 for the name of the 
Hercules dealer nearest you 
and we'll rush you a free info 
kit. See why the company 
that made the first graphics 
card for the IBM PC still 
makes the best. 

Hercules. 

We're strong on graphics. 



Address: Hercules, 2550 Ninth St., Berkeley, CA 94710 Ph: 415 540-6000 Telex: 754063 Trademarks/Owners: Hercules/Hercules Computer Technology, 1-2-3, 
Symphony/ Lotus Development; IBM, ATVInternational Business Machines 



Circle 193 on inquiry card. 



NOVEMBER 1984 • BYTE 25 



ivj> un inquiry card. 



pOWEP 









Powerful in circuit emulation, priced 
well within your grasp. That's NICE. ™ 



Nicolet 



NICK may be only 3" square and fc» thick, but it hands vol. full speed 
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'Payment by check, money 
order, VISA or MasterCard. 
NICE is a trademark of Nkrol 






LETTERS 




tive part is identified is in no way similar. 
A board-repair system in some cases 
costing in excess of $500,000 does not 
compare in cost to a timing light and 
socket wrench, or even the more sophis- 
ticated equipment now in many 
automobile repair shops. Bell & Howell 
does maintain board-repair equipment 
but not in every location because of pro- 
hibitive cost. 

While Bell & Howell Service Company 
welcomes all users of Columbia Data com- 
puters to place contracts on their equip- 
ment, many such as Mr. Fitzpatrick choose 
to take a chance that service will not be 
needed. The truth is that even a product 
as well engineered and reliable as the 
Columbia VP will eventually require ser- 
vice. To cater to the needs of noncontract 
customers. Bell & Howell is required to 
stock large spare parts inventories without 
prior commitment from the user, who may 
seek an alternative means to obtain 
service, 

In light of this, Bell & Howell has devel- 
oped contract rates that are competitive, 
and perhaps the lowest in the microcom- 
puter service industry. I entirely endorse 
Mr. Fitzpatrick's advice to buy a service 
contract from a reputable service organi- 
zation. If Mr. Fitzpatrick had followed his 
own advice, the $811.06 he paid for his 
motherboard would have given him three 
years of full parts and labor contract 
coverage and $16.06 change. 

David C Hallquist 

Bell & Howell Service Co. 

Chicago, IL 

My IBM PC developed trouble in the 
reverse mode, in my case black on green. 
It will print reverse only for the first 12 
lines and 64 characters of the thirteenth 
line; 12 x 80 = 960 plus 64 on the thir- 
teenth line gives 1024. That seemed 
significant so I ran a program to check the 
video system and guessed the problem 
might be in the attribute chip number two. 
I called the 800 number and was told 
I could take my IBM PC to the repair depot 
in Tampa and I would get it back in 48 
hours. The 800 number is a phone in 
Atlanta. I was given a repair number and 
then I packed up the computer and drove 
36 miles through heavy traffic to the repair 
depot. 

They had a copy of the repair ticket 
called in by the operator in Atlanta. How- 
ever, I was told they would send the com- 
puter to Atlanta for repairs and I was given 
no time limit for its return. Well, at $96 an 
hour for labor and no guarantee of any 

(continued) 



26 B YTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



Circle 306 on inquiry card. 



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NOVEMBER 1984 -BYTE 27 



NEW from BORLAND! 

TURBO TOOLBOX & TURBO TUTOR 



i**iL3> 






'TURBO is much better than the 
Pascal IBM sells- 
Jerry Pournelle. 
Byte. July 1984 



TURBO PASCAL appears to violate 
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You won't find a comparable price/ 
performance package anywhere. It 
is simply put. the best software deal 
to come along in a long time. If you 
have the slightest interest in 
Pascal. . .buy it." 

Bruce Webster, 
Softalk IBM: March 1984 



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NEW! TURBO TOOLBOX (reg. $49.95). A set of three fundamental 
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• GINST (General Installation Program) 

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TUrbo Pascal 2,0 49.95 + 5.00 TUrbo 8087 89.95 + 5.00 

Check Money Order . VISA MasterCard _____ 



Card #: 

My system is: 8 bit 16 bit . 



Exp. date: 



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Operating System: CP/M 80 CP/M 86 MS DOS PC DOS . 



Computer: 



Disk Format: 



Please be sure model number & format are correct. 

NAME: 

ADDRESS: 



CITY/STATE/ZIP: 
TELEPHONE: _ 



California residents add 6% sales tax. Outside U.S.A. add $15.00 (if outside of U.S.A. payment must be by bank draft payable in 
the U.S. and in U.S. dollars). Sorry, no C.O.D. or Purchase Orders 615 



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INTERNATIONAL 



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Scotts Valley, California 95066 
TELEX: 172373 



Circle 146 on inquiry card. 



New Release 
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1978, and the latest release includes many new features you've 
wanted. 



tnteractive and Batch Processing 
Expanded Data Management 

Subsystem with New Data 

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Reading data files created by other 

programs 
3 types of Analysis of Variance 
Time Series 

Crosstabs and Chi-Square 
Factorials, Permutations, and 

Combinations 
Hypothesis Tests 



Data sets that can exceed memory 
Multiple Regression (including 

Stepwise) 
Scatterplots (including best fit 

regression) 
Correlation Analysis 
12 Nonparametric tests 
8 Probability Distributions 
Descriptive Statistics 
Easy Installation 



Microstat's algorithms have been designed to prevent numeric overflow errors 
and yield unsurpassed accuracy. Microstat's price is $375.00 including the user's 
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Trademarks: Microstat (Ecosoft), CP/M (Digital Research), MS-DOS (Microsoft), 
PC-DOS (IBM), Z80 (Zilog), 8086, 8088 (Intel). 



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MODULA-2 COMPILER/ 
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LETTERS 



kind as to what they might do to the 
machine, I decided that solution was not 
for me. So I packed the equipment back 
into the car and went home thinking about 
the fact that I had packed the gear up and 
driven all that way supposing that with a 
formal appointment everything would be 
taken care of. 

I keep thinking about the advertisements 
that say "includes a nationwide network 
to help give you computer-age service 
support." 

I have not found that to be true. I wrote 
Boca Raton, 1 called various people, and 
I visited the local IBM showroom several 
times over a period of several months. 
Quite a few people at IBM laughed at me 
because, as a novice, I could not figure out 
how to properly use the WHILE and 
WHEN statements, which are explained 
on page 4-2 5 1 of the IBM BASIC manual. 
However, none of the IBM people who 
laughed at me were able to figure out how 
to use it either. 

I would like to hear from others who 
have had similar problems. Please write 
to me at 1710 Woodbine Dr., Brandon, FL 
33511. 

Donald W. Patzsch 
Brandon, FL 



In Defense of BASIC 



For some time now I have quietly stood 
by while readers, authors, and a slew of 
self-proclaimed "experts" have denounced 
BASIC for being a sloppy unstructured 
language. These folks then go on to 
describe how learning BASIC inevitably 
leads to programming habits so horrible 
that its practitioners will be impaired for 
life. To hear them tell it, you'd be better 
off having a frontal lobotomy. Any day 
now I expect to read about some hapless 
soul who went prematurely bald and lost 
all his teeth because of exposure to BASIC. 

Sure, it's possible to write programs in 
BASIC that go this way and that with no 
apparent direction— or "structure" as 
some people like to call it. However, it 
seems to me that with enough practice it 
should be possible to write convoluted, 
hard-to-follow programs in any language. 
I am unaware of any restrictions imposed 
by BASIC that would force a programmer 
to write poorly. 

While BASIC may not be perfect, for me 
it is very close. I mean, what could make 
more sense than X = SIN(A) or L = 
LEN(N$)? Do you need more speed? 

{continued) 



30 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



Circle 289 on inquiry card. 



Three ways to 
Speed up your Apple II 

& Apple He for 




Spe^uemon 
SpeeDemon 



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SpeeDemon 



Makes any Apple II, 11+ , or 

3 l / 2 times faster. 

Makes your Applesoft, Apple Fortran, 

Word Processing, D.B. Master, Pascal, 

or Visicalc programs run up to 3 l / 2 times 

faster. 

Costs less than any other speed up card. 

Costs only $295. 



I have enclosed $ _ 



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I have an: □ Apple II □ Apple II plus O Apple He This is for: □ Business Use 

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COMPUTER 



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circle 262 on inquiry card. Dealer Inquiries Invited 

Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computers, Inc. VisiCalc is a registered trademark of VisiCorp, Inc. DB Master is a registered trademark of Stoneware, Inc. 



LETTERS 



Okay, buy a compiler, if you want to 
declare all of a programs variables up 
front, then go ahead and do it. Nobody's 
stopping you, but then no one is forcing 
you, either. 

If all those anti-BASIC fanatics are so op- 
posed to something as innocuous as a 
GOTO, then let's all petition against as- 
sembly language with its evil BRANCH, 
or worse, that sinful JUMP instruction. 



BASIC is the most straightforward, in- 
tuitively obvious, and easy to grasp of all 
the high-level languages. It has made com- 
puter programming— real programming— 
accessible to millions of people, and per- 
sonally I am sick of snobs telling me 1 
would be better off learning no program- 
ming language than BASIC. Phooey! 

Ethan Winer 
Easf Norwalk, CT 



JL 




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DISTRIBUTORS INQUIRY WELCOME 



Computers in Education 



As a student of behavioral psychology and 
a member of the Learning Processes pro- 
gram at the City University of New York, 
1 would like to comment about the article 
"Cautions on Computers in Education" by 
Stephan L. Chorover (June, page 223). 

Mr Chorover makes a number of impor- 
tant observations on the rush to automate 
the educational process. The question of 
who needs computers and why is not 
often asked and understood in learning 
environments. However, I would like to 
take issue with him on a few points. 

Professor William N. Schoenfeld is as 
much responsible for developing the pro- 
grammed approach to instruction as Pro- 
fessor Fred S. Keller. Some psychologists 
familiar with the early developments of 
operant conditioning argue that it was 
Schoenfeld who really provided the in- 
tellectual impetus. 

The "Keller Plan" is an example of good 
teaching practices in learning environ- 
ments all over the world. The intention of 
"Good-bye, Teacher..." was not to say 
teachers are useless creatures, but that 
they could have a more effective impact, 
i.e., supplying individualized care to 
students if they were exposed to the tech- 
nology of teaching. "Good-bye, Teacher..." 
was an attempt to explain how aversive 
elements can be eliminated from the 
learning environment and to show how 
the technology of teaching can be utilized. 
Before Skinner, Schoenfeld, and Keller 
popularized the systematic methodology 
that stressed learning by doing and con- 
tingent reinforcement, students and 
teachers believed that learning was a 
matter of good listening. 

Efficient teaching does not mean remov- 
ing the concerned and dedicated teacher 
from the learning environment. Effective 
teaching does not mean sterilizing the 
educational environment with machines. 
Correct and cautious use of the computer 
in the educational environment means 
providing a stimulating and exciting en- 
vironment for every individual child. The 
key reason for using the computer is to 
give every single child an opportunity to 
learn. Computers in the classroom means 
purging the classroom from the drudgery 
of rote learning and providing children 
with the opportunity to progress at their 
own rates. To achieve these goals both the 
effective teacher and the properly 
developed teaching machine is needed. 

Barry Katz 
Tel Aviv, Israel ■ 

« — Circle 246 on inquiry card. 



DATA GENERAL INTRODU 

THE STANDARD 
BY WHICH EVERY OTHER 
WILL BE MEASURED. 




// tJiiihdi ' "' ////////// 






INTRODUCING THE 

DAIA GENERAL/One 

PORTABLE. 




Now, for the first 
time, you can be 
freed from the 
confinement of your 
desk. And your desk- 
bound computer. 

With the first, full- 
function business 
system that lets you do 
your work anywhere: 
at the office, at home, 
or anywhere in between 
The DATA GENERAL/One portable is a 
computer with the capability of the 
leading PC: two built-in diskette drives, the 
same full-size screen, and full- 
size characters. It even runs 
the same programs as the 
leading PC. 



Small enough to fit inside your briefcase. 





IBM-PC compatible so it runs thousands of programs. 



Full-size screen lets you get 
the whole picture. 



All this in a size small enough to fit inside the average briefcase: 

11.7 x 13.7 x 2.8 inches, and less than 
11 pounds. 

Someday all PCs will be like this. 

It's the only portable computer to give 
you a full-size 80-column by 25-line screen. 

Other portables give you as little as 8 lines. 

It's compatible with IBM®-PC software. 
Which means you can run the thousands of 
programs available to PC users. Software like 
1-2-3™ and Symphony™ from Lotus™, 
Wordstar®, dBase IF, Multiplan®, as well 
as the most popular packages from the pfs® 
series, like pfs: file. 




The only portable offering up to two built-in 
diskette drives for serious business applications. 




So you can do 
such things as 

word processing, database management, spreadsheet analysis, and 
business graphics. 

The DATA GENERAL/One is the only portable computer that offers 
up to two built-in diskette drives. Just like the leading PC. 

It's the only way to do serious work. No more aggravation 
swapping diskettes. 

And these are state-of-the-art 3.5-inch hardcased microfloppies — 
with twice the storage capacity at half the size 
of the 5.25-inch diskettes. 

Internal memory is expandable up to 512 KB. 
Storage capacity is 1440 KB— nearly one-and-a- 
half-million characters of information. 

And if you want more information, the optional 
built-in modem lets you communicate with other 
computers. 

Finally it's the only portable that can give you the 
benefits of integrated office automation — by connecting 
with Data General's CEO® system. 

Other options include a portable printer, an 8-hour 
built-in battery pack, an external 1200-baud modem 
and an external 5.25-inch diskette drive unit. 
The new DATA GENERAL/One portable. 
It not only gives you everything the leading PC gives you. It also 
gives you something the leading PC doesn't give you. 
Your freedom. 

To find the name of your nearest Data General salesperson or 
authorized dealer, call 1-800-DATAGEN. 




Connects with Data General's 
CEO office automation system. 



i w Data General. 

a Generation ahead. 



IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. 1-2-3, Lotus and Symphony are trademarks of Lotus Development 
Corp. © 1983. dBase II is a registered trademark of AshtonTate, pfs is a registered trademark of Software Publishing. Wordstar is a U.S. registered 
trademark of Micro Pro Int'l. Multiplan is a U.S. registered trademark of Microsoft Corp. CEO is a registered trademark, and DATA GENERAL/One is 
a trademark of Data General Corp. 
© 1984 Data General Corporation, Westboro, MA. 



FIXES AND UPDATES 



Laserdiscs Here Today and With Us Tomorrow 



A letter lauding BYTE for the July Video 
theme arrived the other day from Patrick 
Binns. Mr, Binns, the consumer-products 
marketing manager for Video Vision As- 
sociates, thought that our coverage was 
"both timely and knowledgeable," al- 
though we neglected to cover those laser 
videodiscs currently available. 

"It is the variety and quality of laserdisc 
software that will make this new 
technology an exciting and significant ad- 
vance in communications," he said in his 
letter. 

Video Vision Associates, located in 
Huntington Beach, California, has been in 
the interactive-videodisc market for more 



than two years. It produces a number of 
topical packages for both educators and 
consumers and markets a peripheral, the 
VAI II, that interfaces Apple II+/IIe and 
videodisc programs. The VAI II can be 
used for developing interactive computer/ 
video programs. (For more on this subject, 
see Stan Jarvis's article "Videodiscs and 
Computers" "in the July BYTE on page 187.) 
One of Video Vision's laserdisc software 
packages is called Space Disc. It's a col- 
lection of still frames, photographs, and 
video and movie clips that documents the 
American space program. It's made up of 
four modules that cover the Voyagers' 
trips around Saturn and Jupiter, the six 



manned lunar landings, the first four flights 
of the Space Shuttle, and observations of 
solar phenomena. Other packages ad- 
dress such subjects as science and art 
history. 

Of the technology behind interactive 
computer/videodisc programs and where 
we can expect it to go, Mr. Binns said; 
"The creative dimensions of this tech- 
nology have yet to be defined, but laser- 
disc software will be a critical factor in 
determining its full potential. Today's ini- 
tiatives in laserdisc and computer pro- 
gramming are certain to enrich the way we 
will acquire knowledge and enjoy our 
leisure in the not-so-distant future." 



Videodisc Replication Service 

Stan Jarvis's article "Videodiscs and Com- 
puters" (July, page 187) inspired Larry 
Spangler, manager of Spectra Image Inc.'s 
videodisc operations to write us about a 
service available from his company. Spec- 
tra Image Inc. can provide single copies 
of standard Laservision-compatible video- 
discs, using Optical Disc Corporation's 
technology. Individual copies of CAV-com- 
patible single-sided discs cost $300. Turn- 
around time is said to be 24 hours. 

Spectra Image Inc. maintains its cor- 
porate headquarters at 540 North Holly- 
wood Way Burbank. CA 91505, (818) 
842-1111. 



Call for Aid Answered 



A Computer 

on (Almost) Every Desk 

Entering students at Dartmouth College 
are not required to buy an Apple Macin- 
tosh or any other computer, as we er- 
roneously reported in "A Computer on 
Every Desk," (June, page 162). A computer 
can be purchased at a discounted price 
through the college, but any such pur- 
chase is optional. Those electing not to 
buy a computer through the school can 
get computer experience at public clusters 
on campus. We thank Laura Dicovitsky, 
assistant director of Dartmouth's Office of 
News Services, for alerting us to this 
inaccuracy. 



Niels J. Bjergstr0m from the Danish manu- 
facturer E-C Data A/S has answered James 
R. Primm's request for help in locating an 
8-inch disk controller for the TRS-80 
Model 4. (See August Letters, page 23.) 
E-C Data produces an 8-inch disk con- 
troller that's based on the 2793 chip. The 
controller is compatible with TRS-80 disk 
operating systems. It's available in kit form 
and comes with complete installation in- 
structions, schematics, test and diagnostic 
software, a'nd a sheet outlining the prin- 
ciples of operation. A battery-backed 
clock/calendar is optional. 



The company also offers a range of kits 
for the TRS-80, including disk drives, RAM 
banks, and communication interfaces. 

An E-C Data company representative is 
now located at 310 Riverside Dr., Suite 
916, New York, NY 10025, (212) 678-0064. 
By the time this update is published, the 
company will have an 800 number that it 
can be reached at. Please call (800) 
5 5 5-1212 for the correct number. The 
home address is E-C Data A/S, POB 116, 
DK-3460, Birker0d. Denmark. The com- 
pany's telephone number is 45-2-818191; 
Telex: 3782 5 ec dk. 



Database Describes 50,000 
Packages, Offers All for Sale 

An electronic database with descriptions 
of more than 50,000 software packages 
for every type and size of computer has 
gone on line. Menu, operating out of Fort 
Collins, Colorado, lets you identify, 
evaluate, and purchase software. 

Menu is accessed through Dialog, the 
Knowledge Index, Lexis, or Euronet. Once 
on line, a customer can search the data- 
base and get printouts of third-party 
evaluations of selected software. A search 
costs $2 5 for the first 10 programs located; 
the fee drops to $1 for the next 40 pro- 
grams, and thereafter it's $0.2 5 per pro- 
gram. (Search fees may vary depending 
on the network used to access the system.) 

Software can be ordered through Menu. 
The company says that most programs 
can be purchased for up to 2 5 percent 
below suggested prices. If Menu cannot 
locate the desired package, it files the 
customer's needs into a database. When 
a suitable program is found, the customer 
is notified. Currently, there is no charge 
for this service. 

A search fee is credited against the pur- 
chase price. Delivery is within 5 to 10 days. 

Hard-copy printouts of the database are 

{continued) 



NOVEMBER 1984 -BYTE 33 




w » u S o 1-4 



increases the price of your product, yet it makes 
sure your customers don't buy one program and 
copy ten. 

Several command line slash (/) options are 
built into Prolok diskettes for customized security, 
depending on your needs. 

Software can be loaded easily onto Prolok 
diskettes using any system from a PC to commer- 
cial mass duplication equipment. 

Prolok is an engineering breakthrough of 
Vault Corporation, which has been successfully 



safeguarding software since the inception of 
security disk technology. Over 2000 businesses 
and organizations protect their valuable programs 
with Prolok. 

Simply contact Vault Corporation at 2649 
Townsgate Road, Suite 500, Westlake Village, 
CA 91361. Or phone us at 800- 
445-0193 (U.S.) or 800-821-8638 
(California) . And find out why 
software freebies are becoming 
a thing of the past. 




PROTECTION. RKHT OH THE DISK 



Copyright © 1984 Vault Corporation. Prolok is a trademark of Vault Corporation 



Circle 411 on inquiry card. 



NOVEMBER 1984 -BYTE 37 




IF IT ISN'T ONE 
ae THOSE BR*NP- 
NEW CITOH75CO 
OR Y-IO PRINIEKS 
THAT COSTA MERE 
PIT1ANCE... 
P0R6ETIT 

A new C. Itoh isn't exactly a stocking 
stuffer. But as printers go, the new ProWriter™ 
7500 dot matrix and StarWnter™ Y-10 daisy 
wheel go for very little money. 

Yet, they're C. Itoh quality through and 
through. Gifts fit for a king. Tested. Proven. 
So doggone reliable they'll be around for 
many a Christmas to come. 

Both printers are IBM*' PC compatible. 
Both are perfect for your basic printing needs. 

The 7500 delivers 105 characters per 
second, 45 lines a minute. It gives you bi- 
directional printing, graphics, and a 2-Kbyte 
buffer. 

The Y-10, with its 100-character print head, 
gives you 20 characters per second of crisp, 
sharp letter quality. It has a low profile design 
and is engineered for quiet operation. 

Like all C. Itoh printers, the 7500 and Y-10 
come with a full 12-month warranty, backed 
by over 400 Authorized Service Centers 
coast to coast. 

C. Itoh and your C Itoh dealer wish you 
and your PC the best Christmas ever. (And 
you can print that.) 

For more information, just write C. Itoh 
Digital Products, Inc., 19750 South Vermont 
Avenue, Suite 220, Torrance, CA 90502. 

Or phone toll free 1-800-423-0300. In 
Massachusetts, call 1-617-769-8770, 



GoLTimiK] 



DIGITAL PRODUCTS 



) 1984 News Group Chicago, Inc. 



Circle 451 for Dealer inquiries. Circle 452 for End-User inquiries. 




™ ProWnter and StarWnter are Trademarks of C Itoh Digital Products, Inc. 
• IBM is a Registered Trademark of international Business Machines Corp. 
© 1984 C. itoh Digital Products, Inc. 



FIXES AND UPDATES 



Laserdiscs Here Today and With Us Tomorrow 



A letter lauding BYTE for the July Video 
theme arrived the other day from Patrick 
Binns. Mr. Binns, the consumer-products 
marketing manager for Video Vision As- 
sociates, thought that our coverage was 
"both timely and knowledgeable," al- 
though we neglected to cover those laser 
videodiscs currently available. 

"It is the variety and quality of laserdisc 
software that will make this new 
technology an exciting and significant ad- 
vance in communications," he said in his 
letter. 

Video Vision Associates, located in 
Huntington Beach, California, has been in 
the interactive-videodisc market for more 



than two years. It produces a number of 
topical packages for both educators and 
consumers and markets a peripheral, the 
VAI II, that interfaces Apple 11+ /He and 
videodisc programs. The VAI II can be 
used for developing interactive computer/ 
video programs. (For more on this subject, 
see Stan Jarvis's article "Videodiscs and 
Computers" in the July BYTE on page 187.) 
One of Video Vision's laserdisc software 
packages is called Space Disc. It's a col- 
lection of still frames, photographs, and 
video and movie clips that documents the 
American space program. It's made up of 
four modules that cover the Voyagers' 
trips around Saturn and Jupiter, the six 



manned lunar landings, the first four flights 
of the Space Shuttle, and observations of 
solar phenomena. Other packages ad- 
dress such subjects as science and art 
history. 

Of the technology behind interactive 
computer/videodisc programs and where 
we can expect it to go, Mr. Binns said; 
"The creative dimensions of this tech- 
nology have yet to be defined, but laser- 
disc software will be a critical factor in 
determining its full potential. Today's ini- 
tiatives in laserdisc and computer pro- 
gramming are certain to enrich the way we 
will acquire knowledge and enjoy our 
leisure in the not-so-distant future." 



Videodisc Replication Service 

Stan Jarvis's article "Videodiscs and Com- 
puters" (July, page 187) inspired Larry 
Spangler, manager of Spectra Image Inc.'s 
videodisc operations to write us about a 
service available from his company. Spec- 
tra Image Inc. can provide single copies 
of standard Laservision-compatible video- 
discs, using Optical Disc Corporation's 
technology Individual copies of CAV-com- 
patible single-sided discs cost $300. Turn- 
around time is said to be 24 hours. 

Spectra Image Inc. maintains its cor- 
porate headquarters at 540 North Holly- 
wood Way Burbank, CA 91505, (818) 
842-1111. 



Call for Aid Answered 



A Computer 

on (Almost) Every Desk 

Entering students at Dartmouth College 
are not required to buy an Apple Macin- 
tosh or any other computer, as we er- 
roneously reported in 'A Computer on 
Every Desk," (June, page 162). A computer 
can be purchased at a discounted price 
through the college, but any such pur- 
chase is optional. Those electing not to 
buy a computer through the school can 
get computer experience at public clusters 
on campus. We thank Laura Dicovitsky, 
assistant director of Dartmouth's Office of 
News Services, for alerting us to this 
inaccuracy. 



Niels J. Bjergstr0m from the Danish manu- 
facturer E-C Data A/S has answered James 
R. Primm's request for help in locating an 
8-inch disk controller for the TRS-80 
Model 4. (See August Letters, page 23.) 
E-C Data produces an 8-inch disk con- 
troller that's based on the 2793 chip. The 
controller is compatible with TRS-80 disk 
operating systems. It's available in kit form 
and comes with complete installation in- 
structions, schematics, test and diagnostic 
software and a sheet outlining the prin- 
ciples of operation. A battery-backed 
clock/calendar is optional. 



The company also offers a range of kits 
for the TRS-80, including disk drives, RAM 
banks, and communication interfaces. 

An E-C Data company representative is 
now located at 310 Riverside Dr., Suite 
916, New York, NY 10025, (212) 678-0064. 
By the time this update is published, the 
company will have an 800 number that it 
can be reached at. Please call (800) 
555-1212 for the correct number. The 
home address is E-C Data A/S, POB 116, 
DK-3460, Birker0d, Denmark. The com- 
pany's telephone number is 45-2-818191; 
Telex: 3782 5 ec dk. 



Database Describes 50,000 
Packages, Offers All for Sale 

An electronic database with descriptions 
of more than 50,000 software packages 
for every type and size of computer has 
gone on line. Menu, operating out of Fort 
Collins, Colorado, lets you identify, 
evaluate, and purchase software. 

Menu is accessed through Dialog, the 
Knowledge Index, Lexis, or Euronet. Once 
on line, a customer can search the data- 
base and get printouts of third-party 
evaluations of selected software. A search 
costs $2 5 for the first 10 programs located; 
the fee drops to $1 for the next 40 pro- 
grams, and thereafter it's $0.2 5 per pro- 
gram. (Search fees may vary depending 
on the network used to access the system.) 

Software can be ordered through Menu. 
The company says that most programs 
can be purchased for up to 2 5 percent 
below suggested prices. If Menu cannot 
locate the desired package, it files the 
customer's needs into a database. When 
a suitable program is found, the customer 
is notified. Currently, there is no charge 
for this service. 

A search fee is credited against the pur- 
chase price Delivery is within 5 to 10 days. 

Hard-copy printouts of the database are 

[continued) 



NOVEMBER 1984 -BYTE 33 



Created by Dayner/Hall, Inc., Winter Park, Florida 



Circle 410 on inquiry card. 



Inquiry Hotline: 800/633-2252, ext. 354. 



urcie >06 on inquiry card. 



1KT 



THE EHD OF SOFTHRRE 
FREEBIES. 














ip*<d.~.. —J&sL. wkAkL- 



r^S. 



||V 



*"> IPS 

81 jM A iff J3L _ 




Finally there's a foolproof way to protect 
software against unauthorized duplication. And 
the technology is all on the disk itself. 

The new Prolok™ disk doesn't need add-on 
hardware. Instead each diskette is marked with 
a unique, physical "fingerprint." No two are alike. 
A precise description of the individual print is 
encoded magnetically. The fingerprint AND the 
description must match exactly before the soft- 
ware is decrypted and released to the system. 
No match, no access. 



Its genius is its simplicity and familiarity. 
Prolok looks like an unprotected disk, loads like an 
unprotected disk, works like an unprotected disk. 
The user feels immediately at home and in com- 
mand. It's as easy as A>PROLOK B: filename. 

Backups are easily made via normal 
system utilities. However, to be read they must 
be accompanied in the system by the original 
Prolok disk. 

Prolok puts the casual copier-and even the 
deliberate pirate-out of business. It barely 



PROLOK. SOFTHRRE 



36 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



WHAT'S NEW 



IBM Graphics Displays, Adapters Improve Resolution 



IBM recently introduced 
several graphics products 
for its personal computers. 
The IBM Personal Computer 
Professional Graphics Dis- 
play, which can only be 
used with IBM's Professional 
Graphics Controller, is a 
noninterlaced, high-resolu- 
tion RGB monitor. It can 
display 640 by 480 pixels, 
or 67 pixels per inch, in up 
to 2 56 colors (from a palette 
of 4096). The display mea- 
sures 15J/2 by 17 by 11/2 
inches and is priced at 
$1295. 

The Professional Graphics 
Controller occupies two full 
IBM PC, PC XT, or PC AT ex- 
pansion slots. It can emulate 
the IBM Color Graphics 
Adapter and has an ex- 
panded graphics mode that 
enables full use of the Pro- 
fessional Graphics Display 
capabilities. The controller 
includes 320K bytes of 
RAM: 300K for display stor- 
age and 2 OK for internal 
variables and lists. The con- 
troller has its own on-board 
8088 processor and graph- 
ics firmware in a 64K-byte 
ROM. 




The controller allows two- 
or three-dimensional draw- 
ing in hardware and has 
built-in functions to rotate, 
translate, or scale objects. 
You have access to 2 56 
user-programmable display 
lists and can select either 
the built-in character set or 
define your own. The con- 
troller features vector and 
polygon drawing as well as 
polygon fill. The two-card 
Professional Graphics Con- 
troller has a list price of 
$2995. 



For less demanding PC 
owners, IBM also announced 
the Enhanced Color Display 
and Enhanced Graphics 
Adapter. The display pro- 
vides a resolution of up to 
640 by 3 50 pixels in 16 
colors (from a 64-color 
palette) and should be avail- 
able by January for $849. 

The Enhanced Graphics 
Adapter provides 640 by 
200 or 320 by 200 pixel 
graphics in 16 colors on the 
IBM PC Color Display, or 
640 by 3 50 pixels on the 



IBM Monochrome Display. 
On the Enhanced Color Dis- 
play the adapter can display 
the full 640 by 3 50 pixels in 
up to 4 colors with the stan- 
dard 64 K bytes of RAM or 
up to 16 colors when up- 
graded to 128K bytes with 
the optional Graphics Mem- 
ory Expansion Card. An op- 
tional Graphics Memory 
Module Kit expands the 
card's memory to 2 56K 
bytes, allowing smooth 
scrolling and panning and 
additional pages of graphics 
data. A RAM-resident char- 
acter generator can use 
from 2 56 (with 64K bytes) to 
1024 (with 2 56K bytes) user- 
defined characters in sizes 
up to 8 by 32 pixels. 

IBM warns that some PC 
owners may require a ROM 
BIOS replacement in order 
to use the Enhanced Graph- 
ics Adapter, which is priced 
at $524. The optional 
Graphics Memory Expansion 
Card, which upgrades the 
adapter to an 128K-byte 
RAM, costs $199; the 
Graphics Memory Module 
Kit is $2 59. 
Circle 600 on inquiry card. 



Graphics Software 



Also announced by IBM 
were a number of 
graphics subroutine libraries 
for the IBM Personal Com- 
puter. All require DOS 2.1 
or later, at least 2 56K bytes 
of RAM, and one of IBM's 
color graphics adapters. Lan- 
guage bindings are provided 
to access the routines from 
programs compiled by FOR- 
TRAN 2.0, Professional FOR- 
TRAN, Lattice C, and BASIC 
compilers. 



The IBM Personal Com- 
puter Graphical Kernel Sys- 
tem is a subroutine library 
of two-dimensional graphics 
primitives consistent with 
the proposed ANSI and ISO 
standards. The Plotting Sys- 
tem assists programmers in 
generating most types of 
standard charts and graphs. 
The Graphical File System is 
an implementation of the 
proposed ANSI Metafile 
Standard. The Graphical 



Kernel System costs $295; 
the Plotting System, $22 5; 
and the Graphical File Sys- 
tem, $175. 

The Graphics Development 
Toolkit is designed for soft- 
ware developers writing 
graphics applications. By 
licensing the device drivers 
contained in the Toolkit, 
developers can sell device- 
independent software to 
users who need not buy the 
Toolkit themselves. The 



Graphics Terminal Emulator 
provides emulation of 
Tektronix 4010 and Lear 
Siegler ADM 3 A protocols. 
The Toolkit can be pur- 
chased for $3 50, and the 
Graphics Terminal Emulator 
costs $295. 

Contact IBM Corp., Entry 
Systems Division, POB 1328, 
Boca Raton, FL 33432, (800) 
447-4700. 
Circle 601 on inquiry card. 

{continued) 



NOVEMBER 1984 ■ BYTE 39 



WHAT'S NEW 



Interface Hardware 



Other new items from 
IBM are a Data Acquisi- 
tion and Control Adapter 
and a General Purpose In- 
terface Bus (GPIB) Adapter. 

The IBM Personal Com- 
puter Data Acquisition and 
Control Adapter features 
two 12-bit analog input 
channels, four 12-bit analog 
output channels, a 16-chan- 
nel digital input port, and a 
16-channel digital output 
port. The adapter also in- 
cludes two timers: a 32-bit 



timer for programmable 
sampling rates and a 16-bit 
user timer/counter for use as 
an event counter, program- 
mable rate generator, or for 
a programmable delay. The 
adapter can be attached to 
an optional Data Acquisition 
and Control Adapter Dis- 
tribution Panel, providing 
easier access to its signals, 
voltages, and grounds. Also 
available is a Programming 
Support package including a 
subroutine library accessible 



from several high-level lan- 
guages. The adapter costs 
$1275, the optional Distribu- 
tion Panel is $245, and the 
Programming Support soft- 
ware is $160. 

The IBM Personal Com- 
puter GPIB Adapter is a 
half-size card that provides 
an interface for up to 14 
devices that use the ANSI/ 
IEEE-488 standard. It is 
priced at $395. Optional 
GPIB Adapter Programming 
Support, which allows high- 



level language access to 
subroutines to control or 
monitor up to 48 devices 
using four adapters, costs 
$85. 

IBM also announced a 
2 56K-byte memory expan- 
sion on a 5-inch card, priced 
at $489. 

For complete information, 
contact IBM Corp., Entry 
Systems Division, POB 1328, 
Boca Raton, FL 33432, (800) 
447-4700. 
Circle 602 on inquiry card. 



Desk Accessories from Software Arts 



Spotlight is a memory- 
resident program that 
includes a set of six desktop 
management utilities for the 
IBM Personal Computer. The 
programs include a note 
pad, a phone list, an ap- 
pointment calendar, a calcu- 
lator, an index-card file, and 
a DOS Filer, which allows ac- 
cess to some DOS com- 
mands from within another 
program. 

Each of the six utilities 
can be called at any time 
from within most PC-DOS 
programs, and it will appear 
as a pop-up window. The 
Appointment Book allows 
you to keep track of ap- 
pointments in the near and 
distant future and to set 
alarms to alert you as the 
appointment approaches. 
The Calculator utility allows 
you to use the numeric key- 
pad and nearby keys as a 
memory calculator and to 
paste results into an applica- 
tion program. The Filer can 
be used to view a directory, 
to view the contents of a 
text file, or to erase, copy, 
or rename files. 

Brief notes entered in the 
eight-page Note Pad can be 
copied to a file or left in the 
note pad for later reference. 
You can use the Phone 
Book utility to store up to 
500 names, numbers, and 
related information, in each 




of 36 possible phone lists. 
Each entry is a free-form in- 
dex card, and text anywhere 
on the card can be searched 
for later. The Index Card File 



is a more general-purpose 
version of the Phone Book 
and permits 36 additional 
lists of 500 entries each, 
disk space permitting. 



Each program is accessed 
by typing the Shift and 
Alternate keys simultaneous- 
ly with one other key. The 
utility programs themselves 
are not copy-protected, but 
because Spotlight's memory- 
resident portion is, the 
master disk must be in a 
drive to initially install 
Spotlight. 

Spotlight requires an IBM 
PC, PC XT, or Compaq com- 
puter, one disk drive, 128K 
bytes of RAM (the program 
occupies at least 72 K bytes). 
and DOS 2.0 or higher; a 
second drive and more 
memory will improve its per- 
formance. It can be installed 
on a hard disk. Spotlight is 
priced at $149.95. For more 
information, contact Soft- 
ware Arts, 27 Mica Lane, 
Wellesley MA 02181, (617) 
431-6500. 
Circle 603 on inquiry card. 



Apple Announces 512K Macintosh, Software, Upgrade 



Apple Computer recently 
announced a version of 
its Macintosh personal com- 
puter with 512K bytes of 
RAM. The Macintosh 5I2K 
costs $3195. The price of 
the first Macintosh, available 
with I28K bytes, was 
dropped from $2495 to 
$2195, and current owners 
can buy a 512K upgrade for 



$995 from Apple dealers. 
With the Macintosh 512K, 
MacWrite can create docu- 
ments up to 80 pages long 
and MacPaint and MacDraw 
can create more complex 
images. 

Those who purchased the 
128K Macintosh before 
September 10, 1984, and 
who buy the 512K upgrade 



before March 31, 1985, will 
also receive copies of Mac- 
Draw and MacProject at no 
additional cost. 

For more information, con- 
tact Apple Computer Inc., 
2052 5 Mariani Ave., Cuper- 
tino, CA 95014, (408) 
996-1010. 
Circle 604 on inquiry card. 

{continued) 



40 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



Available for the IBM PC, AT, XT, jr.; and true compatibles 

GOT YOUR 
SIDEKICK YET? 



rThe Super Organizer 
Whenever you're using your __^^^^^ 

computer . . . from start to finish of 
your session Sidekick™ will be there 
. . . ready to serve. And it's as lightning- 
fast and compact as only Borland knows 
how to make it. 

There's a notepad that has a full- 
screen editor that can time and date 
stamp your notes, and then save them to 
disk You can even pull information into 
the notepad directly from the screen of 
your "underlying" software. 

Suppose you're working in Lotus and 
the phone suddenly rings. Give your Sidekick 
a call and it pops right up over Lotus with 
the notepad you need. Or an appointment 
calendar ... one you can never misplace. 

What if you need to do a quick calcula- 
tion? A keystroke instantly brings up the cal- 
culator. And the results of your calculations 
can even be transferred to your "underlying" 
software. 

Need to make a phone call? Up pops your 
personal phone directory. Type in the name you 
want ... and Sidekick jumps right to the phone 
number. Another keystroke, and the phone is 
automatically dialed for you.** 

There's lots more, too. You can move the Sidekick 
windows anywhere on the screen you like. And you can have 
as many on screen at a time as you need. There's even an 
on-line help window for each of Sidekick's features. 

We designed it because we needed it If you've 

ever been writing a report and needed 
to do a quick calculation, 









0DUClOH<*f 



underne^., v been imp otted tt^ s ^ 



"SIDEKICK IS A 
$50 SOLUTION 
TO A $5,000 PROBLEM." 

Garry Ray, PC WEEK, 
July 24, 1984 



^^.^cSulator. 
SideUicfcCaicu 

or jot down a note, 

then you need Sidekick, too. 

* 'Only with Hayes Stnartmodem and compatfotes. 



WHETHER YOU'RE RUNNING 

LOTUS, WORDSTAR, dBASE OR WHATEVER 

JUST A KEYSTROKE 
AND A SIDEKICK WINDOW 
OPENS . . . 



• A CALCULATOR 
A NOTEPAD 

• AN APTOINTMENT CALENDAR 



YOU CAN ORDER YOUR COPY OF SIDEKICK™ TODAY! 

For VISA and MasterCard orders call Toll Free 1-800-255-8008 in California 1-800-742-11 $3 

(lines open 24 hours, 7 days a week) Dealer Distributor Inquiries Welcome 408-438-8400 



SIDEKICK™ $49.95 

Non-copy protected 

Version: $79.95 

(Pius $5.00 shipping and handling.) 



Check □ 
VISA □ 

Card#_ 



Money Order □ 
MasterCard □ 



Please be sure your computer is an IBM PC, AT, XT, jr., or 
true compatible? 

NAME , , — ~ — _ 

ADDRESS — 

CITY/STATE/ZIP 

TELEPHONE 




•AN AUTO DIALER 

A PHONE DIRECTORY 
• AN ASCII TABLE 



■SBORlAflD 

INTERNATIONAL 



Expiration Date 






s non-copyprotected version onfy. 



California residents add 6% sales tax. Outside U.S.A. add $1 5.00. (If outside of 
U.S.A. payment must be by bank draft payable in the U.S. and in U.S. dollars.) 
Sorry, no C.O.D or Purchase Orders. S Gl 5 



Borland international 
4113 Scotts Valley Drive 
Scotts Valley, California 95066 
TELEX: 172373 

Circle 42 on inquiry card. 



WHAT'S NEW 



MacStation Organizes Macintosh and Peripherals 



MicroRain's MacStation 
reduces the footprint 
of Apple's Macintosh com- 
puter and peripherals by 
better organizing them. The 
Macintosh's Imagewriter (or 
other) printer rests on the 
top of MacStation, above 
the Macintosh, with paper 
feeding from a slot in the 
stand. Two storage spaces, 
for storing manuals, a sec- 
ond disk drive, a modem, or 
disks, are included on each 
side of the stand. Access to 
the Macintosh's power, reset, 
and interrupt switches is 
provided. MicroRain says the 
plastic case matches the tex- 
ture and color of the Macin- 
tosh and provides excellent 
ventilation. 

MacStation is priced at 
$95. For complete informa- 
tion, contact MicroRain 
Corp., POB 96008, Bellevue, 
WA 98009, (800) 547-4000, 
Dept. 403; in Oregon, (503) 
684-3000, Dept 403. 
Circle 605 on inquiry card. 



Factfinder: Free-Form Filing on the Macintosh 




Factfinder is a free-form 
filing system for the 
Apple Macintosh computer. 
Rather than setting up data 
fields, you enter data free- 
form in a fact-sheet window, 
which can be grouped with 
other fact sheets into a 
stack. Factfinder uses pull- 
down menus, command 
keys, and task-specific win- 



dows, as well as MacWrite- 
like text-editing features. 

Information can be typed 
directly into a fact sheet, 
pasted from the clipboard, 
or loaded from another file. 
Keywords or phrases are in- 
dexed by marking them or 
by typing them into an 
"automatic keyword" list for 
related fact sheets. A fact- 




sheet stack can be locked to 
prevent accidental modifica- 
tion. 

The size of each fact sheet 
is limited only by the com- 
puter's memory; each fact- 
sheet stack must be under 1 
megabyte. Factfinder works 
with the Macintosh and the 
Lisa 2 with MacWorks; it 
also supports the Tecmar 
MacDrive and Davong Mac- 
Disk hard disks. It should be 
available this month for a 
list price of $150, including 
a free copy of the game 
Reversi. 

Forethought plans to an- 
nounce several more pro- 
grams for the Macintosh 
soon. For more information, 
contact Forethought Inc., 
1973 Landings Dr., Mountain 
View, CA 94043, (800) 
622-9273; in California, (415) 
961-4720. 
Circle 606 on inquiry card. 



Tandy 1200 Is 
PC XT Compatible 

Tandy's newest com- 
puter, the Tandy 1200 
HD Personal Computer, is 
compatible with IBM's PC 
XT system. The 1200 HD in- 
cludes an 8088 processor, 
2 56K bytes of RAM (ex- 
pandable to 640K), a 
parallel interface port, a 
360K-byte floppy-disk drive, 
a 10-megabyte hard-disk 
drive, and three additional 
expansion slots. The list 
price is $2999; the MS-DOS 
operating system and Micro- 
soft BASIC are available 
separately for $89.95 each. 
The keyboard is identical to 
the IBM PC's except that the 
left Shift key and Reverse 
Slash key have been 
swapped, and LEDs are in- 
cluded on the Num Lock 
and Caps Lock keys. 

Like Tandy's earlier MS- 
DOS computer, the Tandy 
2000, the Tandy 1200 HD 
does not include a display 
adapter or monitor. A 
monochrome-display 
adapter card is available for 
$219; a monochrome moni- 
tor is also $219. A color- 
graphics display adapter, 
which also supports mono- 
chrome graphics, is $299, 
and a color display is 
$549.95. 

Several Tecmar expansion 
cards can be purchased, in- 
cluding the $695 Graphics 
Master, which provides 640- 
by 400-pixel color graphics 
in 16 colors. Tecmar's Cap- 
tain multifunction board, 
with serial and parallel 
ports, a 384K-byte memory, 
and a clock/calender, costs 
$795. Tandy will also offer 
third-party software for the 
1200 HD, including Word- 
Star, dBASE III, and Soft- 
ware Publishing's PFS 
series. For further details, 
contact T&ndy Corp., One 
Tandy Center, Fort Worth, 
TX 76102, (817) 390- 
3021. 
Circle 607 on inquiry card. 

{continued) 



42 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



NEW PRODUCT NEWS 
FROM TELETEK 



Systemaster II. Responding to 
market demand for speed and in- 
creased versatility, Teletek is proud 
to announce the availability of the 
next generation in 8-bit technology 
— the new Systemaster II! The 
Systemaster II will offer two CPU 
options, either a Z80B running 
at 6 MHz or a Z80H running at 
8 MHz, 128K of parity checked 
RAM, two RS232 serial ports with 
on-board drivers (no paddle 
boards required), two parallel 
ports, or optional SCSI or IEEE-488 
port. The WD floppy disk control- 
ler will simultaneously handle 
8" and SVa" drives. A Zilog Z-80 
DMA controller will provide in- 
stant communications over the bus 
between master 
and slave. Add 
to the DMA 
capability a true 
dedicated inter- 
rupt controller 
for both on- 
board and 
bus functions, j 
and the re- 
sult is un- 
precedented 
performance 
Systemaster II will run under 
CP/M 3.0orTurboDOS 1.3, and 
fully utilize the bank switching 
features of these operating systems. 



SBC 86/87. As the name indi- 
cates, Teletek's new 16-bit slave 
board has an Intel 8086 CPU with 
an 8087 math co-processor op- 
tion. This new board will provide 
either 128K or 51 2K of parity 
checked RAM. Two serial ports 
are provided with individually 
programmable baud rates. One 
Centronics-compatible parallel 
port is provided. When teamed up 
with Systemaster II under TurboDOS 
1 .3, this 5MHz or 8MHz multi- 
user, multi-processing, combina- 
tion cannot be beat in speed or 
feature flexibility! 



SmMASTERW 

M®2rl50MB 



TILETEK 



4600 Pell Drive 
Sacramento, CA 95838 
(916)920-4600 
Telex #4991834 
Answer back — Teletek 

Circle 396 on inquiry card. 



^» His si" 4 * 






In Europe: 

Kode Limited 

Station Road 

Calne, Wiltshire 

SN11 OJR England 

tel: 0249-813771 

telex: 449335 

In Canada: 

MAE Microsystems 

8255 Mountain Sights,Ste.150| 

Montreal, Quebec 

H4P1W1 Canada 

tel: 514-341-1210 



s 



Teletek Z-150 MB. Teletek is 
the first to offer a RAM expansion 
board designed specifically for the 
Z-150/Z-160 from Zenith. The 
Teletek Z-150 MB is expandable 
from 64K to 384K. Bring your 
Z-150 up to its full potential by 
adding 320K of parity checked 
RAM (or your IBM PC, Columbia, 
Compaq, Corona, Eagle, or Seequa 
to their full potential). The Teletek 
Z-150 MB optionally provides 
a game port for use when your 
portable goes home or a clock/ 
calendar with battery backup! 

Evaluate the Systemaster II, SBC 
86/87 or Teletek Z-150 MB for 
30 days under Teletek's Eval- 
uation Program. A 

money-back guarantee 
is provided if not com- 
pletely satisfied! All 
Teletek products carry 
a 3-year warranty. 

{Specifications subject to 

change without 
notice.) 



Ki-^SI 



Yes, >«* 

lm interested ^ 
in information ^ 

regarding: 
□ Systemaster II 
□ SBC 86/87 Q Z-150 MB 
□ Evaluation Program 
□ Teletek's S-100 Board Line 



■ 



Name _ 
Company _ 
Address 



HB 



fe£ . 



WHAT'S NEW 



Gould Colorwriter Plotters 



The Gould Colorwriter 
6300 Series color plot- 
ters have on-board software 
and interfaces to link them 
to most computers. Model 
6310 is a 7-pen plotter for 
paper up to 8/2 by 11 
inches. The 10-pen Model 
6320 handles paper up to 
11 by 17 inches. A con- 
tinuous roll is an option that 
eliminates the need to 
change paper manually. 
Both plotters can use any of 
several pen types on paper, 
transparencies, or foils. A 
self-checking facility, simple 
touch controls, and electro- 
static paper hold-down are 
also standard features. Writ- 
ing speed is 16 inches per 
second, or 20 ips with the 
pen up. The plotter's ad- 
dressable resolution is 0.001 
inch. 

Built-in firmware includes 
Gould's own graphics lan- 
guage, with Hewlett-Packard 
graphics language-based 
protocols. For added flex- 
ibility, the plotter's PROM 
can be replaced to accom- 
modate additional graphics 
standards. Three character 




sets, including a scientific/ 
Greek alphabet, are stored 
in ROM. Other features in- 
clude variable line fonts; 
cross-hatching, bar, and pie 
chart capability; arc and cir- 
cle generation; character 
rotation and slant; and 



zoom and window controls. 
Either Colorwriter is avail- 
able with an RS-232C or 
1EEE-488 interface and with 
a 2K-, 8K-, or 16K-byte buf- 
fer. An optional digitizing 
sight, for feedback to the 
computer, is also available. 



Prices for the Colorwriter 
6300 series begin at $1995. 
Contact Marketing Services, 
Gould Inc., Recording Sys- 
tems Division, 3631 Perkins 
Ave., Cleveland, OH 44114, 
(216) 361-3315. 
Circle 608 on inquiry card. 



Cermetek Modem Reduces Chance of Unauthorized Access 



The Cermetek Security 
Modem prevents un- 
authorized access to your 
computer system by offering 
four levels of security. This 
Hayes-compatible 300-/ 
1200-bps modem can be 
programmed to require all 
callers to enter a password. 
After a correct password is 



entered, the modem hangs 
up and calls the phone 
number associated with that 
password. (Up to 2 5 pass- 
words and numbers can be 
stored.) Alternately, the 
modem can call back on a 
second phone line, allow 
password access without 
callback, or be configured to 




function as a Hayes- 
compatible modem without 
password security. 

The Cermetek Security 
Modem creates an audit 
trail listing all valid and in- 
valid attempts to access the 
computer. A dial-out pass- 
word can be required to 
prevent unauthorized out- 
going computer calls. A key 
is needed to change the 
modem's security level, 
passwords, or callback 
numbers. Standard features 
include auto-dial and auto- 
answer. It costs $695. For 
more details, contact 
Cermetek Microelectronics 
Inc., 1308 Borregas Ave., 
Sunnyvale, CA, 94088-3 565, 
(408) 752-5055. 
Circle 609 on inquiry card. 



Qic-Stor-Plus 
Expansion Unit 

Qic-Stor-Plus is an expan- 
sion unit for the IBM 
Personal Computer that 
adds a hard disk, a tape 
drive for backup, and five 
additional expansion slots. 
Available with 20-, 52-, or 
85-megabyte hard-disk 
drives, the Qic-Stor-Plus can 
be used to expand a single 
PC or to create a multiuser 
system using Alloy's PC- 
Slave/16 expansion cards. 
Prices for Qic-Stor-Plus 
start at $5595. For more in- 
formation, contact Alloy 
Computer Products Inc., 100 
Pennsylvania Ave., Framing- 
ham, MA 01701, (617) 
875-6100. 
Circle 610 on inquiry card. 

[continued on page 520) 



44 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



Circle 405 on inquiry card. — + 



CAN SAVE YOU UP TO $250. 
AND THAT AINT HAYES! 



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ASK BYTE 



Conducted by Steve Garcia 

TRANSIENTS 

Dear Steve, 

Thank you for a lucid discussion of the 
types and consequences of power-line 
transients (December 1983). When my 
wife started using our Heath H-89 for pro- 
fessional word processing, the attenuation 
of these transients suddenly became a 
major concern; for us, the combination of 
an isolation transformer and MOVs (metal- 
oxide varistors) seems to have dramati- 
cally decreased the incidence of glitches, 
especially with respect to disk-writing 
operations. 

Your advice regarding the installation of 
multiple MOVs is something most people 
should consider. Some computers seem 
to be susceptible to spikes to a lesser or 
greater degree than others; for most peo- 
ple, it isn't worth the few dollars saved to 
find out that their machine is among the 
latter. 

I have one comment regarding your sug- 
gested use of MOVs: the 1 30-V MOV to be 
soldered between the neutral and ground 
wires will suppress only a truly major spike 
because the normal voltage differential 
between these points is 1 or 2 V at most, 
caused by losses across the actual house 
wiring. Wouldn't it be more effective to 
employ an MOV with the minimum value 
obtainable? The RCA SK Series catalog in- 
dicates that 14-V MOVs are available; 
although the energy absorption rating is 
lower, I would think their use is more ap- 
propriate. The other two MOVs should, of 
course, be 130-V items, and your readers 
should exercise special care to assure that 
the low-voltage MOV gets strung across 
the neutral and ground lines only. 

As we are on the subject of spikes, I 
might add that a disruptive, if not com- 
mon, source of transient voltage can come 
from inside your computer. For some time, 
we experienced occasional odd screen 
behavior, as evidenced by spurious char- 
acters or by text appearing in the wrong 
part of the screen. 

After opening the chassis, I found 
strands of dirt, much like cobwebs, 
stretched between the flyback coil's high- 
voltage lead and a nearby memory-expan- 
sion board. The static charge that had ac- 
cumulated made cleaning quite difficult, 



After cleaning, I moved the lead away 
from the electronics, closer to the 
monitor's tube. Mirabile dictu, no more 
screen glitches! Although the charge 
generated by static buildup contains lit- 
tle energy, the voltage levels are such that 
they can wreak havoc on computer elec- 
tronics. 

Clyde Newman 
Agoura, CA 

It is true that the normal voltage dif- 
ferential between the common and 
neutral lines of household wiring is small. 
1 was concerned with the possibility of 
an induced voltage on this line caused by 
coupling of some sort Also, one must 
consider Murphy's law when using 
devices with different voltage ratings. 
—Steve 

CP/M 2.2 

Dear Steve 

I am the proud owner of a Microstar 
single-board computer from the Micro V 
Corporation. Unfortunately, it cannot run 
higher application programs like MDBS or 
CalcStar because it uses CP/M version 1.14 
and I need 2.2, which I have, but in an in- 
stalled form for another hardware con- 
figuration. 

How should I patch the 2.2 source to run 
on my hardware? Is there any book de- 
scribing in more detail the alteration pro- 
cess? Or is there anybody selling CP/M 2.2 
for a Microstar (twin 8-inch disks, single- 
density, double-sided)? 

Roman Sigmund 
Vienna, Austria 

1 am not aware of anyone selling a ver- 
sion of CP/M 2.2 for the Microstar, but 
Digital Research has a newsletter that ad- 
dresses questions of this nature. Write to 
Digital Research News, POB 579, Pacific 
Grove, CA 93950. 

Installing a version of CP/M 2.2 on your 
system will involve techniques that are 
quite complicated. If you are not an ex- 
perienced assembly-language program- 
mer, attempting this installation might 
become very frustrating. If you are ex- 
perienced in 8080 assembly language 
and want to attempt the installation, a 



good place to start is The Programmer's 
CP/M Handbook by Andy Johnson-Laird 
(Osborne/McCraw-Hill, 1983),— Steve 

Faster Data Processing 

Dear Steve, 

I have an Apple 11+ and want to process 
data faster. Will a 3-MHz 6502B work in 
the Apple 11+ if I cool it with a small fan— 
or will it only give me problems? 

L. B. KlRKENDALL 

Hot Springs, AR 

Adding a 6502 B microprocessor chip 
to your Apple //+ will not increase your 
processing speed. The chip has the capa- 
bility of operating at higher clock speeds 
but will not do so unless the clock fre- 
quency is increased. In addition, the 
memory chips will have to be changed 
to take advantage of the faster read/write 
cycles, and the I/O routines in the 
monitor ROM will have to be rewritten. 

In short, it is not a simple change. Ac- 
cessory boards are available that will 
enable your Apple 11+ to run faster. They 
incorporate all the changes necessary 
and interface without problems. One 
such board is The Accelerator II from 
Titan Technologies, POB 8050, Ann 
Arbor, MI 48107, (313) 973-842 2. -Steve 

6502 PROCESSOR 

Dear Steve, 

While Ronnie Kelly's use of the RDY line 
solves the timing problems he en- 
countered with the Z80-based Ferguson 
Big Board (Ask BYTE, December 1983, 
page 556), it is unlikely to solve Mr. 
Beighe's problem using the 58167 clock 
chip in the Apple (Ask BYTE, April 1983. 
page 465). The 6502 requires the RDY line 
to go low either during phase 1 or during 
the first 100 ns of phase 2. Since Mr. 
Beighe's circuit uses the pin 1 I/O SELECT 
line on the Apple bus to drive the 58167 
CS pin, the clock won't be selected until 
well after the beginning of phase 2 (two 
74 LSI 38 decoders are chained to decode 
the pin 1 signals in the Apple II; they are 
synchronized with the system clock, and 
the delay through them is at least 1 5-2 5 

{continued) 



48 BYTE ' NOVEMBER 1984 





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ASK BYTE 



ns). The 58167 can take up to 1 50 ns to 
send the RDY line low. Add the delay 
through the 7407 buffer, and it is unlikely 
that RDY on the Apple bus will get low 
early enough. The system may hang. 
Apple lie decoding is different but the 
situation similar. 

Another serious problem can be caused 
by the fact that the 6502 processor 
doesn't permit wait states during write 
cycles. This, combined with the way it ex- 
ecutes write cycles (first reading then 
writing the target address) plus the fact 
that the output buffers on the transceivers 
Apple uses to drive the data bus are Tri- 
stated during phase I (transceivers in 
"receive" configuration), makes it extreme- 
ly difficult for the 58167 to reliably latch 
the data written to it even if Mr Beighe's 
circuit is modified by Mr. Kelly's addition. 
If the system doesn't hang, it will stop at 
the next read cycle and wait until RDY 
goes high-not very useful if you want to 
write data to the clock. 

The Apple III computer has a socket on 
board for the 58167, but it was never 
offered by the company (even though rou- 
tines for it were written into the SOS 
operating system) because it couldn't get 
all the functions to operate reliably. The 
Apple III has the 58167 D0-D7 pins tied 
directly to the bus_and drives AO-A4, 
READ. WRITE, and CS with the B port of 
a 6522 PIA. While this arrangement allows 
most clock functions to operate normal- 
ly, the latch and counter resets aren't com- 
pletely reliable, and the GO command is 
inoperative. This is a good example of a 
half-a-loaf approach to the problem of in- 



terfacing the 58 1 67 with a 6502 system. 

All the functions of the 58 1 67 can be 
reliably obtained in a 6502 system if both 
ports of an interface adapter such as the 
6520 or 6522 are used. 

Three 74LS374 latch packages and 
some gates can also be used to get a fully 
functional interface. 

Frank Kuechmann 
Vancouver, WA 

Thank you very much for your letter. 
You correctly point out some of the prob- 
lems with this slow chip and a way to 
solve them. —Steve 

Dear Steve, 

I've noticed at least one company that 
offers a plug-in enhancement board for 
the Apple II that makes use of the faster 
(3-MHz) 6502B chip. 

Why don't more manufacturers of 6502- 
based machines offer a speed-up option, 
such as the so-called GT series that Ohio 
Scientific used to sell? 

What would have to be changed (other 
than the processor, using faster memory 
chips, and altering the clock speed and 
possibly the I/O timing routines in the 
operating system) to treble the crunching 
speed of 6502-based machines? 

How much would these changes cost if 
performed on one machine? How much 
difference in cost would there be if the 
manufacturers incorporated this change 
on the assembly line? 

David T. Morse 

Starkville, MS 

[continued) 




Part of the original circuit with an analog multiplexer added. 



50 BYTE* NOVEMBER 1984 



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NOVEMBER 1984 • BYTE 51 




ASK BYTE 



The complexity of the changes re- 
quired to install a speed-up option to the 
6502 (or other microprocessors) when 
weighed against the benefits does not 
make economic sense. For example, such 
a speed-up could be added to a VIC-20, 
probably at a cost greater than the com- 
puter but it may render many commer- 
cial programs unusable because of tim- 
ing problems, and the speed increase 
would probably not be appreciated by 
many users. For games and graphics, the 
speed of present computers is adequate. 
Only when significant number crunching 
or database searching is involved does 
a speed increase become important 

Isn't changing "the processor, using 
faster memory chips, and altering the 
clock speed and possibly the I/O timing 
routines in the operating system" to in- 
crease processor speed enough? A com- 
puter could be designed with the added 
speed, but it is more practical to go to 
a 16- or 32-bit processor—Steve 

THERMOMETER CIRCUIT 

Dear Steve, 

In your article on building a computer- 
ized weather station (February 1982, page 
38), you described a circuit that converts 
temperature to frequency in control 
systems. 

How can this circuit be adapted so that 
multiple temperature inputs could be in- 
put to the system and identified and ser- 
viced, if necessary? I realize that a D/A cir- 
cuit would be needed for the servicing. 

I have a Big Board computer system with 
tiny BASIC. I feel that designing the pro- 
gram around this system would be similar 
to that of the Z8, with possibly more I/O 
options. 

Thank you for any help. 

Dace R. Smith 
Huntsville, TX 

Whenever signals from several different 
sources are to be fed into a single receiv- 
ing unit, you should search for some kind 
of multiplexer to do the job. In the case 
of the digital-thermometer circuit, it is 
best to do the multiplexing in the analog 
portion of the circuit, as shown in figure 
1. This figure is a redrawing of a portion 
of the original thermometer circuit from 
my article with an analog multiplexer 
(MUX-08) added. The MUX08 (IC5) is an 
analog multiplexer made by Precision 
Monolithics Inc., and it is used to select 
one of eight different thermometer chan- 
nels. The channel selected is determined 

{continued) 



52 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



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NOVEMBER 1984 -BYTE 53 



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3278 



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1 / Z HEIGHT DISK DRIVES From 



PERSYST BoB board. 

STB Graphics Plus II, color & mono, w/par. 
port & software.. 



HERCULES Mono & color graphics cards 
support Lotus on IBM.. 



SHUGART, PANASONIC, TEAC. We have the 
south 's largest supply of top names 

Hard Discs 

We carry all major name brands so If you 
don't see it — ask for it. 

PEACHTREE PERIPHERALS TheP-10, 20 & 
50, auto boot, int. & ext. instal. 



PLANTRONIGS ColorPlus + , HiRes color bd. 

par. port w/software. 

TECMAR Graphics Master, HiRes color & 
mono supports Lotus.. 



QUADRAM QUADCOLORI&II, color cards. 
PARADISE SYSTEM Multi-display 
or Modular Graphics Cards, color & mono, 
parallel port 




PC TURBO 186 by ORCHID, 

80186 coprocessor board, 

IRMA / IRM ALINE Replaces 

3278'sw/PCs. 

IRMAGRAPH 

Upgrades IRMA 

to 3279 graphics 

capability. 

IRMAPRINT 
Enhances IRMA 
graphics 



PCnet By ORCHID, 

complete line 

BLUE LYNX 535.1 
Mod 12 & 3276 
Emulators by 
TECHLAND.. 



Printers & Plotters 



Micro Mart has thousands in stock. 
AMDEK AMPLOTII, 6 pen plotter, supports 

Lotus . 

HOUSTON INSTRUMENTS Plotters and 

digitizers 

Dot Matrix 

SMITH CORONA D-300, by TEC, 140 cps 

EPSON FX80 Se 100, 160cps. 



SYSOEN 10 & 50 Meg w/streamer tape 

SYSGEN Image, streamer tape back-up for 
your IBM XT.. 




BERNOULLI TECHNOLOGY Hard Disc 
Subsystems 

Multifunction Boards 

We sell more of these than anyone else, so 
we've become experts on boards of all types. 

SIX PAK 64-384K, multifunc 

MEGAPLUS64-512K, max. 8func._ 



Accounting 

SORCIM / IUS A/P, A/R, G/L, inventory, 
order entry, payroll.. 



PEACHTREE A/P, A/R, G/L, payroll, job 
cost, inventory, order entry- 



Spreadsheets & Integrated Packages 
ASHTONTATE Framework 

LOTUS Symphony and Lotus.. 



MICROSOFT MultiPlan, comes with choice 



Atlanta, New Orleans, Charlotte, Louisville, Nashville, Raleigh, 



56 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



of templates 

MDBS Knowledge Man 

SORCIM SuperCalc 3, Version 2. 0, new 

enhancement pkg 

SPI Open Access. . 



Office & Project Planning 
HARVARD Harvard Project Manager.. 

IUS Easy SalesPro 

MICROSOFT Project. 



Enhancements & Utilities 
POX & GELLER Complete line of enhance- 
ments for dBase II, IZT& Rbase4000 

NORTON Utilities 

ROSESOFT ProKey3.0._ 



Data Base Managers 
MICRORIM 4000 or 6000, Report Writer & 
Clout options.. 



CENTRAL POINT SOFTWARE Copy II PC. _ 
ATI Training, critic's choice software 

tutorials 

SOFTSTYItE Set FX, Epson font control 

package 

SIDEWAYS Inverts printout 

BORLAND Sidekick.. 



OMS SYSTEMS Power-base. 

ASHTONTATE dBase lite III. 

MICROSTUF Infoscope. 

Modems 

HAYES Smartmodem 300, 1200, Se 1200B. 
NOVATION Complete line of int. & ext._ 



QU ADR AM MICROFAZER, print buffer : 

8-128K 

TRIPPELITE Back up power supply 
200-1000 Watts, and ISOJBABsurge 
protectors with 4 & 8 plug 

Monitors & CRT's 

PGS MAX 12, amber, monochrome, 

720h x 350v. 

PGS SR-12, 690h x 480v, w/dual scan cd._ 
PGS HX- 12, 690 Dot RGB. 



Compilers & Language Tools 

LATTICE COompilers. 

MICROSOFT Complete line.. 



DIGITAL RESEARCH Complete line. 

BORLAND Turbo Pascal, Turbo Toolbox 

and more 

Graphics & CAD 

Zsoft PC Paint Brush, mouse driven 
graphics w/screen dump util.. 



DECISION RESOURCES ChartMaster/ 

Sign-Master graphics pkgs 

AUTODESK AutoCAD 



ENERTRONICS Ener graphics, low cost 

graphics & CAD package 

MICROPRO ChartStar.. 



Communications 
MICROSTUF CROSSTALK XVL_ 

HAYES SMARTCOMII. 

VM Relay._ 



Word Processors 
MULTIM ATE With spelling checker and 



RIXON 1200-4800 BAUD sync. & async. 

models 

ANCHOR AUTOMATION Signalman Mark 

XII. 

VEN-TEL 1200 BAUD Half Card for the IBM 
portable & XT. 

Miscellaneous Hardware 
& Accessories 

DYSANDS/DD. Quantity savings 

MICRO MART DS/DD, a 7 year warranty. 

KEYTRONICS 5160 & 5151 keyboards. 

LQ SHEET FEEDERS Cut sheet feeders for 

the NEC 3550 & C-ITOH printers 

MOUSE SYSTEMS PC Mouse, optical 

w/sof tware - 

MICROSOFT Mouse; 
Bus or serial mech. 
mouse with mouse 

menu software . 

CURTIS Monitor 
pedestal, keyboard ex- 
tension cable, monitor 
extension cable. 



QUADRAM QUADCHROME, 690 Dot RGB._ 

AMDEK COLORI, IIA&IVT, RGB's. 

AMDEK COLOR 300, 500, 600, 700, 710, 
new complete line of HiB.es RGB's.. 



AMDEK 300A/300G, composite monitors. 
AMDEK 310 A, amber monochrome w/3 yr. 

warranty. 

WYSE Terminals, 100, 75, 50, entire line in 
stock 

We'd really like you to come by 
our stores, but if you can't, call us 
direct. When you need the right 
product at the right price, 
remember the service and support 
our local store experts and national 
distribution center can give you. 

Ask for expert advice and your 
best price. 

For information or the store location nearest you, call 

(404) 449-8089 

Copyright 

Micro Mart 1984. 

Technology 

Corporate Campus 

3 159 Campus Drive 

Norcross, Georgia 30071 




tutorial.. 



SAMNA III, New Flagship wd. processor. 

MICROSOFT Word; w/or without mouse. 

LIFETREE VOLKSWRITER DELUXE. 

MICROPRO WordStar Professional series 
with Tutor, CorreetStar, MailMerge <Se Star 

Index 

SSI WordPerfect ! 



PE ACHTREE PeachText 5000, Personal 
Productivity Series.. 



America's PC Specialist. 



Micro Mart is a registered trademark of Micro Mart, Inc . 

IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. 



Miami, Ft. Lauderdale, Tampa, Orlando, Tyson's Corner, Rockville. 



Circle 274 on inquiry card. 



NOVEMBER 1984 • BYTE 57 



with an expanding universe of 
space-saving systems for your PC! 

Modular disk drive systems by Maynard Electronics drive technology to the limit to deliver 
unmatched performance with PC-DOS compatibility including self-booting off the hard disk. 




10MB Winchester interna! 
Hard Disk Drive System! 

This dynamic system 
lets you upgrade your 
PC or compatible to XT 
effectiveness, is inter- 
nally installed, and 
does not require an ad- 
ditional power supply! 
The 10MB Hard Disk 
Drive System is equip- 
ped with the Sand- 
Star™ Hard Disk Con- 
troller Card which can 
accept up to three ad- 
ditional modular functions. Or, configure your system with 
the Hard Disk Controller Module and the SandStar Flop- 
py Drive Controller Card which runs 5%" and 8" Floppy 
Drives while still leaving four expansion slots for additional 
boards! Or, if you prefer, arrange your system with the 
Hard Disk Controller Module and the SandStar™ Memory 
Card which lets you add from 64K to 576K of memory us- 
ing only one card slot! 



Maynard's SandStar™ Cards 
and Modules can put you 
lightyears ahead... 

With technology racing into the future, serious com- 
puter users need to set their sights beyond ob- 
solescence. Through the use of versatile Sand- 
Star™ Cards and Modules, Maynard has been able 
to engineer hardware to keep pace with tomorrow's 
needs. With Maynard's Disk Drive Systems and 
SandStar™ Cards and Modules, you won't be left 
behind in the race for space. For more details, call 
your dealer or distributor today. 



NEW! "The Apollo" 30MB Internal 
Hard Disk Drive. • 



This powerhouse 
comes with 30MB of 
on-line storage using 
PC DOS without any 
special software dri- 
vers. Discover new 
worlds of data effi- 
ciency and versatility. 
Our 30MB system in- 
cludes the Hard Disk 
Controller Card or any 
of the other Sand- 
Star™ Cards with Hard 
Disk Controller Module. 



NEW! "The Gemini" Hard and 
Floppy Drive System. 




HB Hi 



Now, for the first time, 
add the Gemini to your 
one drive system and 
take full advantage of 
internal Hard Disk 
power along with two 
internal Floppy Drive 
units. The Gemini 
comes with a sleek 
10MB Half-Height Hard 
Disk Drive, a Half- 
Height Floppy Disk 
Drive (DS/DD), and the 
SandStar™ Floppy Drive Controller Card with the Hard 
Dis^c Controller Module. Boost memory capacity 
dramatically while using no more space than a standard 
floppy drive! The Gemini can also be configured with 
either the SandStar™ Hard Disk Controller Card or the 
SandStar™ Memory Card with the Hard Disk Controller 
Module. r 



MAYNARD ELECTRONICS 



450 E. 5emoran Blvd. 
Casselberry, Florida 32707 
305/331-6402 



We make modern times better 



United Kirn 
n Distributor 



Circle 260 on inquiry card. 



CLUBS AND NEWSLETTERS 



• PLEASE RELEASE 
INFORMATION-The Inter- 
national Association of Com- 
puter Service Managers 
(IACSM) is an association to 
better inform and assist 
second- and third-party 
maintenance companies. The 
group intends to provide a 
larger voice for companies 
in the computer industry 
and influence manufacturers 
to release service informa- 
tion. With a $120 annual in- 
vestment for membership, 
companies receive a month- 
ly newsletter, Tec-Tips, con- 
taining government bids in 
the area and more. For 
details, contact Susan 
Muller, IACSM, Suite 9-519, 
1101 Post Oak Blvd., 
Houston, TX 77056. 

• SOLELY THE SANYO 

San-PiC, a journal devoted 
exclusively to users of the 
Sanyo MBC-550/555, aims to 
provide a consolidated 
source of information con- 
cerning software compatibili- 
ty, hardware accessories, up- 
dates, applications, reviews, 
and reader contributions. 
The subscription to the bi- 
monthly publication is $12 
for 12 issues. Contact Am- 
brose Barry, 1967 Defiance 
Ave, Las Cruces, NM 88001, 
or call his bulletin-board sys- 
tem at (505) 646-5194. 

• APPLE PIE NEWS: $10 
Users of the Apple PIE and 
PIE Writer word-processing 
programs have formed a 
club that acts as a clearing- 
house for ideas and tech- 
niques to enhance the use 
of the word processors. The 
newsletter is available for 
$10 a year and includes tips 
and modifications. Specify 
whether you have an Apple 
II or lie, a 40- or 80-column 



board, and your identifica- 
tion numbers, if applicable. 
Contact Monty Lee or Mike 
Weasner, Apple PIE Writers, 
12841 Hawthorne Blvd., POB 
589, Hawthorne, CA 902 50. 

• JUGFUL OF NEWS 

The Jefferson State Com- 
puter Users Group (JUG), 
formerly the Jackson 
Amateur Computer Society, 
meets regularly in south- 
western Oregon. Every 
month the group produces 
a tabloid, The JUG Newsletter, 
that prints activities of the 
several special-interest 
groups it sponsors. A sub- 
scription is included in the 
$5 membership fee. The 
Medford FORUM-80, (503) 
535-6883, is available 24 
hours a day For further 
details, write to the Jefferson 
State Computer Users 
Group, 23 55 Camp Baker 
Rd., Medford, OR 97501. 

• IMAGINE A CLUB FOR 
THE IM-1 -Owners of APF 
IM-I computers seeking in- 
formation and programs can 
subscribe to a newsletter 
produced by the IM-1 in a 
Million Club. It contains 
selected articles, news, 
reviews, questions and 
answers, programming hints, 
and more. Members receive 
reduced rates on hardware 
and software. The $20 an- 
nual membership fee in- 
cludes technical assistance 
and all current-year back 
issues. Write to IM-1 in a 



Million Club, POB 54, 
Arrowsmith, IL 61722. 

• EPSON QX-10 IN AUSTIN 

The Austin, Texas, QX-10 
Users Group meets on the 
second Wednesday of each 
month to provide user and 
technical assistance for 
Epson owners. In addition, it 
distributes public-domain 
programs and offers mem- 
ber discounts. The monthly 
newsletter, included in the 
$2 5 annual membership fee, 
contains new-product 
reviews. For details, call 
Doug Jones at (512) 
2 55-4150. 

• ATARI IN WEST L.A. 

The West Los Angeles Atari 
Users Group (WLAAUG) 
meets at 7 p.m. on the first 
Wednesday of the month to 
hear speakers, witness 
demonstrations, and discuss 
items of interest to mem- 
bers. The club maintains a 
public-domain software 
library and produces a 
monthly newsletter that con- 
tains graphics, the club's 
bylaws and constitution, 
book reviews, relevant ar- 
ticles, and news. For meeting 
locations and other informa- 
tion, write WLAAUG, POB 
84-396, Los Angeles, CA 
90073. 

• COMM'PUTOY CULT IN 
SAN DIEGO-The monthly 
newsletter of the 500-mem- 
ber San Diego Commodore 
User Group, formerly the 



CLUBS & NEWSLETTERS is a forum for letting BYTE readers know what 
is happening in the microcomputing community. Emphasis is given to elec- 
tronic bulletin -board services, club-sponsored classes, community-help projects, 
field trips, and other activities outside of routine meetings. Of course, we will 
continue to list new clubs, their addresses and contact persons, and other in- 
formation of interest. To list events on schedule, we must receive your infor- 
mation at least four months in advance. Send information to BYTE. Clubs 
& Newsletters, POB 372, Hancock, NH 03449. 



San Diego PET User Group, 
is called Comm'putoy Cult. The 
group meets at 7 p.m. on 
the third Thursday of each 
month. An extensive library 
is maintained for the 64, 
VIC-20, and PET. Exchanges 
of library materials and 
newsletters are welcome. For 
details, contact Jane Camp- 
bell, POB 86531, San Diego, 
CA 92138-6531, (619) 
277-7214. 

• TOO YOUNG FOR DUES 

The Sanyo Users Group of 
Central Ohio formed recent- 
ly for users of the MS-DOS 
550/5 55 and the CP/M 1000/ 
1050/1100/1150 series micro- 
computers. Monthly meet- 
ings begin at 9 a.m. on the 
last Saturday of the month 
at the Public Library (96 
Grant St., Columbus, OH). 
The costs of producing a 
monthly newsletter are cur- 
rently covered by contribu- 
tions; dues are being 
established. Interested per- 
sons can contact Arnie 
Skurow, Sanyo Users of Cen- 
tral Ohio, 5760 Crawford Dr., 
Columbus, OH 43229, (614) 
846-3330. 

• DATA WORTH ITS 

WEIGHT-GOLDA7>\news, a 
newsletter for users of 
GOLDATAbase, features ar- 
ticles on software enhance- 
ments, user interviews, user 
group meetings, and up- 
dates. For a free copy, con- 
tact GOLDATAnews, c/o 
Goldata Computer Services 
Inc., 2 Bryn Mawr Ave., Bryn 
Mawr, PA 19010. 

• SANYO CLUB FORMS IN 
BAY AREA-The Sanyo PC 
Computer Club (SPCCC) 
meets at 7 p.m. on the first 
Wednesday of the month at 

{continued) 



NOVEMBER 1984 • BYTE 59 



64k s100 static ram 
$ 199°k? t 

NEW! 

LOW POWER! 
RAM OR EPROM! 



BLANK PC BOARD 
WITH DOCUMENTATION 
$55 




SUPPORT ICs + CAPS 
$17.50 

FULL SOCKET SET 
$14.50 

FULLY SUPPORTS THE 

NEW IEEE 696 S100 

STANDARD 

(AS PROPOSED) 

FOR 56K KIT $185 



ASSEMBLED AND 
TESTED ADD $50 



FEATURES: 

* Uses new 2K x 8 (TMM 2016 or HM 6116) RAM. 

* Fully supports IEEE 696 24 BIT Extended 
Addressing. 

* 64K draws only approximately 500 MA. 

* 200 NS RAMs are standard. (TOSHIBA makes 
TMM 2016s as fast as 100 NS. FOR YOUR HIGH 
SPEED APPLICATIONS.) 

* SUPPORTS PHANTOM (BOTH LOWER 32K 
AND ENTIRE BOARD). 

* 2716 EPROMs may be installed in any ol top 48K. 

* Any of the top 8K (E000 H AND ABOVE) may 
be disabled to provide windows to eliminate 
any possible conflicts with your system monitor, 
disk controller, etc. 

* Perfect tor smail systems since BOTH RAM and 
EPROM may co-exist on the same board. 

* BOARD may be partially populated as 56K. 



256K S-100 SOLID STATE DISK SIMULATOR! 

WE CALL THIS BOARD THE "LtGHT-SPEED-100" BECAUSE IT OFFERS 
AN ASTOUNDING INCREASE IN YOUR COMPUTERS PERFORMANCE 
WHEN COMPARED TO A MECHANICAL FLOPPY DISK DRIVE, 

FEATURES: 

* 256K on board, using + 5V 64K 
DRAMS. 

Uses new Intel 8203-1 LSI Memory 
Controller. 

Requires only 4 Dip Switch 
Selectable I/O Ports. 
Runs on 8080 or Z80 S100 machines. 
Up to 8 LS-100 boards can be run 
together for 2 Meg. of On Line Solid 
State Disk Storage. 
Provisions for Battery back-up. 
Software to mate the LS-100 to your 
CP- M- 2.2 DOS is supplied. 
The LS-100 provides an increase in 
speed of up to 7 to 10 times on Disk 
Intensive Software. 
Compare our price! You could pay 
up io 3 times as much for similar 
boards. 



■■■■■■I 
lllllll 



BLANK PCB 

(WITH CP/M* 2.2 

PATCHES AND INSTALL 

PROGRAM ON DISKETTE) 



*69 



95 



*319 



00 



#LS-100 (FULL 256K KIT) 



THE NEW ZRT-80 

CRT TERMINAL BOARD! 

A LOW COST Z-B0 BASED SINGLE BOARD THAT ONLY NEEDS AN 
ASCII KEYBOARD, POWER SUPPLY, AND VIDEO MONITOR TO MAKE A 
COMPLETE CRT TERMINAL. USE AS A COMPUTER CONSOLE, OR 
WITH A MODEM FOR USE WITH ANY OF THE PHONE-LINE COMPUTER 
SERVICES. 
FEATURES: 

* Uses a Z80A and 6845 CRT 
Controller for powerful video 
capabilities. 

* RS232 at 16 BAUD Rates from 75 
to 19,200. 

* 24 x 80 standard format (60 Hz). 

* Optional formats from 24 x 80 
(50 Hz) to 64 lines x 96 characters 
(60 Hz). 

* Higher density formats require up to 
3 additional 2K x 8 6116 RAMS. 

* Uses N.S. INS 8250 BAUD Rate 
Gen. and USART combo IC. 

* 3 Terminal Emulation Modes which 
are Dip Switch selectable. These 
include the LSI-ADM3A, the Heath 
H-19. and the Beehive. 

* Composite or Split Video. 

* Any polarity of video or sync. 

* Inverse Video Capability. 

* Small Size: 6.5 x 9 Inches. 

* Upper & lower case with descenders. 

* 7x9 Character Matrix. 

* Requires Par. ASCII keyboard. 




BLANK PCB WITH 2716 
CMAR. ROM, 2732 MON, ROM 

$5995 

SOURCE DISKETTE - ADD $10 



SET OF 2 CRYSTALS - ADD $7.50 



WITH 8 IN. 

SOURCE DISK! 

(CP/M COMPATIBLE) 



$10095 

I LV ZRT-80 



(COMPLETE KIT, 
2K VIDEO RAM) 



Digital Research Computers 

P.O. BOX 461565 • GARLAND, TEXAS 75046 • (214) 225-2309 



TERMS: Add $3.00 postage. We pay balance. Orders under 
$1 5 add 75$ handling. No C.O.D. We accept Visa and Master- 
Card. Texas Res. add 5% Tax. Foreign orders (except Canada) 
add 20% P & H. Orders over $50 add 85$ for insurance. 



CLUBS & NEWSLETTERS 



Fashion Island in San Mateo, 
California. Members or sub- 
scribers to the Sanyo-PC- 
Hackers Newsletter (International) 
can keep up on the latest 
news about the 550 series 
of MS-DOS computers. A 
library of public-domain 
disks is maintained by the 
club and a bulletin-board 
service is in the works. In 
return for contribution of an 
article or program for pub- 
lication, you can receive a 
library disk of your choice. 
The $15 annual fee includes 
access to the BBS, group- 
purchase discounts, and the 
newsletter. For details, con- 
tact the Sanyo PC Computer 
Club, 12155 Edgecliff, Los 
Altos, CA 94022. 

• GEORGIA GENERAL 

The Atlanta Computer Soci- 
ety (ACS) of Georgia wel- 
comes people who share an 
interest in personal com- 
puter applications. ACS 
meetings begin at 7:30 p.m. 
on the last Wednesday of 
each month and offer pro- 
grams of general interest. 
Several special-interest 
groups (SIGs) conduct 
separate meetings; many 
offer services that include 
public-domain program 
libraries. ACS currently 
houses SIGs for 8080-Z80- 
CP/M, 68xx, Atari, Apple, 
Timex/Sinclair, Epson, and 
robotics. A newsletter is pro- 
duced monthly, and the BBS 
is available 24 hours a day 
at (404) 636-6130. For infor- 
mation, contact the Atlanta 
Computer Society, POB 
888771, Atlanta, GA 30356, 
(404) 43 5-9671. 

• SOLE SUPPORT FOR 
DATAMAC— The Datamac 
Computer Users Group 
seeks Datamac owners to 
interchange public-domain 
software, programming and 
repair tips, and sources of 
parts for the Datamac com- 
puter. For details, contact 
Jack Hall, POB 1179, Angels 
Camp, CA 95222. 



• EASTER SEALS AT WORK 

Computer-Disability News is a 
computer resource newslet- 
ter for people with disabili- 
ties. Produced quarterly by 
The National Easter Seal 
Society's Committee on Per- 
sonal Computers and Dis- 
abilities, it contains informa- 
tion about job opportunities, 
technology, and publica- 
tions. It also acts as a clear- 
inghouse for people with 
disabilities who want to use 
computers. Subscriptions are 
free. Write to J. Minton, 
Computer-Disability News, c/o 
The National Easter Seal 
Society, 2023 West Ogden 
Ave., Chicago, IL 60612. 

• FREE FOR ALL LOTUS 
USERS— All users of Lotus 
1-2-3 and other integrated 
software are welcome to 
join the Lotus 1,2,3 Federal 
Users Group. Because the 
group is almost entirely 
composed of government 
employees, the applications 
are geared toward such 
needs as networking govern- 
ment users of sophisticated 
microcomputer software. 
Monthly general meetings 
also house three special- 
interest groups— advanced 
users, federal applications, 
and training— that meet 
separately. For further 
details, contact Cathy 
Robertson, D:C:H:C, 
BXR-1310, Washington, DC 
20224, (202) 756-7453. 

• BBS IN CONNECTICUT 

The Switchboard Net-Works 
is a 300-bit-per-second 
bulletin-board service 
operating 24 hours a day on 
a Franklin Ace computer. 
Apple users can likewise 
benefit from the user- 
supported utilities down- 
loadable from the board by 
dialing (203) 669-3456. 
Users can also use the 
board as a problem-solving 
forum. Donations are ac- 
cepted. Contact Tim Sipples, 
70 Glenwood Rd., Clinton, 
CT 06413, (203) 669-9056. ■ 



60 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 






WE DRESSED OUR 

UNIX* SOFTWARE FOR 

YOUR IBM PC/XT 




Try it Risk FREE — the first AT&T-licensed UNIX 

implementation for the IBM PC/XT. Shipping since 

August 1983, Venix/86 is the popular choice among 

knowledgeable UNIX users and developers. Here's why! 

Multi-User Capability. • . 

Share the same PC, disk, and printer with up to 

three users! Simply plug in a CRT and run. 

Multi-Tasking... 

Edit a file, print a report, run a spelling check, 

format a diskette... all at the same time. 

Berkeley Enhancements... 

Including vi, termcap, more and the c shell. 

Real-Time Extensions 

With semaphores, raw and asynchronous I/O, 

priority, shared data, I/O page addressing. 

Quad-Screen Windowing. . . 

Featuring four unique and powerful windows. 

MS-DOS Partitioning... 

Keep your DOS files and programs! 




* UNIX is a trademark of AT&T Technologies, Inc. 
\fenix/86 implementation by VenturCom, Inc. 

Circle 409 on inquiry card. 




Lean and Clean... 

192K RAM, 3.5 Mbytes on disk. Proven reliability. 
Applications... 
Networking, word processors, database managers, 
spreadsheets, menu interfaces. 
One Source with Unisource... 
Unisource is the leading publisher and devel- 
oper of UNIX software for the IBM PC/XT 
and compatibles, DEC Professional 350, 
Rainbow, Micro-11, PDP-11, VAX series, 
and NCR computers. All our packages are 
fully documented and supported by our 
800 user hotline. Call for a complete 
information kit or to arrange your 30-day 
Risk FREE Trial of Venix/86. Unisource 
Software Corp. Department 4109 
71 Bent St., Cambridge, MA 02141. 
Ifelex 924401/COMPUMART CAM 

CALL 617-49M264 



UNI 








Getting UNIX Software 
Down to Business 

NOVEMBER 1984 • BYTE 61 



You can't buy an IBMTPC with 

Here are five important measurements to help you make 

the best choice: 



IBM forces you to choose: 

Buy a monochrome card and 
monitor for high-resolution text. 
(Essential for word processing 
and spreadsheets.) 

Or buy a color card and 
color monitor for graphics. (Lotus™ 
1-2-3,™ for example, uses lots 
of graphics, as well as text.) 

You can invest in both; you can 
sacrifice one or the other; you can 
settle for a non-standard 
compromise. 

Or you can buy Paradise. 

Here's how we've measurably 
eased your job of choosing the best 
video display (saving you a lot of 
money in the process). 

1 Measure video 

'functions. 




The Paradise Modular Graphics 
Card™ gives yon full screen, 16- 
shade graphics on any display, 
including IBM's high-resolution 
monochrome monitor. 

IBM's color/graphics card can 
display 16 colors on a color monitor. 



So can the Paradise Modular 
Graphics Card. 

But that's where the similarity 
ends. When you use color/graphics 
software with the Paradise Modular 
Graphics Card and a monochrome 
monitor, it translates those colors into 
a true 16-shade gray scale. With full 
screen display, flicker-free scrolling 
and clear, crisp character sets (like 
those of IBM) in all modes. 

Naturally, the best video card fits 
either the IBM PC or XT, and works 
with any monitor you choose: IBM 
monochrome (or equivalent), 
RGB or composite video. 

2 # Measure 
'software 



compatibility. 




Many video cards only work with 
specially modified software. The 
Paradise Modular Graphics Card 
runs popular off-the-shelf color 
graphics software on your choice 
of monitors. Unmodified. 

Most cards that offer graphics on 
a monochrome monitor force you to 



sacrifice off-the-shelf software 
compatibility. 

Paradise doesn't want you to 
compromise. 

Of course the Paradise Modular 
Graphics Card runs Lotus 1-2-3 
graphics on an IBM monochrome 
monitor. 

But it also runs almost all 
unmodified off-the-shelf color/ 
graphics software. 

Like PFS®:GRAPH, SuperCalc,® 3 
Flight Simulator® and Symphony™ 

No wires. No tricks. 

A menu-driven software system — 
with a user interface much like that of 
Lotus 1-2-3 — lets you take advantage 
of all the Paradise Modular Graphics 
Card's features. 

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BOOK REVIEWS 




MODULA-2 FOR PASCAL 

PROGRAMMERS 

Richard Gleaves 

Springer-Verlag 

New York: 1984 

151 pages. $16.95 

DATA COMPRESSION: 
TECHNIQUES AND AP- 
PLICATIONS, HARDWARE 
AND SOFTWARE 
CONSIDERATIONS 
Gilbert Held 
John Wiley & Sons 
New York: 1983 
144 pages, $30.95 

THE HANDBOOK OF 

MICROCOMPUTER 

INTERFACING 

Steve Leibson 

Tab Books 

Blue Ridge Summit, 

PA: 1983 

272 pages, $14,95 

THE PROGRAMMER'S 

GUIDE TO LDOS/TRSDOS 

VERSION 6 

Roy Soltoff 

Misosys Inc. 

Sterling, VA: 1983 

208 pages, $20 



Modula-2 for Pascal Programmers 
Reviewed by David D Clark 

Modula-2 for Pascal Programmers is an introduction to 
Niklaus Wirth's newest language and builds upon 
knowledge and skills already acquired by Pascal program- 
mers. The audience for the book is well defined in the 
title and in the material presented. It dispenses with at- 
tempts to teach proper programming practices that might 
be helpful for a beginner but distracting to an experienced 
programmer. By drawing upon this assumed base of 
previous experience Richard Gleaves is free to concen- 
trate on differences from Pascal and features new to 
Modula-2. A treatment of this type will let the working 
programmer "come up to speed" quickly in this new 
language. 



While a student at the 
University of California at 
San Diego (UCSD), Mr. 
Gleaves worked on the 
UCSD Pascal project, writ- 
ing some of the software. 
He later joined Soflech 
Microsystems and con- 
tinued work on the p-Sys- 
tem. He now works at Voli- 
tion Systems (Del Mar, 
California), a software com- 
pany that has written a 
Modula-2 system for micro- 
computers. Volition's imple- 
mentation is derived from 
the Apple Pascal version of 
the UCSD p-System and is 
available for several pro- 
cessors and operating sys- 
tems. Modula-2 for Pascal Pro- 
grammers is an extrapolation 
and generalization of the 
user manual for Volition's 
version of Modula-2; as 
such, it is a description 
based on a working micro- 
computer installation of the 
language. Mr. Gleaves 
writes with the authority of 
a designer and experienced 
user of an actual implemen- 
tation of the language. He writes also with great clarity. 
The book is divided into three nearly equal parts, the 
first of which describes the Modula-2 concepts that will 
be new to a Pascal programmer. The most fundamental 
of these is the module, the basic compilation unit of 
Modula-2. Several chapters discuss the various types of 
modules (local modules, separately compiled modules, 
and program modules). Another chapter is devoted to the 
module library, a crucial part of any Modula-2 program- 
ming environment. Other chapters cover new facilities for 
low-level programming, concurrent programming, and pro- 
cedure variables. 

The second main section of the text discusses the dif- 
ferences between Modula-2 and its predecessor, Pascal. 
These include changes in the interpretation of basic tex- 
tual units of programs, such as identifiers, symbols, and 

{continued) 



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BOOK REVIEWS 



comments; alterations to the syntax of constant, data-type, 
and variable declarations; and the proper formation of 
expressions, statements, and procedures. This section of 
the book also deals with some features of the language 
that don't really qualify as new concepts. For example, all 
of the structured control statements of Pascal are present 
in Modula-2, but in slightly altered form. Often the changes 
are small, but you have to learn them in order to write 
correct programs. There are also new structured state- 
ments like RETURN and the LOOP/EXIT construct. In ad- 
dition, this section covers new standard procedures 
(FLOAT and VAL, for example) and other new parts of the 
language, including open-array parameters, cardinal 
numbers, set constants, and relaxed rules for the order 
of declaration of objects. Another important topic is the 
group of revised rules for type compatibility in assignment 
statements and expressions. The subjects covered in this 
section are basically extensions of Pascal, things you've 
always wanted but couldn't have. Some of the differences 
are trivial, others have profound effects, but all are 
presented clearly and thoroughly. 

Part three of the book discusses utility modules, facilities 
expected to be provided with each implementation of the 
language on a particular computer. Since the language 
definition does not provide explicitly for I/O (input/out- 
put), file handling, storage management, and other func- 
tions, modules containing the required routines are in- 
cluded with each implementation. Some chapters describe 
the facilities for standard I/O, like reading and writing 
characters, strings, and text. Mr. Cleaves describes 
modules to perform storage allocation, subprogram calls, 
format conversions, and mathematical functions. These are 
not the same modules Wirth discusses in Programming in 
Modula-2 (New York: Springer-Verlag, 1982), but they are 
more applicable to a microcomputer environment. The 
definition module for each is presented after a discussion 
of the function of each of the procedures. In many cases 
the discussions are short for obvious reasons. For exam- 
ple, just about everyone can figure out how to use the 
cos procedure to take a cosine However, the construc- 
tion of an interrupt-driven serial-port driver requires, and 
is given, a more detailed treatment. 

Several appendixes follow the main text— a glossary, syn- 
tax diagrams, a list of standard identifiers, and a list of 
reserved words and symbols. The index also appears to 
be very complete. 

One of the best things about Modula-2 for Pascal Program- 
mers is that each important language feature is illustrated 
with at least one example of correct usage. These ex- 
amples are often trivial, but it is refreshing to be shown 
explicitly how the language works rather than having to 
ferret out the information from obscure references scat- 
tered throughout the text. Aside from the profuse ex- 
amples, Mr. Cleaves provides notes and warnings at many 
locations, pointing out not-so-obvious features of the 
operation of the language 

If pressed to find something annoying about the book, 



66 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



Circle 256 on inquiry card. 



BOOK REVIEWS 



I would mention the listings. I hate to try to read a book 
in which all characters are equally spaced, but it is just 
as unpleasant to read listings of computer programs that 
are spaced proportionally I know this is just a matter of 
personal taste, but the equal spacing of letters provides 
textual markers that line up vertically in a listing, making 
some structural features of the program easier to see. Pro- 
portional spacing can destroy that vertical format. For- 
tunately, care has been taken to preserve such markers 
in this text. For example, formal parameters for groups 
of procedures and comments for variable declarations are 
lined up vertically 

Mr. Gleaves makes a presentation that is clear and com- 
plete. Lots of concrete examples demonstrate the lan- 
guage facilities. Subtle technicalities and potential hazards 
are plainly pointed out in numerous notes and warnings. 
Facilities not an actual part of the language but expected 
to be available in any Modula-2 environment are also de- 
scribed. 

Although I received an early proof of the book to review, 
all typographical errors had already been eliminated. This 
may be characteristic of careful work by Springer-Verlag 
editors. For an experienced Pascal programmer, this single 
volume can serve as an introduction to the similar but ex- 
tended facilities of Modula-2. 



Data Compression: Techniques and Applications, 
Hardware and Software Considerations 
Reviewed by Michael O'Neill 

Judging by the several articles that BYTE has published 
on the subject, data compression is a topic of interest 
to users of personal computers. Part of this interest is in- 
tellectual, but I imagine that the major reason for concern 
with data-compression methods is practical. This practical 
interest can be attributed to two of the Laws of Universal 
Privation: You never have enough memory, and You never 
have a data channel that's fast enough. 

Data Compression addresses the practical aspects of this 
subject. The goal of this book," the author writes, "is to 
provide readers with an intimate awareness of practical 
and easy-to-implement data-compression techniques." 
Gilbert Held deals solely with the compression of digital 
data, primarily text or numeric data stored as characters 
(rather than, for example, as binary numbers). Held con- 
centrates on applications to communications, but most 
of the techniques can be applied to storage reduction as 
well. True to his word, Mr. Held focuses on the nuts-and- 
bolts aspects of data compression. 

Chapter 1 introduces basic definitions and areas of ap- 
plication. It also has a section giving you the data and for- 
mulas necessary to determine information-transfer rates 
for various types of commonly used data channels. 

In chapter 2, the author presents methods of compres- 
sion. There are methods that suppress repetitions of char- 

{continued) 



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NOVEMBER 1984 • BYTE 67 



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BOOK REVIEWS 



acters: null suppression, bit mapping, and run-length en- 
coding. Half-byte packing compresses blocks consisting 
of only one type of character— for example, numeric. And 
there are techniques that replace frequently occurring 
characters or groups of characters with short codes: 
diatomic encoding, pattern substitution, and statistical en- 
coding (Huffman and modified Huffman codes). Mr. Held 
also describes the method of relative encoding, used 
when successive data items vary only slightly. In this 
method, you encode the differences between one item 
and the next; if these differences are sufficiently small, 
compression results. 

All data-compression methods require that the data to 
be compressed have the proper characteristics. Chapter 
3 deals with this important aspect of the design of com- 
pression systems. The author describes a FORTRAN pro- 
gram (a complete listing is included) that will provide the 
statistical information necessary to choose which form of 
compression is appropriate for a given type of data file. 
Even if you choose not to use the author's program, he 
gives enough information to enable you to design one 
suitable to your needs. 

In the final chapter, Mr. Held deals with problems in- 
volved in linking data-compression routines to other soft- 
ware in order to build a working system. He treats such 
matters as routine placement and timing considerations. 

I have two complaints about this book: first, it is not com- 
prehensive; second, the author is repetitious. 

As to the first complaint, the author does not mention 
Karlgren's method (similar to, but more powerful than, half- 
byte coding), and his treatment of adaptive compression 
is sketchy. I would like to have seen some material on spe- 
cialized methods, such as differential compression, as ap- 
plied to reduction of storage requirements. 

As to the second complaint, the expositions frequently 
are repetitious. This is most obvious in Mr. Held's discus- 
sion of Huffman coding; not only does he explain twice 
how to construct a Huffman code, but figure 2.29 is in- 
cluded in figure 2.30 and could have been eliminated with 
no loss of clarity. It's appropriate that a book on data com- 
pression is slim, and it's ironic that it is redundant. Con- 
sidering the high price of this book, I feel that the 
gratuitous repetition ought to have been replaced with 
new information. 

Data Compression is detailed and wide-ranging, although 
not comprehensive. The book should be of interest to you 
if you are seriously involved with data communications 
and have a need to know, in detail, about practical data- 
compression schemes. 



TVie Handbook of Microcomputer Interfacing 
Reviewed by Petr Beckmann 

Though there are several books available on interfacing 
to microcomputers, they all seem to fall short when 

{continued) 



68 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



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BOOK REVIEWS 



explaining the practical workings. For example, why is it 
so difficult to connect two devices using an RS-2 32C con- 
nection? Many books written about interfacing tell you 
about the RS-232C standard interface conceptually but 
they ignore the problems encountered when using it. 

I am happy to report that Steve Leibson's The Handbook 
of Microcomputer Interfacing does not shortchange the reader. 
Based on a series of six articles that appeared in BYTE 
in 1982, this book does indeed answer the preceding 
question about RS-232C connection, as well as many more 
about interfacing. It is clear that the author feels at home 
with this subject. In the introduction to the book he writes, 
"Welcome to the world of microcomputer interfacing! It 
is a place full of mysteries much like a computerized 
Adventure game. . . . This book is a set of guidelines on 
how to play the Interfacing game." Throughout the book 
Mr. Leibson mixes facts, history of technology, and opin- 
ion into an easy-to-read introduction to this field. 

The first chapter, "Bits, Bytes and Buses," serves as a 
preface for the hardware novice. It presents clearly and 
simply the basic concepts of Boolean mathematics, gates, 
flip-flops, computer number systems, and buses. Chapter 
1 also includes a complete explanation of the ASCII 
(American Standard Code for Information Interchange) 
code. The author covers each ASCII control code in a short 
paragraph, lifting the veil on a somewhat cryptic subject. 

In chapter 2, titled "Component-Level Buses," Mr. Leib- 
son discusses the first port of access to the microproces- 
sor. All data flows into or out of the microprocessor over 
its component-level bus. The chapter starts by defining the 
parts of a generic microprocessor bus, which is composed 
of address, data, and control buses. The author then pro- 
gresses to specific microprocessor buses; the 6800, 8080, 
Z80, 8086, Z8000, and 68000 microprocessors are 
covered in depth. The read and write cycles of each bus 
are detailed, and special features of each microprocessor 
bus are described. Throughout this chapter, Mr. Leibson 
specifically calls attention to aspects he feels are par- 
ticularly interesting, rather than simply reciting "the way 
things work." 

Backplane buses are described in chapter 3. Several of 
the better-known buses are covered, including the STD, 
S-100, Multibus, and IBM Personal Computer bus. I did 
not find the same level of description in this chapter, which 
is more like a handbook of the various buses; the inter- 
esting and readable prose found in the rest of the book 
is missing. However, the material is still handled well tech- 
nically. Some humor did find its way into the chapter; Did 
you ever hear about the "MOTEL' circuit? 

Chapter 4 is the first to cover an actual interface, the 
parallel type. The author classifies parallel interfaces into 
zero-, one-, two-, and three-wire handshakes. I have seen 
several of these types before, but the classifications 
seemed new to me, and I found it easier to sort things 
out thinking of parallel interfaces in this manner. Simple 
latched outputs are an example of a zero-wire handshake 

{continued) 



70 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



Circle 69 on inquiry card. 



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See us at 

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Dysan is a registered trademark of Dysan Corporation. O I984,D>san Corporation. 



What do you like 
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72 BYTE- NOVEMBER 1984 



VBIML 





Configurability and 
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NOVEMBER 1 984 • BYTE 73 



Circle 389 on inquiry card. 




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BOOK REVIEWS 



interface while the IEEE-488 (HPIB) is an example of a 
three-wire handshake interface. The author details another 
well-known parallel interface, the Centronics. 

The last part of chapter 4 covers integrated circuits (ICs) 
used to implement parallel interfaces and how these ICs 
are applied. Many of the illustrations are apparently taken 
from manufacturer data sheets. I found this to be quite 
unusual for an interfacing book; the "real world" details 
are usually left as an exercise for the reader. The approach 
used in this chapter sets the tone for the rest of the book. 

Mr. Leibson tackles serial interfaces in chapter 5. He 
starts out by showing how Morse code and telegraphy 
evolved into today's computerized serial interface then 
he follows with descriptions of simplex, half-duplex, and 
full-duplex connections, and synchronous and asynchron- 
ous communications. 

When discussing serial-interfacing standards, Mr. Leib- 
son pays special attention to RS-232C He has tried very 
hard to give the reader a personal perspective on this. 
the most pervasive of the interfacing standards, and he 
describes the "basic eight" signals in the RS-232C stan- 
dard. As in the previous chapter, a substantial part of 
chapter 5 is devoted to the ICs used to implement a serial 
interface, including level translators, receiver/transmitters, 
and baud-rate generators. 

Chapter 6 covers analog interfacing, both digital-to- 
analog (D/A) and analog-to-digital (A/D). This chapter in- 
cludes a smattering of operational amplifier theory and 
the only math in the book. Many pages are used to 
describe resistor ladders and how they are used to con- 
vert digital signals to analog voltages. Various A/D con- 
version techniques are illustrated, but the author unfor- 
tunately does not mention any real devices as examples, 
as he did in the previous two chapters. 

A unique concept, interfacing to time, is discussed in 
chapter 7. The author covers both interval timers and time- 
of-day clock circuits and provides some actual IC descrip- 
tions, which makes the chapter seem less esoteric. 

Chapters 8 and 9 are not about specific interfaces but 
about the interfacing techniques of interrupts and direct 
memory access (DMA). In the chapter on interrupts, the 
author discusses the subject generally. He then returns 
to four of the microprocessors described in chapter 2 to 
discuss their interrupt capabilities. The chapter on DMA 
is quite short, and I was left feeling that there is probably 
a lot more to be said on the subject. 

The Handbook of Microcomputer interfacing is an excellent in- 
troduction to microcomputer hardware. It is easy to read, 
yet it contains a wealth of information needed by anyone 
working closely with microcomputers. The book seems 
to be targeted at hobbyists, technicians, engineers, and 
scientists. 

If you have been a victim of books that promise a lot 
and deliver even more, but most of it over your head, this 
is the one you need for interfacing microcomputers with 
other devices. 

{continued) 



74 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



Circle 198 on inquiry card. 



LOMAS DATA PRODUCTS INVITES YOU TO: 

SHARE THE THUNDER, 



The S100-PC-TM offers the 
following standard features: 

□ High performance THUNDER 186 8Mhz 
80186 processor 

□ 512K bytes of RAM (expandable to 1Mbyte) 

□ 4 serial ports to support up to four users 
D 3 Centronics compatible parallel ports 

□ Concurrent DOS operating system 
allows execution of both CP/M-86 and 
MS-DOS (PC-DOS) programs 

□ 5 l A" IBM-PC compatible floppy drive 
D 40 Mbyte high performance Winchester drive 

□ Attractive 10 slot desktop enclosure ^ J ";^> 

In addition, a number of options are available including: 
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S100 BUS boards products & support 
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All of LDP boards are fully tested to exacting standards 
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to 19200 baud operation real time clock interrupt. Ideal 
for multi-user systems such as MP/M-86* PRICE $395.00 

S100-PC-TM is a trademark ofLomas Data Products, Inc. 
*CP/M-86, MP/M-86 and CONCURRENT CP/M-86 are trademarks of 
Digital Research. **MS-DOS is trademark of Microsoft 
***Lightning One is trademark ofLomas Data Products, Inc. 



Circle 249 on inquiry card. 




S100-PC-TM: The LDP 
Multi-user S100 Bus System 
offers high performance at 
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Dealer inquiries invited. 

For orders outside the U.S., contact 
our exclusive dealers: □ Australia — 
LAMRON PTY. LTD., (02) 85-6228 
□ Malaysia - EXA COMPUTER (M) 
SENDIRIAN BERHAD, 795284 



NOVEMBER 1984 • BYTE 75 



u 

COMPUTERBANC 



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BOOK REVIEWS 



The Programmer's Guide to LDOS/TRSDOS Version 6 
Reviewed by Terry Kepner 

LDOS/TRSDOS version 6 is a very powerful and flex- 
ible DOS (disk operating system), but it's also very 
complex and difficult to learn and use. Programming in 
machine code with LDOS is even harder; the user manual 
gives only a few details on how to interface your machine- 
language programs with the LDOS system, forcing you to 
waste time experimenting with code and trying to 
decipher just what LDOS is doing. 

Roy Soltoff s The Programmer's Guide to LDOS/TRSDOS elim- 
inates much of that work, providing details on the opera- 
tions and procedures used by LDOS, both in memory and 
on disk. 

The book is divided into six chapters, with an appen- 
dix and a copious index. The first chapter gives you a brief 
overview of LDOS and the philosophy that went into de- 
signing it. Chapter 2 describes the methods used in inter- 
facing the various hardware devices (printer, RS-232C, key- 
board, video) with a program and how to write your own 
device drivers and special filter modules (for example, set- 
ting up a character filter so that your printer automatically 
slashes zeros). 

In chapter 3, Soltoff describes disk-drive interfacing pro- 
tocols for sending and receiving data to and from the disk- 
drive controller, including the allocation schemes used for 
hard-disk drives. LDOS supports the Lobo Universal, 
Western Digital WD-1000, and Xebec S-1410 hard-disk con- 
troller, all three of which are described with the attendant 
service calls used and disk-drive registers. Floppy-disk and 
hard-disk configurations are explained, as well as the drive 
control tables used by LDOS to access them. A sample 
disk-driver routine is included. 

In chapter 4, the author moves on to the DOS directory 
structure for 5 l A~ and 8-inch disks. He covers the Granule 
Allocation T^ble, the Hash Index Table, directory record 
structure (for 5 !4- and 8-inch floppy disks and 5-inch hard 
disks, in single-density, double-density, single-sided, and 
double-sided configurations), and he provides a break- 
down of 32 bytes used for an actual directory record entry. 

The next chapter contains general information on a file's 
disk configuration, controlling disk files, accessing them, 
and the file control block (in memory), which tracks what's 
happening with a file currently in use. 

TVie Real Value 

Chapter 6 describes the DOS supervisor calls (SVCs) used 
to communicate with the operating system at the assem- 
bly-language level. This is where the book's value is truly 
revealed. These routines are vital for any programmer who 
wants his programs to be as powerful and short as pos- 
sible, relieving you of the need to create your routines to 
get a character from the keyboard, send data to the video, 
obtain the system date, send a character to a disk file, 
select a disk drive, read a disk sector, or any one of the 

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NOVEMBER 1984 -BYTE 77 



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BOOK REVIEWS 



94 service calls supplied by LDOS. In fact, by using only 
these SVCs for data manipulation between the system and 
your program, you can insure that a program written on 
one computer using LDOS 6 can be used on another com- 
puter using the LDOS 6 environment (i.e., create a pro- 
gram on the Lobo Max-80 that can be used on the TRS-80 
Model I or Model 4). These calls are listed alphabetically, 
numerically, and by functional group. Calls requiring more 
than just a brief note (such as how to switch between dif- 
ferent banks of memory if your computer has more than 
64 K bytes of RAM) are given more attention and detail 
at the end of this chapter 

The appendix is devoted to topics that don't fit into the 
other chapters. These topics include boot-up initialization 
interfacing (so your program can automatically be initial- 
ized during boot-up), the disk-loading formats used by the 
system loader, the protocols for using high-memory 
modules, interfacing with the interrupt task processor, 
using the @KITSK SVC to perform background tasks while 
doing disk input/output or print spooling, details on the 
DOS system overlays, and using the @PARAM SVC to 
decode complex parameter commands from the user. 
Soltoff includes three sample programs using the various 
SVCs and filtering concepts. 

All of this information is explained in simple language, 
with a minimum of jargon. The only assumption made is 
that you are a machine-language programmer, or at least 
have more than just a vague idea of the details of such 
programming. 

Since most programmers are in a hurry and don't want 
to have to read an entire book to get the answers to one 
or two questions, Roy Soltoff has included an index that 
provides a "random access" approach to the information. 
He has tried to make each section of the book indepen- 
dent of the rest. This tends to make some sections a little 
repetitive, but that's a small price to pay for the referenc- 
ing capability it delivers. 

This is one reference book every LDOS/TRSDOS version 
6 programmer should have. Its cost is preferable to the 
amount of time you'd have to spend to discover the in- 
formation yourself. ■ 



David D. Clark (246 South Fraser St. #2, State College, PA 16801) 
is a postdoctoral research scholar in the chemistry department of Penn- 
sylvania State University. 

Michael O'Neill (2227 Dwight Way #4, Berkeley, CA 94704) has 
been programming computers for 20 years. 

Petr Beckmann (POB 2298, Boulder, CO 80306) is a professor 
emeritus of electrical engineering at the University of Colorado. 

Terry Kepner (POB 481, Peterborough, NH 03458) is a freelance 
programmer who writes monthly columns for several computing 
magazines. 



78 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



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EVENT QUEUE 



November 1984 

• CONTINUING ENGINEER- 
ING EDUCATION-Continu- 

ing Engineering Education, 
George Washington Univer- 
sity, Washington, DC For a 
schedule, contact George 
Harrison, Continuing Engi- 
neering Education, George 
Washington University, 
Washington, DC 20052, (800) 
424-9773; in the District of 
Columbia, (202) 676-6106. 
November 

• DOCUMENTING COR- 
RECTLY— How to Document 
a Computer System, various 
sites throughout the US. A 
step-by-step tutorial for 
meeting the documentation 
objectives of any software- 
development project. The 
fee for this one-day seminar 
is $155. Contact Technical 
Communications Associates, 
Suite 210, 12 50 Oakmead 
Parkway Sunnyvale, CA 
94086, (800) 227-3800, ext. 
977; in California, (408) 
737-2665. November 

• STRUCTURED PRO- 
GRAMMING TIPS-Seminars 

from Ken Orr and Associ- 
ates, various sites through- 
out the U.S. Programs in- 
clude "Data Structured Sys- 
tems Development Method- 
ology" and "Structured 
Systems Planning." Contact 
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1725 Gage Blvd., Tbpeka, KS 
66604, (800) 2 55-2459; in 
Kansas, (913) 273-0653. 
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• TRENDS ADDRESSED 

CAP Gemini DASD Seminars, 
Saint Regis-Sheraton Hotel, 
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nars are scheduled this 
month: "Lamond on IBM," 
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Fourth Generation Lan- 
guages," and "Davies: 



Security for Computer Net- 
works" Contact CAP Gemini 
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wood Dr., POB 23767, Mil- 
waukee, WI 53223, (414) 
355-3405. November 

• BRUSH-UPS FOR ENGI- 
NEERS— Continuing Engi- 
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the course titles are "Work- 
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tions for Microcomputers" 
and "Hands-On Program- 
ming in Ada." Tuition ranges 
from $695 to $875. Contact 
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George Washington Univer- 
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(800) 424-9773; in the 
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676-6106. 
November-December 

• HI-TECH EXPLAINED 

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nars, various sites through- 
out the U.S. Among the 
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Fees range from $195 to 
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November-December 

m INDUSTRIAL ENGINEER 
PROGRAMS- 1984 Institute 
of Industrial Engineers' Con- 
tinuing Education Programs, 
various sites throughout the 
U.S. A complete listing is 
available from the Institute 
of Industrial Engineers, 2 5 



Technology Park/Atlanta, 
Norcross, GA 30092, (404) 
449-0460. 
November-December 

• INTEL WORKSHOPS 

Microcomputer Workshops, 
various sites throughout the 
U.S. and Canada. Intel, the 
semiconductor memory 
manufacturer, is offering 
more than 20 workshops on 
microprocessor applications. 
A brochure is available. Con- 
tact Customer Training, Intel 
Corp., 27 Industrial Ave., 
Chelmsford, MA 01824-3688, 
(617) 256-1374. 
November-December 

• LECTURE SERIES 

Montclair State College Col- 
loquium Lecture Series and 
the Nobel Laureate Lecture 
Series, Richardson Hall, 
Room W-117, Upper Mont- 
clair, NJ. Tbpics to be ad- 
dressed include "Industrial 
Applications of Input/Output 
Analysis" and "A History of 
Symmetry Principles in 
Physics." Admission is free. 
Contact Professor Gideon 
Nettler, Department of 
Mathematics and Computer 
Science, Montclair State Col- 
lege, Upper Montclair, NJ 
07043, (201) 893-4294. 
November-December 

• MANAGERS COACHED 
IN TECHNOLOGY-Facility 

Management Institute Edu- 
cational Programs, various 
sites throughout the U.S. 
Programs on the agenda in- 
clude "Impact of Office 
Automation on Facilities" 
and "Computer Aids to 
Facility Management." Con- 



IF YOU WANT your organization's public activities listed in BYTE's Event 
Queue, we need to know about them at least four months in advance. Send 
information about computer conferences, seminars, workshops, and courses 
to BYTE, Event Queue, POB 372, Hancock, NH 03449. 



tact Jinx Andrews, Facility 
Management Institute, 3971 
Research Park Dr., Ann 
Arbor, MI 48104, (313) 
994-0200. 
November-December 

• PROFESSIONAL EDUCA- 
TION— Seminars from the In- 
stitute for Professional 
Education, various sites in 
the U.S. Programs in statis- 
tics, management, simulation 
and modeling, personal 
computers, and computer 
science. Contact the Institute 
for Professional Education, 
POB 756, Arlington, VA 
22216, (703) 527-8700. 
November-December 

• TRAINING IN KNOWL- 

EDGEMAN— Training Semi- 
nars on KnowledgeMan. 
various sites throughout the 
U.S. A series of two-day 
training seminars on the 
KnowledgeMan information- 
management system for 
16-bit computers. Contact 
KnowledgeMan Training 
Coordinator, Micro Data 
Base Systems Inc., POB 248, 
Lafayette, IN 47906, (317) 
463-2581. 
November-December 

• CONFERENCES, MEET- 
INGS— Conferences and 
Meetings of the Institute of 
Electrical and Electronics 
Engineers, various sites 
throughout the U.S. and the 
world. A calendar of con- 
ferences and meetings com- 
plete with contact persons is 
available. Contact IEEE Com- 
puter Society, POB 639, 
Silver Spring, MD 20901, 
(301) 589-8142. 
November-January 

• DATA COMMUNICA- 
TIONS TAUGHT-Networks 

{continued) 



NOVEMBER 1984 • B Y T E 83 



Circle 8 on inquiry card. 



Peripheral Networking Now 



Buy ASCI Intelligent Port Expanders 

• Eliminate Manual Switching by Remote 
Control 

• Improve Productivity and Reliability 

• Share Printers, Modems or Plotters 

• Expand Computers or Terminals 

• Use Matrix Switching for Multiple Trans- 
mission or Security 

• Supports Polling and Queing 

INSTANT COMPATIBILITY with new computer devices 
and MAJOR OEM PRODUCTS: 

Altos — Burroughs — Data General — DEC 

H.P. — IBM — NCR — Northstar — Victor 

and other key manufacturers. 

Call 2 1 3-793-8979 to EXPAND YOUR SYSTEMS 






TODAY. 

'Advanced Systems Concepts Inc. 

435 N. Lake Ave., Dept bh 
Pasadena, CA 9 1 1 1 

800-824-7080 Telex: 701 215 



SPECIAL FEATURE 1 



SPECIAL FEATURE 2 



THE BEST FOR LESS $ 



Featuring the best, best value, or 


best reliability 


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IBM PC 64K Drive 


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128K 2 Drives 


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256K 2 Drives 


Call 


Leading Edge 128K 2 Drs 


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Tava 


$1620 


IBS 


$1350 


Compaq 


Call 



SPECIAL 
RETURNABLE POLICY 

Each month a selected best value 
computer system is available with a 
small premium for testing at the comfort 
of your office or home for 15 days. If the 
system is returned in 15 days in the 
original condition, we will deduct only 
the premium and shipping cost from the 
refund. 

Free UPS Ground Shipping for orders prepaid. 



Best Value Systems - Typical Configurations: 

C : High Resolution Monochrome Monitor. 2 Drives, Keyboard, DOS Basic 
DP=Dot Matrix Printer, C-ltoh. LP Letter Quality Printer, DX-15 
M = Multiplan, R1 = 128K Ram. R2=256K Ram. W=Word Processing-LE 



R1 R2 W DP LP 



'System integration 
and pretest included. 



M Price" 

1 X X S1800 

2 X X X Call 

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6 X XX 2189 

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Please call for other configurations Our customers havefound the calls worthwhile Call for other high 
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Fine Products at Affordable Prices. 



Order: 

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Store: 

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Hours 

Mon. - Fn. 

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Visa. MasterCard Retail prices slightly higher. Prices reflect cash discount, subject to change without 
'-.otice Offers subject to availability Add 2% for shipping, handling, and insurance. Add6°oTax for Calif 
residents Restocking charge for goods returned IBM. Leading Edge. Tava are trademarks 



EVENT QUEUE 



and Data Communications 
Short Courses, various sites 
throughout the U.S. A few of 
the courses to be held are 
"Introduction to Datacomm 
and Networks," "Designing 
Digital Communication Sys- 
tems," and "Configuring 
Distributed Processing Sys- 
tems." A catalog is available. 
Contact Integrated Computer 
Systems, 6305 Arizona 
Place, POB 4 5405, Los 
Angeles, CA 90045, (800) 
421-8166; in California, (800) 
352-8251 or (213) 417-8888. 
November-February 

• INFORMATION- 
PROCESSING SEMINARS 

New York University Semi- 
nars in Information Process- 
ing, various sites throughout 
the U.S. "Fundamentals of 
Data Processing for Ad- 
ministrative Assistants and 
Secretaries" and "Managing 
Systems Projects" are two of 
the seminars offered. For a 
calendar listing and more in- 
formation, contact School of 
Continuing Education, Semi- 
nar Center, New York Uni- 
versity, 575 Madison Ave., 
New York, NY 10022, (212) 
748-5094. 
November-February 

• LEARN PERSONAL COM- 
PUTING— New York Univer- 
sity Programs in Personal 
Computing, New York City. 
Continuing education credits 
can be earned as you learn 
about personal computers, 
application programs, lan- 
guages, communications, 
and microcomputer tech- 
nology. Fees and session 
lengths vary. A brochure is 
available. Contact New York 
University, School of Conti- 
nuing Education, Data Pro- 
cessing and Systems Analy- 
sis Institute, 327 Shimkin 
Hall, New York, NY 10003, 
(212) 598-7771. 
November-February 

• NETWORKS MADE 

CLEAR— Computer Seminars, 
various sites throughout the 
U.S. For catalog describing a 



series of seminars that cover 
computer databases and 
such applications as local- 
area networks and graphics, 
contact Technology Transfer 
Institute, 741 Tenth St., Santa 
Monica, CA 90402, (213) 
394-8305. 
November-February 

• MANAGEMENT 
COURSES OFFERED 

Courses from the American 

Management Association, 
various sites throughout the 
U.S. The American Manage- 
ment Association offers a 
wide variety of courses in 
such areas as information 
systems, office automation, 
and communications. A 
catalog outlines each course. 
Contact American Manage- 
ment Association, 135 West 
50th St., New York, NY 
10020, (212) 586-8100. 
November- April 

• MOTION CONTROL 

SEMINAR— Seminar from 
the Electronic Motion Con- 
trol Association, San lose, 
CA. Contact EMCA, Suite 
1200, 230 North Michigan 
Ave., Chicago, IL 60601, 
(312) 372-9800. 
November 12-13 

• PROGRAM WITH 

dBASE— dBASE: Program- 
ming and Advanced Tech- 
niques, Boston, MA. Topics 
to be addressed include 
testing, debugging, indexing 
considerations, and pro- 
gram, applications, and 
database design. The fee is 
$545. Contact Center for 
Advanced Professional Edu- 
cation, Suite 110, 1820 East 
Garry St., Santa Ana, CA 
92705, (714) 261-0240. 
November 13-14 

• INTERFACING IN 

INDUSTRY-Synergy '84: 
Functional Interfacing for 
Computer Integrated Manu- 
facturing, Conrad Hilton 
Hotel, Chicago, IL. Speakers 
and technical sessions. Con- 
tact Society of Manufactur- 
ing Engineers, One SME Dr., 



84 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



Circle 84 on inquiry card. 



EVENT QUEUE 



POB 930, Dearborn, MI 
48121, (313) 271-1500. 
November 13-15 

• X.25, PACKET NETS 

X.2 5 and Packet-Switching 
Networks, Atlanta, GA. This 
course will cover the inter- 
nal operations of the packet- 
switching network and its 
implementation. Interna- 
tional standards and X.2 5 in- 
terfaces will be discussed. 
TUition is $795. Contact 
Elaine Hadden Nicholas, 
Department of Continuing 
Education, Georgia Institute 
of Technology, Atlanta, GA 
30332-0385, (404) 894-2547. 
November 14-16 

• FALL COMDEX 

COMDEX/Fall, Las Vegas, 
NV. This is one of the 
largest and most prestigious 
trade shows in the micro- 
computer industry. Contact 
The Interface Group, 300 
First Ave., Needham, MA 
02194, (800) 325-3330; in 
Massachusetts, (617) 
449-6600. November 14-18 

• PROGRAM WITH 

dBASE-dBASE: Program- 
ming and Advanced Tech- 
niques, Hartford, CT See 
November 13-14 for details. 
November 15-16 

• WESTERN EDUCATORS 

MEET-The Eighth Annual 
Western Educational Com- 
puting Conference, Vacation 
Village, San Diego, CA. 
Refereed papers on com- 
puter science, humanities 
and the fine arts, CAI, ad- 
ministration, and research 
support. Contact Dr. Virginia 
S. Lashley, Glendale College, 
1 500 North Verdugo Rd., 
Glendale, CA 91208. 
November 15-16 

• FORTH CONVENTION 

The Sixth Annual FORTH 
Convention and Banquet, 
Hyatt Palo Alto, Palo Alto, 
CA. Contact FORTH Interest 
Group, POB 1105, San 
Carlos, CA 94070, (415) 
962-8653. November 16-17 



• FARM COMPUTER CON- 
FERENCE-The 1984 Purdue 
On-Farm Computer Use Con- 
ference and Trade Show, 
Purdue University West 
Lafayette, IN. Workshops will 
complement exhibits and 
conference sessions. Contact 
Continuing Education Busi- 
ness Office, Stewart Center, 
Room 110, Purdue Univer- 
sity, West Lafayette, IN 
47907. November 18-20 

• BRIEFING ON 
ADVANCED LANGUAGES 

Structured Techniques Using 
Fourth Generation Lan- 
guages, Palo Alto, CA. This 
seminar explains how struc- 
tured techniques and fourth- 
generation languages can be 
used. The fee is $795. Con- 
tact Software Institute of 
America Inc., 8 Windsor St., 
Andover, MA 01810, (617) 
470-3880. November 19-21 

• CANADIAN CON- 

FERENCE-Annual CIPS 
Computer Conference, Inter- 
national Centre, Toronto, On- 
tario, Canada. Speakers will 
address a variety of issues. 
Contact Canadian Informa- 
tion Processing Society, Fifth 
Floor, 243 College St., 
Toronto, Ontario M5T 2Y1, 
Canada, (416) 593-4040. 
November 19-22 

• COMPUTERS IN 
TORONTO— The Fifteenth 
Annual Canadian Computer 
Show and Conference, Inter- 
national Centre, Toronto, 
Ontario, Canada. Contact In- 
dustrial Trade Shows, 20 
Butterick Rd., Toronto, 
Ontario M8W 3Z8, Canada, 
(416) 252-7791. 

November 19-22 

• SHOW IN GERMANY 

Chip Microcomputer Weeks, 
Essen, West Germany. Micro- 
computer products, trends, 
and applications will be 
demonstrated. Sponsored by 
Chip, a leading German com- 
puter magazine. Contact 
Network GmbH, An der 

{continued) 



THE HARD ON€ 
IS RIGHT 
TO FIND! 



We've Got it at 



ALPHA OMEGA 



COCIPUTER PRODUCTS 




• TURBO 10 is designed for the IBM PC®, to 
achieve IBM PC/XT® capacity, and full PC/XT 
compatibility. 

• Access seek time 300% faster than IBM PC/XT®. 

• Ideal with the use of serious application pro- 
grams, such as Aston Tate™ dBase III and 
Framework, Lotus™ 1, 2, 3 and Symphony™, 
Micropro Wordstar, etc. . . 

•13 month defective exchange policy, covering 

both parts and labor. 
•TURB0 10 comes complete with all necessary 

interfacing and cables, and installation and user 

documentation. 

• Speed, Convenience, Affordability, and Reliability 
...at Alpha Omega Computer Products we put 

it all together for you. See our ad on Page 16. 



Contact your local dealer, 
and ask for the TURBO 10. 



!S3 345-4422 

18612 Ventura Blvd., Tarzana, CA 91356 



All products are pre- 
this period, defectiv 
subject to a 10% restc 
be an additional $4 s 



ed before delivery, and ar 
stums must accompany 
ng fee. Please include S6 1 
wqe on COD orders. Cat 



Circle 1 5 on inquiry card. 



NOVEMBER 1984 -BYTE 85 



Circle 186 on inquiry card. 



WOW! 







IBM PC 




SYMPHONY 




P 


$1399.95 




$364.95 




v^?^ ^ 


OKIDATA92 


dBASE 




^■^ '^^^ 




$384.95 




$259.95 








"PRINTER SPECIALS" 






Okldata92 


384 


Gemini 15X 


359 


Mannesman 160L 


554 


Okidata93 


584 


Radix 15 


554 


Juki6100 


369 


Okldata 32 


309 


Radix 10 


519 


Tractor 


114 


Okidata83 


524 


Powertype 


299 


Panasonic KXP 1091 


269 


Epson RXBO FT 


290 


Daisywriter 


764 


Panasonic KXP 1090 


199 


Epson RX80 


239 


BrolherHR15 


354 


Silver Reed EXP 550 


369 


Epson RX100 


479 


Brother HR25 


579 


Silver Reed EXP 500 


319 


Epson FX80 


414 


Brother HR35 


759 


Silver Reed EXP 770 


809 


Epson FX100 


629 


Keyboard 


129 


Prowriter8510 


319 


Epson LQ1500 


1129 


Tractor 


79 


StarwriterFTO 


869 


Toshiba 1351 


1279 


Cut Feed 


169 


Nee 3550 


1284 


Delta 10 


319 


Riteman Blue + 


284 


Teletex1014 


349 


Delia 15 


439 


Diablo620API 


689 


Televideo 186PS 


439 


Gemini 10X 


244 


Mannesman Spirit 80 


239 


OlympiaRO 


314 


IBM 

PC64K 
PC XT 
Portable 


1399 
3299 
2039 






ATARI 

800 XL 
1027 Printer 
1050 Drive 


169 
169 
169 


800-441-1144 


MONITORS 




Printer Card 


89 


Amdek 300 Green 


114 


Koala Pad 


79 


Tandon Drive 


169 


Amdek 300 Amber 


124 


Indus. Drive 


call 


Monitor Card 


139 


Color 1 + 


234 






Color Card 


169 


Color 2 + 


349 


SANYO 




IBM Monilor(GRN) 244 


Color 4 


549 


550 S.S. 


654 


Hercules Graphi 




310 Amber 


134 


550 DS 


659 


Master 


309 


BMC Green 


89 


555 S.S. 


859 


Koala Pad 


74 


Banana Green 


74 


555 DS 


969 


Tecmar Captain 


54 K 284 


Taxan2l0 


209 


CRT 30 


99 


AST Six Pack 


239 






CRT 36 


129 


Tallgrass 20 Mec 


2895 


APPLE 




CRT 70 


484 


Quad Board 


219 


2E w/Disk Drive 


889 


PR 5000 


444 






Macintosh 


1819 


PR 5500 


684 


COMMODORE 


Apple 2C 


939 






Commodoie64 


189 


Imagewriter 


499 


MODEMS 




1541 Disk Drive 


214 


Printer Card 


79 


Hayes 1200 


424 


1702 Monitor 


219 


CPM 2.2 Card 


109 


Hayes 1200B 


364 


MPS801 Printer 


179 


RGB Card 


124 


Hayes 300 


189 


1526 Printer 


224 


Addtl Drives from $99 


Micromodem 2E 


209 


Koala Pad 


69 


System Saver Fan 


69 


Access 123 


339 


1650 Modem 


89 


Koala Pad 


74 


Novation J-cat 


88 



HARMONY VIDEO & COMPUTERS 

2357 CONEY ISLAND AVE., BROOKLYN, NY 1 1223 

TO ORDER CALL TOLL FREE 

800-VI DE084 OR 718-627-1000 OR 800-441-1 144 




MICRO CONTROLLED 
DIGITAL DATA RECORDER 

FEATURES: 

Microprocessor controlled 

data buffering • Buffers 

data in RAM • Data 

comes in at any standard 

baud rate, plays back at 

any baud rate (switchable) 

• Tape runs only during 

block record/playback • 

RS232 input/output 110/ 

220 v ac or 12 v dc • 1.2 

MB per tape side • Uses chrome oxide audio cassettes • Has 

hold-off during playback via CTS line • No data hold-off during 

record. 

APPLICATIONS: 

PROCESS CONTROL • POINT OF SALE • TELEPHONE 
SWITCH LOGGING (SMDR) • INSTRUMENTATION • DIAG- 
NOSTIC SUPPORT • PROGRAM LOADING • DATA LOGGING. 

BUFFERED VERSION MODEL PD1-BF $595.00 

NON BUFFERED VERSION - MODEL PD-1 $335.00 



TO ORDER, DIAL: 
(201) 356-9200 




236 Lackland Drive 
Middlesex, N J. 08846 



EVENT QUEUE 



Friedenseiche 10, D-3050 
Wunstorf 2, Bundesrepublik 
Deutschland (West Ger- 
many); tel: (0 50 33) 10 56; 
Telex: 92 4 5 45. In England, 
Network Events Ltd., Printers 
Mews, Market Hill, Bucking- 
ham MK18 UX, England; tel: 
(02 80) 81 52 26; Telex: 
83111. November 20-22 

• PICK PRAISED IN 

AUSTRALIA— International 
Spectrum Pacific, Centre- 
point, Sydney, Australia. Ex- 
hibits by manufacturers of 
Pick-based systems and tech- 
nical seminars. In the U.S., 
contact International Spec- 
trum, Suite 210, 9740 Ap- 
paloosa Rd., San Diego, CA 
92131, (619) 578-3152. In 
Australia, International Spec- 
trum, POB 77, Gymea, New 
South Wales 2227; tel: (02) 
570-5505. November 21-23 

• SHANGHAI EXPOSITION 

The China International 
Microelectronics/Computer 
Exhibition and Conference, 
Shanghai, Peoples Republic 
of China. Integrated circuits, 
semiconductors, personal 
computers, minicomputers, 
peripherals, and software 
will be exhibited. Contact 
American Exhibition Ser- 
vices International Inc., POB 
66373, O'Hare International 
Airport, Chicago, IL 60666, 
(312) 593-2462, 
November 21-26 

• TRADE SHOW IN 

MOSCOW— Systemotronica 
'84, Sokolniki Exhibition 
Centre, Moscow, Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics. 
An international trade ex- 
hibition of office systems, 
electronics, and compo- 
nents. Contact Diisseldorfer 
Messegesellschaft mbH- 
NOWEA, POB 32 02 03, 
D-4000 Dusseldorf 30, 
Federal Republic of Ger- 
many; tel: (0211) 45 60-729; 
Telex: 8 584 853 mes d. 
November 22-30 

• CANADIAN ATLANTIC 

SHOW— Moncton Computer 



Exhibition '84, Moncton, 
New Brunswick, Canada. 
Home computers, video 
games, and office automa- 
tion equipment will be dis- 
played. Contact Anne 
LeBlanc, Commerce Building, 
University of Moncton, 
Moncton, New Brunswick 
E1A 3E9, Canada, (506) 
858-45 5 5. November 23-2 5 

• FORTH USERS MEET 
FORTH Modification Labora- 
tory Conference, Asilomar 
Conference Grounds, Pacific 
Grove, CA. Expert systems 
and artificial intelligence will 
be discussed. Registration is 
$2 50, which includes room, 
meals, and conference fees. 
Contact FORTH Interest 
Group, POB 1105, San 
Carlos, CA 94070, (415) 
962-8653. November 23-2 5 

• COMPUTERS IN CHINA 

Computer China, Xiamen 
Special Economic Zone, 
Peoples Republic of China. 
Contact Kallman Associates, 
5 Maple Court, Ridgewood, 
NJ 07450, (201) 652-7070. 
November 2 5-December 1 

• PICK PRAISED IN 

ENGLAND— International 
Spectrum Europe, Heathrow 
Penta Hotel, London, 
England. Exhibits by manu- 
facturers of Pick-based 
systems and technical semi- 
nars. In the U.S., contact In- 
ternational Spectrum, Suite 
210, 9740 Appaloosa Rd., 
San Diego, CA 92131, (619) 
578-3152. In England, Inter- 
national Spectrum, POB 32, 
Northwood, Middlesex HA6 
1HZ; tel: (04946) 71663. 
November 26-27 

• BUILD BUSINESS 
GRAPHICS— Computer 

Graphics for Business, Hyatt 
on Union Square, San Fran- 
cisco, CA. This seminar 
presents guidelines for 
selecting graphics hardware 
and software. Contact Tech- 
nology Transfer Institute, 741 
Tenth St., Santa Monica, CA 
[continued] 



86 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



Circle 325 on inquiry card. 




Until now your PC was 

missing an essential piece. 

Master Piece 




Introducing the only accessory your IBM® PC will ever need. 
The Master Piece is four accessories in one, offering your PC 
the protection and convenience it's been missing. 

SEE EYE TO EYE WITH 
YOUR IBM PC. 

The Master Piece 
provides a swivel for your 
monitor. This swivel lets you 
adjust the viewing angle of 
your monitor with just the 
touch of a finger. puJS YQUR EpmRE 

SYSTEM AT YOUR 
FINGERTIPS. 

Stop fumbling with 
cords and scrambling for 
outlets to plug in your 
peripherals. Stop lunging to 
the other side of the room 
* just to turn on your printer. 

™ The Master Piece functions 

as a five outlet power strip to organize all your power needs. 
Power up with the master switch, then use the individual 
switches to control your peripherals. Touch the master switch 
to shut down and the Master Piece makes sure you never 
accidentally leave your peripherals running overnight. 



m m b B b 



<ot 




POWER LINE PROBLEMS 
ARE NO PROBLEM. 

Surges, spikes and line 
noise are responsible for 
70-90% of PC malfunctions. 
They can wipe out memory 

in your PC, taking hours of hard work with them. That just 
costs you time. Even worse, they can zap your delicate 
chips, sending your PC in for repairs. That costs you money. 

The Master Piece stops power line problems dead. You 
end up with an IBM that's more accurate and more reliable. 

EVEN YOU ARE A THREAT 
TO YOUR IBM PC. 

During the course 
of an active day, you build 
up static electricity — just 
as much a threat as surges 
and spikes. Until now, the 
only solutions to static were unsightly floor mats or pads 
that fit under your computer. The Master Piece offers an 
elegant alternative. lust touch its nameplate before you 
begin work and all static charges are safely grounded. 

Master Piece, the most versatile, most convenient, 
most useful peripheral ever made for the IBM. In fact, you'll 
come to think of it as the piece your PC was missing. 
Special introductory price, $139.95 at most computer stores. 




^J KENSINGTON 

I iM microware 



Circle 235 on inquiry card. 
251 Park Avenue South, New York, NY 10010, (212) 475-5200, Telex: 467383 KML NY 






Trademarks: Master Piece/Kensington Microware, IBM/ International Business Machines. 



© !984 Kensington Microware Ltd. 





~Pol t 



aroid 





\ 




Now last minute presentations 

can be made from 

your personal computer. 

In color. In house. In minutes. 



Introducing Polaroid Palette. 



Whether your presentation is in 30 
minutes or 30 days, the new Polaroid 
Palette Computer Image Recorder will 
make it easier. Priced at under $1800* it 
lets you make Polaroid instant 35mm 
slides or prints from personal 
computer-generated data. Right at your 
desk. So now you can create a presen- 
tation in minutes. Without sending out 
for processing, paying premiums for 
rush service or risking the security of 
your confidential information. 

Works with the graphic s 

packages of die IBM PC or XX 

DEC Rainbow, Apple lie and 11+ 

as well as other pes. 

The Polaroid Palette is designed to 
work with many graphics software 
packages. In fact, when using such 
popular programs as Graphwriter, 
Chart-Master, Sign-Master, DR Draw 
and DR Graph, Palette can virtually 
double both the horizontal and vertical 
resolution of your monitor. Plus, a 

Circle 332 on inquiry card. 



"backfill" feature reduces raster lines 
for a smoother, more finished appear- 
ance. The result— presentation quality 
slides. On-the-spot. 

Color 35mm slides, even from a 
black and white CRT 
Think of it as an artist's palette. Be- 
cause P&lette "paints" your graphs, 
charts and text. You Ye choosing from 
up to 72 colors. If you don't want red, 
press a few keys— its green. And if 
you're not the artistic-type, Polaroid 
has developed a menu of color sets: 
combinations of colors that have been 
specially coordinated to complement 
your presentations. And all of this is 
yours, even if you have a black and 
white monitor. 

Lets you make last minute 

changes or add 

up-to-the-minute information. 

The Polaroid Palette is the fast, con- 
venient, low-cost way to prepare slides 
for your presentation. And perhaps 



even more important, Palette allows 
you to keep confidential information 
confidential. You won't have to send 
your work out to anyone again. 

So why wait until the last minute to 
find out about Polaroid Palette? Call 
this toll-free number or return this 
coupon. Because with Palette you'll 
make your deadlines, in no time. 
I 1 

For a demonstration, call toll-free, or mail the 
coupon to Polaroid Corp., E.I. Marketing, Dept. 
604, 575 Technology Sq., Cambridge, MA 02139. 

CALL 1-800-225-1618 

D Send information. □ Have representative call. 

B- 11/84 

Name Title 



Company - 

Address 

Citv 



- Zip- 



Telephone 1 

PC make and model- 



= Polaroid 



* Suggested list price. Polaroid* 
NOVEMBER 1984 • BYTE 89 




Jntversaf lor all standard parallel printers, 

amous for Graphics (loRes, HI8es> SuperRes) 
» Compatible) 

Terrific for text (even rotates spreadsheets to 
print sidewards) 

One set of commands for all printers. One 
command changes character stzea Create 
your own printing fonts, alphabets and sym- 
bols . . .bold face, underline, italics, subscript 
and superscript, HIRes Zooming. 



FREE Utility and Demon- 
stration Software Disk. 
CLEAR, comprehensive 
user documentation. 
PKASO/U . . for all the 
reasons you need an 
Interface 

Contact us for a list of Authorized Dealers near you. 




» 



Interactive Structures, Inc. 
146 Montgomery Avenue 
Bala Cynwyd, PA 49004 
Telephone: (215) 667-1713 



EVENT QUEUE 



90402, (2 13) 394-8305. 
November 26-28 

• MEET 20 PROGRAMS 

Production and Allocation 
Applications for the Per- 
sonal Computer, Atlanta, 
GA. More than 20 interac- 
tive management-science 
programs for MS-DOS-based 
machines will be demon- 
strated. Contact Elaine Had- 
den Nicholas, Department of 
Continuing Education, 
Georgia Institute of Tech- 
nology, Atlanta, GA 
30332-0385, (404) 894-2547. 
November 26-28 

• PREDICTING RELIABIL- 
ITY— The Twenty-Second An- 
nual Reliability Engineering 
and Management Institute, 
Ramada Inn, Tucson, AZ. 
This institute will emphasize 
system reliability prediction, 
reliability testing, and life- 
cycle costing. The fee is 
$750. Contact Dr. Dimitri 
Kececioglu, Reliability Engi- 
neering and Management In- 
stitute, Aerospace and 
Mechanical Engineering 
Department, Building 16, 
Room 200B, University of 
Arizona, Tucson. AZ 85721, 
(602) 621-6120. 

November 26-30 

• ROBOTICS IN WEST 

Robots-West, Anaheim Con- 
vention Center, Anaheim, 
CA. Robot manufacturers 
and component suppliers 
will exhibit their wares. Con- 
tact Robot Institute of 
America. POB 1366, Dear- 
born, MI 48121, (313) 
271-0778. November 27-29 

• ADMINISTER SOFTWARE 

PROJECTS— Managing the 

Development and Applica- 
tion of Computer Software, 
Atlanta, GA. Tbpics include 
establishing the need for a 
computer application, identi- 
fying computer software re- 
quirements, and managing 
the changes to established 
production and marketing 
baselines. The fee is $400. 
Contact Elaine Hadden 



Nicholas, Department of 
Continuing Education, 
Georgia Institute of Tech- 
nology, Atlanta, GA 
30332-0385, (404) 894-2 547. 
November 28-29 

• VERTICAL MARKETS 
CONFERENCE-Computer 

Vertical Markets, Sheraton 
Harbor Isle Hotel, San 
Diego, CA. Contact Carol 
Every, Frost & Sullivan Inc., 
106 Fulton St.. New York, 
NY 10038. (212) 233-1080. 
November 28-29 

• DEVELOP EFFECTIVE 
DOCUMENTATION-How to 

Develop Effective User 
Documentation, Somerset, 
NJ. This course covers 
preparation, planning, docu- 
mentation design, illustra- 
tions, graphics, quality 
assurance, and other topics. 
Class size is limited. Tuition 
is $850. Contact Human Per- 
formance Associates Inc., 13 
East Main St.. POB 297. 
Mendham. NJ 07945. (201) 
543-4333. November 28-30 

• LOCAL NETWORK 
COURSE-Local Area Net- 
works, Atlanta, GA. This 
course looks at the alter- 
native technical approaches 
on which local-area networks 
are based. The fee is $795. 
Contact Elaine Hadden 
Nicholas. Department of 
Continuing Education. 
Georgia Institute of Tech- 
nology, Atlanta, GA 
30332-0385, (404) 894-2547. 
November 28-30 

• SIMULATION CON- 
FERENCE— Winter Simula- 
tion Conference Sheraton 
Dallas Hotel, Dallas, TX. 
Papers, tutorials, sessions, 
and panel discussions will 
complement commercial ex- 
hibits. Contact Udo Pooch, 
Department of Computer 
Science, College of Engi- 
neering, Texas A&M Univer- 
sity, College Station. TX 
77843. (409) 845-5498. 
November 28-30 

{continued) 



90 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



Circle 218 on inquiry card. 



How to make your 
PC-XT multiply 




If you think that's no big deal, we'd 
like to introduce you to a multiplica- 
tion table you've never seen before. 

One PC-XT plus two terminals 
times one Pick System™ equals a 
three-user business system. 

Net result: a savings of about 
50% over the cost of three separate 
PC-XTs (which can't share data like 
we can, anyway). 

To explain in slightly greater 
detail, the Pick System transforms 



Circle 432 on inquiry card. 



a single-user PC-XT personal com- 
puter into a complete business 
computer system. 

If that's not enough— and for 
us it isn't— the Pick System also 
offers a built-in relational data base, 
a simple command language that 
uses everyday English words, and 
runs on hardware from micros to 
mainframes, from IBM® to Hewlett- 
Packard, and many more. 

Which shows you just three 
more examples of Pick Power, and 
how our 20 years of business experi- 
ence is ready to work for you. 

If you'd like to add to your 
awareness of the Pick System, con- 
tact any authorized Pick dealer. Ask 
him how the Pick System can make 
your PC-XT multiply, and he'll give 
you his undivided attention. 

The Pick 
System. 

Computer Ease, Not Computerese. 

For more information, call us toll-free at 1-800-FOR PICK. 
In California, call 714-261-7425. Dealer inquiries welcome. 

Pick System is a trademark of Pick Systems, © 1984 Pick Systems, 

NOVEMBER 1984 -BYTE 91 



Circle 24 on inquiry card. 



APROTEK 1000™ EPROM PROGRAMMER 



Cjjo 



only 
$250.00 




A SfMPLE INEXPENSIVE SOLUTION TO PROGRAMMING EPROMS 

The APROTEK 1000 can program 5 volt, 2 5XX series through 2564, 27XX 
series through 27256 and 68XX devices plus any CMOS versions of the above 
types. Included with each programmer is a personality module of your choice (others 
are only $10.00 ea. when purchased with APROTEK 1000). Later, you may re- 
quire future modules at only $15.00 ea., postage paid. Available personality 
modules: PM2716. PM2732, PM2732A, PM2764, PM2764A, PM27128, 
PM27256, PM2532, PM2564, PM68764 (includes 68766), (Please specify 
modules by these numbers). 

APROTEK WOO comes complete with a menu driven BASIC driver programmer 
listing which allows READ, WRITE, COPY, and VERIFY with Checksum. Easily 
adapted for use with IBM, Apple, Kaypro, and other microcomputers with a RS-232 
port. Also included is a menu driven CPM assembly language diiver listing with Z-80 
(DART) and 8080 (8251) I/O port examples. Interface is a simple 3-wire RS-232C 
with a female DB-25 connector. A handshake character is sent by the programmer 
after programming each byte. The interface is switch selectable at the following 
6 baud rates: 300, 1 ,2k, 2.4k, 4.8k, 9.6k and 19.2k baud. Data format for program- 
ming is "absolute code", (i.e., it will program exactly what it is sent starting at 
EPROM address 0). Other standard downloading formats are easily converted to 
absolute (object) code. 

The APROTEK 1000 is truly universal. It comes standard at 1 1 7 VAC 50/60 HZ 
and may be internally jumpered for 220-240 VAC 50.60 AZ. FCC verification 
(CLASS B) has been obtained for the APROTEK 1000. 

A PROTEK 1000 is covered by a 1 year parts and labor warranty. 

FINALLY — A Simple, Inexpensive Solution To Erasing EPROMS 



APROTEK-200™ EPROM ERASER 

Simply insert one or two EPROMS 

and switch ON. In about 10 minutes, 

you switch OFF and are ready to 

reprogram. 

APROTEK-200™ only $45.00. 



APROTEK-300™ only $60.00. 
This eraser is identical to APROTEK 
200™ but has a built-in timer so that the 
ultraviolet lamp automatically turns off in 
10 minutes, eliminating any risk of overex- 
posure damage to your EPROMS. 
APROTEK-300™ only $60.00. 



APROPOS TECHNOLOGY 

1071 A Avenrda Acaso, Camarillo, CA 93010 

CALL OUR TOLL FREE ORDER LINES TODAY: 

1 {800) 962-5800 USA or 1 (800) 962-3800 CALIFORNIA 

TECHNICAL INFORMATION: 1-{805) 482-3604 

Add Shipping Per Item: $3.00 Cont. U.S. $6.00 CAN, Mexico, HI, AK, UPS Blue 



Now Your 

Computer 

Can See! 

$9oe oo* 




MicronEye™ 

"Bullet" 



A total imaging system complete 
and ready for plug -and -go opera- 
tion with your personal computer. 

The MicronEye'" offers select- 
able resolution modes of 256 x 128 
and 128 x 64 with operating speeds 
up to 15 FPS. An electronic shutter 
is easily controlled by software or 
manual functions, and the included sample programs allow you to con- 
tinuously scan, freeze frame, frame store, frame compare, print and pro- 
duce pictures in shades of grey from the moment you begin operation. 

Only the MicronEye"' uses the revolutionary IS32 OpticRAAV" image 
sensor for automatic solid state image digitizing, with capability for grey- 
tone imaging through multiple scans. And with these features, the 
MicronEye'" is perfectly suited for graphics input, robotics, text and 
pattern recognition, security, digitizing, automated process control and 
many other applications. 

The MicronEye™ is available with immediate delivery for these com- 
puters: Apple II, IBM PC, Commodore 64 and the TRS-80CC (trademarks of 

Apple Computer Inc., International Business Ma- 
chines, Commodore Corp.. and Tandy Corp. 
respectively). 

Phone for Micron Eye T " information 
on the Macintosh, Tl PC and RS232 

(trademarks of Apple Computer Inc. and Texas In- 
struments respectively.) 

*(Add 510,00 for shipping and handling (Federal 
Express Standard Air}; residents of the following 
states must add sales tax: AK. AZ, CA, CO. CT, FL, 
GA, 1A, ID, IL IN, LA, MA, MD, ME, Ml, MM. MC, ME, 
MJ, MY. OH. PA. SC, TN, TX, LIT, VA, VT, WA, Wl.) 



IICRON 

ITECHNOLOGY, INC. 

VISION SYSTEMS 
2805 East Columbia Road 
Boise, Idaho 83706 
(208) 383-4106 
TWX 910-970-5973 



EVENT QUEUE 



• STATISTICS SKILLS 
TUTORED— Forecasting and 

Statistical Applications for 
the Personal Computer, 
Atlanta, GA. Areas of con- 
centration include regression 
techniques, smoothing tech- 
niques, multiple sample tests 
(ANOVA), and contingency 
tables. The fee is $550. Con- 
tact Elaine Hadden Nicholas, 
Department of Continuing 
Education, Georgia Institute 
of Technology, Atlanta, GA 
30332-0385, (404) 894-2547. 
November 28-30 

• KIDS SHOW 

Bits & Bytes, Disneyland 
Convention Center, 
Anaheim, CA. This con- 
ference and exposition at- 
tempts to show educators, 
parents, and children how to 
use computers in the home 
and classroom. Contact In- 
formation Processing Group. 
Suite 1 1 3-1 50, 3 50 South 
Lake Ave., Pasadena, CA 
91101. (818) 792-5111. 
November 30-December 2 



December 1984 

• dBASE. LOTUS 
DEMYSTIFIED-dBASE II 
and Lotus 1-2-3 Seminars, 
various sites throughout the 
U.S. Both seminars stress 
the practical applications of 
these two popular pro- 
grams. The fee is $245 each 
or $450 for both. Contact 
Software Institute of 
America Inc., 8 Windsor St., 
Andover, MA 01810. (617) 
470-3880. December 

m REFRESHERS FOR 

ENGINEERS— Continuing 
Engineering Education, San 
Diego, CA, and Washington, 
DC. Courses include "Fre- 
quency Synthesis," "Fiber 
Optic Communications," and 
"Foundations of Modern 
Telecommunications Sys- 
tems." Fees range from 
$695 to $920. Contact Con- 
tinuing Engineering Educa- 
tion, George Washington 



University, Washington, DC 
20052, (800) 424-9773; in 
the District of Columbia, 
(202) 676-8530. 
December-January 

• TELECOMMUNICATIONS 
CONFERENCES-Telecom- 

munications Programs, 
various sites throughout the 
U.S. "Finding Telecom- 
munications Information" 
and "Satellite Technology 
for the Nontechnical 
Manager" will be offered. 
Contact Phillips Publishing 
Inc., Suite 1200N, 7315 
Wisconsin Ave., Bethesda, 
MD 20814, (301) 986-0666. 
December-January 

• INFO PROCESSING 
SEMINARS-New York 
University Seminars in Infor- 
mation Processing, various 
sites throughout the U.S. 
Seminars to be held include 
"Fundamentals of Informa- 
tion Processing for Nontech- 
nical Executives," "The 
Management of Technical 
Personnel," and "Managing 
the Data Center." Contact 
New York University, School 
of Continuing Education, 
Seminar Center, 575 
Madison Ave., New York, 
NY 10022, (212) 580-5200. 
December-March 

• SIMULATION PROGRAM 
EXPLAIN ED-Short Course 
on MAP/1 Simulation Soft- 
ware, West Lafayette, IN. 
MAP/1 is a simulation-based 
modeling and analysis pro- 
gram that can be used to 
design and evaluate discrete 
manufacturing systems. Con- 
tact Pritsker & Associates 
inc., POB 2413, West 
Lafayette, IN 47906, (317) 
463-5557. December 4-5 

• ENGINEERING 
CONFERENCE-The 1984 
Western Design Engineering 
Show/ASME Western Design 
Engineering Conference, 
Moscone Center, San Fran- 
cisco, CA. Exhibitors, con- 
ferences, and short courses. 

{continued) 



92 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



Circle 275 on inquiry card. 






EPSON a " models! 



RX/FX and 
LQ1500 



5^°° 92/93!! 

OKIDATA 



ibm pc $1449 

with 2 drives 2"" ■ ^***& 

s 1795 



1 drive 64K 



256K, 10 mg. hard disk 
1 -360Kb drive Only 



IBM XT 

, $ 3695 



WORDSTAR pro pack 

• Wordstar 

• Correct Star <^ O * 

• Star Index ^ 

• Mail Merge 



249 



COMPUTERS 



IBM PC & XT... See special above!!! 

COLUMBIA w $3000 retail software' 

VP Portable -256K ridiculously 

1600-1 2 drives low!!! 

1600-4 Hard Disk please call!! 

VISUAL COMMUTER New 16 lb. IBM 

Compatible 256K, 2 drives SCall 



"} ( PRINTERS ) 



c 



MONITORS 



J 



IBM MONOCHROME 259 

COLOR 589 

AMOEK 30QG 129 

300A 145 

310A 165 

GORILLA Composite monochrome . Sale! 

Green or Amber ., , 85 

TAXAN 12" Green 114 

12" Amber 117 

420 RGB 439 

PRINCETON HX-12 467 

SR-12 649 

MAX-12 184 

ZENITH 122-12" G 93 

12" A.. 93 

..169 
.446 



124 MONO -IBM.. 
133 RGB.. 



1 3 5 RGB/COMP 475 

( MODEMS ) 

HAYES 300 199 

1200.. 



""•DOT MATRIX"*" 

EPSON RX 80 100 cps 289 

RX 80 FT 100 cps 319 

RX 100 100 cps. 132 col 522 

FX BO 160 cps best price 

FX 100 160 cps. 132 col in 

LQ 1500 200 cps NEW! magazine 

OKIDATA 82A83/84 Save 

92P ....All 

93P Models 

2410 Drastically Reduced!! 

GEMINI 10-X 258 

15-X 369 

C-ITOH PROWRITER 324 

"'"DAISY WHEEL""* 

PRIMAGE I 55 cps, SER/PARR 1395 

w Cut Sheet Feeder 1695 

BROTHER DAISY WHEEL 

HR-15 ..359 

HR-25 598 

HR-35 (36 cpsl 969 

JUKI 6100 419 

DTC 380 Z 949 

DIABLO 620 829 

36 .1276 

630 1689 

TTX 1014 SER PAR TRACTOR 360 

DYNAX DX-15 359 

SILVER REED 550P 560 

NEC 3550 1645 

QUME 559 



120GB IBM INTERNAL .. 

MICROMODEM II E 

ANCHOR MARK XII 



398 



c 



DRIVES 



J 



..229 
..259 



IBM 360 KB 219 

TANDON 100-2 360KB 185 

PANASONIC Vi HI-360 KB 149 



TEAC "2 HI-260 KB 

SHUGART 54 HI-360 KB 

EVEREX 10 MG H.D. WCONTRL 
ATARI INDUS GT 


.... 159 
.... 149 
.... 798 
.... 349 


( IBM SOFTWARE 


) 


"'"SPREADSHEETS 

FRAMEWORK Monthly Special 

MANAGING YOUR MONEY 

SUPERCALC 3 


399 

.... 138 
.... 228 


MULTIPLAN 


.... 136 


"'IBM WORDPROCESSORS 

WORDSTAR PRO PACK 

PFS WRITE 


249 

84 


MULTIMATE 


.... 249 


WORD W MOUSE 

VOLKSWRITER DELUXE 

PEACHTREE SOFTWARE all 

"•IBM DATA BASE'" 
dBASE II 


.... 269 
.... 159 

. SCall 

.... 284 


dBASE III 


....399 


PFS FILE 


...... 84 


CONDOR III 


.... 249 


R-BASE 4000 


.... 279 


FRIDAY 


.... 179 


"'IBM MISC" 
CROSSTALK . 


.... 104 


COPY II PC 


29 


MASTERTYPE 


37 


PROKEY 3.0 


79 


HARVARD PROJECT MGR 

SIDEWAYS ,. 


.... 245 

45 


NORTON UTILITIES 

PFS REPORT 


55 

79 


DOW JONES ANALYST 

SET FX + 


....219 
47 


"'IBM GAMES'" 
FLIGHT SIMULATOR 


34 



PINBALL .. 



THINKTANK .. 
FROGGER .... 

ULTIMA HI 

ZORK . 



GATO SUB SIMULATOR . 



,129 
... 28 
... 35 
.... 35 

.... 35 



( IBM -BOARDS ) 



( APPLE -BOARDS ) 

ORANGE MICRO GRAPPLER 113 

BUFFERED 168 

MICROMAX GRAPHMAX 99 

.. 139 
..189 
.... 75 



HERCULES GRAPHICS .... 
HERCULES COLOR New 1 . 

AST SIX PAK W 64K 

MEGAPLUS 



..315 
..199 



VIEWMAX 80E W 64K 

MICROSOFT 16 RAM CARD . 
SOFTCARD .. 



STB GRAPHIX PLUS .. 



259 

322 

EVEREX GRAPHIC EDGE Low!! 

H.D. CONTROLLER 299 

MAJIC CARD Low!! 

QUADRAM QUADBOARD W 64K 269 

QUADBOARD I 199 

QUADLINK 449 

IBM MONOCHROME 249 

COLOR GRAPHICS 219 

PLANTRONICS COLOR PLUS 358 

MA SYSTEMS PC PEACOCK 

GRAPHICS 235 

TECMAR GRAPHICS MASTER 475 

( IBM ACCESSORIES) 



64K RAM CHIPS 200ns .. 

150ns .. 

IBM KEYBOARDS .. 



..45 
..45 



SOFTCARD PREMIUM PAK 475 

( ACCESSORIES ) 

PRINTER RIBBONS ail makes Low!!! 

64K RAM chips SALE 45 

VERBATIM SS'DD diskettes 21 

DS/DD diskettes 28 

DYSAN SS/DD diskettes 26 

DS/DD diskettes 34 

DISK MINDER-PLEXI (75) 29 

DISK MINDER W KEY (100) 34 

SURGE PROTECTOR Compugard 69 

PTI POWER BACK-UP 200 w 329 

300 w 549 

FINGERPRINTS -EPSON all model's'.. 48 

PRINTER DUST COVER all models 10 

MONI-BASE Monitor Stands 22 

COMPUTER PAPER all makes Low!!! 

PRINTER STANDS Plexiglass 29/39 

COMPILERS SCall 



KEYTRONICS 5151 NEW! 199 

5150 189 

MICRO-SOFT MOUSE low!!! 

MOUSE SYSTEM-MOUSE 139 

KOALA PAD 85 

KRAFT JOYSTICKS 45 



C 



ATARI/C-64 



d 



ACCESSORIES low, low CALL!! 

C-64 CARDCO +G 79 

ATARI MP1150 94 

APE FACE 69 

PRINTER INTERFACES all SCall 



QUADRAM 384K 

QUADBOARD 



W/64K 
RAM 



$249 



AST $229 
SIX PAK PLUS 

$249 



w64K 
RAM 



FRAMEWORK 

^SHTON-TAIE 



$399 



EVEREX 
GRAPHICS EDGE 

MONO AND COLOR 
ON A MONO MONITOR. 



SHUGART 

1 / 2 Hi-Drives $ 149 
IBM™ $94 Q 

360Kb drvs. £ I 9 




Circle 63 on inquiry card. 













• ••• •••••#! 



A Leader In 

Medical and Dental 

Systems 

• Appointment Scheduling 

• Private Patient Billing 

• Third Party Claim Form Preparation 

• Medical Diagnostic Records 

• Word Processing 

• Continuous Financial History 



WANG 



MS-DOS, 



^ 



^cippkz 







MICRO COMPUTER DIVISION 

55722 SANTA FE TRAIL 
Yucca Valley, Ca. 92284 

(619) 365-9718 







STOP DUST . 



The leading 



cause of 



computer 



maintenance 



problems! 



COMPUTER 
COVER CAN 
SAVE YOU 
COMPUTER 
MAINTENANCE 
COSTS! 



DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



COMPUTER COVERS 

Washable covers to fit the Apple 11/ lie, III and IBM. 
Attractive sable brown suede cloth with beige trim or soft 
beige with brown trim. 

Brown Beige ITEM 



D 


a 


$35 CPU/ Keyboard cover 
in one 


and monitor 


a 


a 


$24 CPU Keyboard cover 




a 


a 


$14 dual disk drive 




a 


a v 


$12 single disk drive 




Brown 


Beige 


ITEM 


W/D 



D □ $18 Printer 15x12 

□ D $22 Printer 16% x 14Va 

D □ $26 Printer 24" x 13V!" 

ALSO AVAILABLE D $35 IBM CPU/Keyboard monitor 
cover set. CA RESIDENTS ADD 6% SALES TAX. 

Name . 



City, State. Zip _ 

Card* 

Exp. Date 



□ Check □ Money Order 
D VISA D MasterCard 



Covers by Babette, 42 Caledonia St., I 

L__- Sausaltro, CA 94965 1-800-621-0851 ext. 231 -.--J 



EVENT QUEUE 



Contact Show Manager, 
Western Design Engineering 
Show, 999 Summer St., 
Stamford, CT 06905, (203) 
964-8287. December 4-6 

• SNA EXPLAINED 

Systems Network Architec- 
ture. Atlanta, GA. Systems 
Network Architecture (SNA), 
IBM's design for an end-to- 
end communications net- 
work, is investigated. Course 
fee is $795. Contact Elaine 
Hadden Nicholas, Depart- 
ment of Continuing Educa- 
tion, Georgia Institute of 
Technology, Atlanta, GA 
30332-0385, (404) 894-2547. 
December 4-6 

• COMPUTER MANAGE- 
MENT CONFERENCE-CMG 

XV, San Francisco, CA. In- 
troductory and advanced 
tutorials, lectures, and prod- 
uct displays. Contact The 
Computer Measurement 
Group Inc., POB 26063, 
Phoenix, AZ 85068, (602) 
995-0905. December 4-7 

• BUSINESS SOFTWARE 

Software Connection, Col- 
iseum, New York City. This 
computer software exposi- 
tion focuses on business ap- 
plications. For more informa- 
tion, contact Conference 
Management Corp., 17 
Washington St., Norwalk, CT 
06854, (203) 852-0500. 
December 5-7 

• VIDEO, OPTICAL DISKS 
GATHERING-The Fourth 
Annual Videodisc, Optical 
Disk, and CD-ROM Con- 
ference, Washington Hilton 
Hotel, Washington, DC More 
than 30 sessions will delve 
into interactive videodiscs, 
digital optical disks, and CD- 
ROMs (compact disks). Com- 
plementary exhibits. Contact 
Meckler Communications, 
520 Riverside Ave., West- 
port, CT 06880, (203) 
226-6967. December 5-7 

• GOLDEN STATE SHOW 

California Computer Show, 
Hyatt Hotel Palo Alto, CA. 



Products and technology for 
OEMs and sophisticated end 
users will be displayed by 
more than 65 companies. 
Contact Norm DeNardi 
Enterprises, Suite 204, 289 
South San Antonio Rd., Los 
Altos. CA 94022, (415) 
941-8440. December 6 

• SHOW IN FLORIDA 

The Great Southern Business 
and Computer Shows and 
Seminars, Leon County Civic 
Center, Tallahassee, FL. Com- 
puter hardware, software, 
peripherals, accessories, and 
word- and data-processing 
equipment will be featured. 
Contact Great Southern 
Computer Shows, POB 65 5, 
Jacksonville, FL 32201, (904) 
3 56-1044. December 6-8 

• STRATEGIC ISSUES 
CONSIDERED-The 1984/ 
1985 Strategic Issues Con- 
ference, Americana Canyon 
Hotel, Palm Springs, CA. The 
theme for this conference is 
"Positioning for Success in 
the New Computer Market." 
A keynote address will be 
delivered by John Sculley, 
president and chief ex- 
ecutive officer of Apple 
Computer Inc. Contact 
Corky Holden, Info Corp., 
20833 Stevens Creek Blvd., 
Cupertino, CA 95014-2107, 
(408) 973-1010. 

December 10-13 

• FIFTH GENERATION 
COMPUTERS-Fifth Genera- 
tion and Super Computers: 
An International Symposium, 
Rotterdam, The Netherlands. 
Lectures and panel discus- 
sions will be featured. Pro- 
totypes of several Japanese 
machines are expected to 
be shown for the first time 
outside Japan. Contact Fifth 
Generation and Super Com- 
puters Symposium 1984, 
Rotterdam Tourist Office, 
Stadhuisplein 19, 3012 AR 
Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 
tel: (010) 14 14 00; Tfelex: 
21228 vvvnl. 

December 11-13 

{continued) 



94 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



Circle 35 on inquiry card. 




Panasonic 
Printers. 

We help you 

get it out of 

your system. 







/ 



Panasonic can help you get the maximum performance 
from your computer system. The computer has the cap- 
abilities you need, but to get the most out of the system, 
a quality professional printer is vital. 

And that's a Panasonic printer. 

Look to Panasonic for a full line of printers, compatible 
with most popular computer systems. They feature 
speedsof upto180cps, correspondence and near-letter 
quality, graphics capabilities, bi-directional printing with 
logic-seeking capabilities, proportional printing, carriages 
accepting paper 4" to 15" wide, cartridge ribbons, and 
adjustable tractor and friction feeds. 

At Panasonic, we're very serious about the perfor- 
mance of our printers. Their reliability and our extensive 



service network are a direct result of our commitment to 
quality. We offer a one-year limited warranty*, a nation- 
wide regional technical support network, and a toll free 
number. When you use a Panasonic printer, you have an 
established high tech manufacturer behind you. 

It's our business to offer you high quality peripherals - 
printers, computer displays, plotters, and data entry ter- 
minals. Find out how Panasonic can help you get it out of 
your system. Contact: Computer Products Division, 
Panasonic Industrial Company, Division of Matsushita 
Electric Corporation of America, One Panasonic Way, 
Secaucus, N.J. 07094. Call TOLL FREE 800-222-0584, 
in New Jersey (201 ) 348-5337. 

Panasonic 

Industrial Company 



M-Year Limited Warranty. (Carry-in or mail-in service.) 

Atlanta, GA-(404) 925-6830; Chicago, IL- (31 2) 364-7900; Dallas, TX- (2 



ress,CA-(714)895-7413. 



EVENT QUEUE 



• DEC SHOW 

DEXPO West 84, The Sixth 
National DEC-Compatible In- 
dustry Exposition, Disney- 
land Hotel, Anaheim, CA. 
Products and services that 
support Digital Equipment 
Corporation's machines will 
be displayed, Contact Ex- 
poconsul International Inc., 
55 Princeton-Hightstown Rd., 
Princeton Junction, NJ 
08550, (609) 799-1661. 
December 11-14 

• TECHNOLOGY UP- 

DATE-Hi-Tech Update '84, 
Delta Ottawa Hotel, Ottawa, 
Ontario, Canada. A series of 
presentations designed to 
inform senior management, 
engineers, and consultants. 
Sponsored by the Carleton 
University Faculty of Engi- 
neering. For further details, 
contact Conference Coll Inc., 
II 38 Sherman Dr., Ottawa, 



Ontario K2C 2M4, Canada, 
(613) 224-1741. 
December 12-13 

• EDUCATIONAL COMPUT- 
ING— The Second Annual 
International Computers in 
Education Conference, 
Queen Elizabeth Hotel, 
Montreal, Quebec, Canada. 
More than 100 exhibitors 
and 12 5 speakers will par- 
ticipate in conferences spon- 
sored by the McGill Univer- 
sity Faculty of Education. 
For more information, con- 
tact GEMS Conference and 
Consulting Services, POB 
367, Snowdon, Montreal, 
Quebec H3X 3T6, Canada, 
(514) 735-1388. 

December 12-14 

• COMPUTERS AND 
SOFTWARE-The Fourth An- 
nual Southeast Computer 
Show and Software Exposi- 



ii 



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•Mother Board with 2 Serial & 1 Parallel 
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tion, Civic Center, Atlanta, 
GA. Contact CompuShows, 
POB 33 1 5, Annapolis, MD 
2I403, (800) 368-2066; in 
Annapolis, (301) 263-8044; 
in Baltimore. (301) 269- 
7694; in the District of Co- 
lumbia, (202) 261-1047. 
December 13-16 

• CAD/CAM SEMINAR 

Carl Machover on CAD/CAM, 
Cathedral Hill Hotel, San 
Francisco, CA. Contact Carol 
Every, Frost & Sullivan Inc., 
106 Fulton St., New York, 
NY 10038, (212) 233-1080. 
December 17-19 

• BRIEFING ON 
ADVANCED LANGUAGES 

Structured Techniques Using 
Fourth Generation Lan- 
guages, Dallas, TX. See 
November 19-21 for details. 
December 18-20 

• BUSINESS GRAPHICS 
SEMINAR— Carl Machover 
on Business Graphics, 
Cathedral Hill Hotel, San 
Francisco, CA. Contact Carol 
Every, Frost & Sullivan Inc., 
106 Fulton St., New York, 
NY 10038, (212) 233-1080. 
December 20-21 



January 1985 

• HANDS-ON LEARNING 

Hands-On Computer Semi- 
nars, Wintergreen, VA. 
Seminars offered are "Intro- 
duction to Personal Com- 
puting," "Word Process- 
ing/Information Manage- 
ment," and "Spreadsheet- 
ing/Graphing." Each spans a 
four-day period and pro- 
vides 14 hours of hands-on 
practice. Rates, which in- 
clude lodging and ski-lift 
tickets, vary from $570 to 
$975, depending on accom- 
modations. Contact Dr. 
M. D. Corcoran, Wintergreen 
Learning Institute, POB 7, 
Wintergreen, VA 22958, 
(800) 32 5-2200; in Virginia, 
(804) 32 5-1107. 
January-March 



• SYSTEM SCIENCE 
EXAMINED-The Eighteenth 
Annual Hawaii International 
Conference on System 
Sciences: HICSS-18, Hono- 
lulu, HI. A series of con- 
ferences devoted to ad- 
vances in information and 
system sciences. Major topic 
areas are hardware, soft- 
ware, decision-support and 
knowledge-based systems, 
and medical information 
processing. Contact Nem B. 
Lau, HICSS-18 Conference 
Coordinator, Center for Ex- 
ecutive Development, Col- 
lege of Business Administra- 
tion, University of Hawaii, 
2404 Maile Way, C-202, 
Honolulu, HI 96822, (808) 
948-7396. 

]anuary 2-4 

• GIZMOS GALORE 

Consumer Electronics Show, 
Convention Center, Las 
Vegas, NV One of the 
largest shows of consumer 
electronics products. Contact 
Consumer Electronics Office, 
Suite 300, 2001 Eye Street 
NW, Washington, DC 20006, 
(202) 457-8700. 
January 5-8 

• MANAGE RESOURCES 

WISELY— Managing Com- 
puter Resources, Winter- 
green, VA. Focuses on net- 
working, system design, per- 
formance evaluation, and 
operational difficulties en- 
countered by managers and 
executives. Rates include 
lodging and ski-lift tickets 
and vary from $570 to $769 
depending on accommoda- 
tions. Contact Dr. M. D. Cor- 
coran, Wintergreen Learning 
Institute, POB 7. Winter- 
green, VA 22958, (800) 
32 5-2200; in Virginia, (804) 
32 5-1107. January 7-11 

• STERLING COMPUTER 

SHOW-The Fourth Annual 
Sauk Valley Computer Club 
Computer Show, Northland 
Mall, East Lincolnway, Sterl- 
ing, IL. Businesses, schools, 
and users groups from the 
area will display and dem- 



96 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



Circle 203 for Dealer Inquiries. 
Circle 204 for End-User Inquiries. 



EVENT QUEUE 



onstrate computers and 
related services. Admission 
is free. Contact Sauk Valley 
Computer Club, POB 702, 
Sterling, IL 61081, 
lanuary 12-13 

• THINKING OF SOFT- 
WARE— The Second Annual 
International Software Up- 
date, Kahala Hilton Hotel, 
Oahu, HI. Speakers from the 
U.S., Europe, and Pacific 
Rim nations will discuss 
trends, current difficulties, 
possible solutions to 
marketing problems, and 
the future of software. At- 
tendance is limited. Contact 
Raging Bear Productions 
Inc., Suite 175, 21 Tamal 
Vista Dr., Corte Madera, CA 
94925. (800) 732-2300; in 
California, (415) 924-1 194. 
lanuary 14-18 

• SCSI DEVELOPMENTS 

Small Computer Systems In- 
terface (SCSI) Forum, Fort 
Lauderdale, FL. A seminar 
and exhibit devoted to SCSI 
controllers and peripherals. 
Contact Mr. }. Molina, SCSI 
Forum Ltd., POB 262 5, Po- 
mona. CA 91768-2625, (213) 
410-3952. lanuary 15 

• COMMUNICATIONS 
INDUSTRY CONFERS 

COMMTEX International and 
The 1985 NAVA, Conven- 
tion Center, Anaheim, CA. 
COMMTEX features audio- 
visual, video, and microcom- 
puter products for business, 
education, and government. 
NAVA, the conference and 
convention of the Interna- 
tional Communications In- 
dustries Association, is 
made up of numerous semi- 
nars, general sessions, and 
special-interest group 
meetings. Contact Interna- 
tional Communications In- 
dustries Association, 3150 
Spring St., Fairfax, VA 
22031-2399, (703) 273-7200. 
lanuary 1 6-2 1 

• OPTICAL ENGINEERING 
SYMPOSIUM-The 1985 
Symposium on Optical and 



Electro-Optical Engineering 
and Instrument Exhibit, Mar- 
riott Hotel, Los Angeles, CA 
This symposium, sponsored 
by the International Society 
of Photo-Optical Instrumen- 
tation Engineers (SPIE), is 
made up of conferences, ex- 
hibits, and tutorial short 
courses. Contact SPIE, POB 
10, Bellingham, WA 
98227-0010. January 20-2 5 

• UNIX USERS UNITE 

The 1985 UniForum: The In- 
ternational Conference of 
UNIX System Users, Info- 
mart, Dallas, TX. More than 
400 companies are expected 
to exhibit UNIX-related 
equipment. A conference 
program is planned. Uni- 
Forum, sponsored by the 
/usr/group, will be held in 
conjunction with the grand 
opening of Dallas's Interna- 
tional Information Process- 
ing Market Center (Infomart). 
Contact Professional Exposi- 
tion Management Co., Suite 
205, 2400 East Devon Ave., 
Des Plaines, IL 60018, (800) 
323-5155; in Illinois, (312) 
299-3131. lanuary 21-25 

• NETWORK CON- 
FERENCE, EXPO-The 

Seventh Annual Communica- 
tions Networks Conference 
and Exposition, Convention 
Center, Washington, DC 
Contact Communications 
Networks 1985, POB 880, 
Framingham, MA 01701, 
(800) 22 5-4698; in Massa- 
chusetts (617) 879-0700. 
January 29-31 

• PAN AMERICAN CON- 
FERENCE— The First Inter- 
national Information Man- 
agement Congress Pan 
American Conference, 
Caribe Hilton International 
Hotel, San Juan, Puerto Rico 
Seminars and product ex- 
hibits on advanced micro- 
graphics and office automa- 
tion. Contact IMC Pan 
American Conference, POB 
34404, Bethesda, MD 20817, 
(301) 983-0604. 

lanuary 30-31 ■ 



LMC's 
32-Bit Virtual 
Memory MegaMicro 
Is The-State-Of-The-Art 
UNIX Microcomputer 



LMC's 32 -bit MegaMicro provides mainframe 
or super-minicomputer performance at prices com- 
petitive with today's far less powerful 8- and 16-bit 
microcomputers. This is made possible by use of 
the next generation of logic chips-the National 
Semiconductor 16000-series. LMC MegaMicros 
incorporate: the NS16032 central processing unit 
which has true 32-bit internal logic and internal data 
path configured on the IEEE 796 multibus; 
demand-paged virtual memory implemented in 
hardware; and hardware 64-bit double-precision 
floating-point arithmetic. 

The LMC MegaMicro is supplied with HCR's 
UNITY* which is a full implementation of UNIX** 
and includes the Berkeley 4.1 enhancements to 
take advantage of demand-paged virtual memory. 
Also included are C and FORTRAN. TVpical multi- 
user systems with 33 megs, of fast (30 ms. average 
access time) Winchester disk storage, a half meg. 
of RAM, virtual memory, hardware floating-point 
arithmetic, UNIX, C, and FORTRAN 77 are avail- 
able for $20,000 (and even less with quantity or 
OEM discounts). 

* UNITY is a IVademark of Human Computing Resources. 
*TNIX is a IVademark of Bell Laboratories. 

LMC MegaMicros The Logical Alternative™ 



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Circle 248 on inquiry card. NOVEMBER 1 984 • B Y T E 97 




THE LIGHTS WILL COME BACK ON. 
YOUR DATA MAY NOT. 



When the power goes down, 
so does your computer— maybe 
taking your data with it. 

If you had last year's sales 
figures with next year's projec- 
tions on screen, you're going 
to be in the dark a long time. 
Maybe too long. 

Unless you backup your data. 

Every day. 

No matter what. 



The smartest way to do that 
is with a Tallgrass HardFile 1 " 
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Shown above, the 20 megabyte Hard File 
with 20 megabyte tape for $2,995. 



TALLGRASS SELLS MORE 
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CARTRIDGE TAPE BACKUP 
THAN ANYONE IN THE WORLD. 

Tallgrass took the industry's 
most reliable medium — magnetic 
tape— and perfected a format 
that's become the standard for 
personal computers. 

We used a removable tape 
cartridge to store data out of 



98 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 




harm's way. And made two ver- 
sions. Our 3000 Series HardFiles 
combine tape's accuracy with 
the enormous capacities of hard 
disk, with 12, 20, 35 or 70 mega- 
bytes storage with a removable 
cartridge tape for backup. 
Our 4060 tape storage system, 
for personal computers with 
hard disks built in, supplies 60 
megabytes of backup capacity. 



Result: the worlds best selling 
mass storage systems with the 
most reliable data protection. 

And a decidedly enlightened 
approach to doing business. 

For a free brochure, yo 
nearest dealer, and more 
good reasons to backup, 
call 1-800-228-DISK. 

Before the lights 
go out. 




TALLORASS 
TECHNOLOGIES 

COMMITTED TO MEMORY 

Circle 390 on inquiry card. 



Hard File'" and Tallgrass* are trademarks of 

Tallgrass Technologies Corporation. © 1984 Tallgrass Technologies. 




/ 



/ 









X 




BYTE 



Features 



The Data General/One 

by Gregg Williams and Ken Sheldon 102 

Ciarcias Circuit Cellar: 
The Lis ner 1000 

by Steve Garcia 110 

A Go Board for the Macintosh 

by Bruce F. Webster 125 

A Travesty Generator for Micros 

by Hugh Kenner and Joseph O'Rourke .... 129 

The Pick Operating System, 
Part 2: System Control 

by Rick Cook and ]ohn Brandon 132 

AG AT A Soviet Apple II Computer 

by Leo D. Bores, M. D 134 



A TRAVESTY IS a distorted, stylistically incongruous translation or imitation 
of a literary or artistic endeavor. Some puns are travesties; so is a Mark Russell 
musical parody. In the computer business, people sometimes think that docu- 
mentation is a travesty. 

A travesty is an interesting study for a linguist. Until the invention of the 
computer, however, analyzing the frequency of various letter combinations 
was tedious at best. But today even microcomputers aid the student of lan- 
guage in examining the frequency of letter patterns in ordinary text. It is even 
possible to imitate the style of a writer by generating text based on the pat- 
terns observed in a particular passage. This month's feature article by Hugh 
Kenner and Joseph O'Rourke describes a travesty generator written in Pascal. 
The program uses frequency tables and reveals that the best algorithm is slow 
but the faster algorithm misses certain patterns. Regardless, the possibilities 
for the linguist, or the entrepreneur looking for a name for his newest com- 
pany, are exciting. 

The big new product of the fall turns out to be small— Data General's new 
eight-pound, PC-compatible portable computer called the One Technical 
editors Gregg Williams and Ken Sheldon report on the custom gate arrays, 
CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) chips, and efficiently used 
printed-circuit board space (with surface-mounted ICs) that permit packaging 
desktop power in a true briefcase portable. A sub-$3000 price tag makes the 
Data General/One affordable but imperfect LCD technology might hurt the 
machine's acceptance. 

Steve Ciarcia travels to the cutting edge of technology again this month, 
building what he believes is the first speech-recognition device based on the 
new General Instruments SP1000 voice-recognition chip. This is a low-cost, 
high-performance, voice-recognition hardware project. 

Contributing editor Bruce Webster recently learned the MacFORTH program- 
ming language in order to produce some software for his Macintosh. The result 
is a game board for the Japanese game of go. Webster's software doesn't play 
the game; it automates the board manipulations of two human opponents 
and might prevent that aggravating ploy known as "go-stones pick up." 

Dr. Leo Bores's recent medical-research visits to the Soviet Union turned 
up an interesting surprise— an Apple computer clone. At $17,000, this machine 
is not likely to flood American shores as did the wave of Apple copies from 
the Far East. The existence of such a machine could add a new dimension 
to Soviet-American relations, however, if Jobs and Wozniak decide to sue. 

November's concluding feature the second installment in our series on the 
Pick operating system, examines programming, portability and batch process- 
ing. Rick Cook and John Brandon discover that Pick is easier to use than UNIX 
and provides powerful BASIC program-development tools. 

— G. Michael Vose, Senior Technical Editor, Features 



NOVEMBER 1984 • BYTE 101 



PRODUCT DESCRIPTION 



THE DATA GENERAL 

ONE 



A \0-pound battery-powered portable that's fully compatible 

with the IBM PC 



Editor's Note: The following is a BYTE product description. It is 
not a review. We provide an advance look at this new product because 
we feel it is significant. A complete review will follow in a subse- 
quent issue. 

IMAGINE A PORTABLE COMPUTER that weighs only 10 
pounds but has a full-size display screen, a standard 
keyboard, and two disk drives. Imagine that it can run 
for up to eight hours on built-in batteries or use an or- 
dinary wall outlet. Now imagine that it is software- 
compatible with the IBM Personal Computer (PC) and 
can have up to 512K bytes of internal RAM (random- 
access read/write memory). Imagine two serial ports, an 
optional built-in modem, and an expansion bus that will 
let you connect the system to a monitor in your office 
or add on third-party hardware. 

Earlier this year, David Winer, president of Living 
Videotext and publisher of Thinkfank, dreamed of just 
such a portable computer (see "Portables— 1984 and 
Beyond," by David Winer and Peter Winer, in the January 
BYTE, page 243). Winer predicted that this ideal portable 
would take two to three years to arrive, that it would 
weigh up to 2 5 pounds, and that it would cost up to 
$5000. 

Imagine Winer's surprise when, in June, he received 
a preproduction unit that included all of the above 
features and was told that the system would be available 
this fall for "well under $3000." 

The system is the $2895 Data General/One a portable 
computer that incorporates a number of state-of-the-art 
innovations in a sleek 10-pound package 

The Data General/One features a full-size, flip-up LCD 

Gregg Williams is a senior technical editor and Ken Sheldon is a 
technical editor for BYTE. They can be contacted at POB 372, 
Hancock, NH 03449. 



(liquid-crystal display) screen that displays 2 5 lines of 80 
characters, or 2 56 by 640 pixels for software that uses 
bit-mapped graphics. Although the display is less than 
an inch thick, its viewing surface is as large as that of 
a standard IBM monitor and much larger than the 
displays of other portable computers. (There are, unfor- 
tunately, some trade-offs associated with such a large 
LCD, as we'll explain later.) Although color graphics are 
not yet available, the video system will display most 
monochrome and color graphics in shades of gray. 

The Data General/One's keyboard (see photo 1c) is a 
standard, full-size, low-profile QWERTY keyboard with a 
variety of special and function keys designed to make 
it compatible with the IBM PC while maintaining com- 
patibility with the Data General line of computers. Thus, 
IBM's Control, Alternate, and Delete keys are present, 
as well as Data General's Command and Special keys and 
even a blank key for future use. 

Ten function keys are arrayed across the top of the 
keyboard, and above them is a ridge for inserting plastic 
command cards for programs such as word processing. 
Four cursor-control keys are lined up along the bottom 
right. 

Like other PC clones— and unlike the IBM PC— the Data 
General/One has large Shift and Return keys in the places 
where a typist would hope to find them. Finally, a 
numeric keypad is superimposed over a group of keys 
on the right-hand side of the keyboard; it's activated by 
hitting the Num Lock key. (continued) 

Photo 1: The Data GeneraliOne with case closed (la) 
and case open (\b). The keyboard (\c) is a full-size 
QWERTY unit compatible with IBM's PC and Data 
Generals line of computers. The portable comes with a 
VA-inch microfloppy-disk drive on the right-hand side 
(Id), and there's room for an additional drive. 



by Gregg Williams and Ken Sheldon 



102 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 




PHOTOGRAPHED BY PAUL AVIS 



NOVEMBER 1984 • BYTE 103 



The Data General/One comes with a 3 /2-inch floppy- 
disk drive on the right-hand side, and there's room for 
an additional built-in drive (see photo Id). These double- 
sided drives provide 512 bytes per sector, 8 or 9 sec- 
tors per track, and 40 or 80 tracks per side— a maximum 
of 720K bytes of storage per disk. An external 5^-inch 
drive, with up to 360K bytes per disk, may also be at- 
tached to the unit. With this external drive the Data 
General/One can run most of the software available for 
the IBM PC or transfer software that's not copy-protected 
to 3 /2-inch disks. At the time of this writing, 20 major 
software packages are already available in 3 /2-inch for- 
mat, including Lotus 1-2-3, WordStar, dBASE 11, VisiCalc, 
and the PFS series. 

An A/C adapter, included in the base price, enables 
you to use the system with a wall outlet. You can also 
install an optional battery pack containing 10 nickel- 
cadmium batteries by removing a cover on top of the 
machine. The battery pack comes with a recharger that 
lets you charge the batteries from a wall outlet, even 
while running the system from another outlet. 

On the back of the Data General/One are a bus- 
expansion connector and two RS-232C serial ports. One 
of the serial ports also doubles as an RS-422 port, thanks 
to a program-controllable switch. 

Options 

Options for the Data General/One include internal mem- 
ory expansion in 128K-byte chunks (up to 512K bytes 
maximum), a built-in 300-bps (bits per second) modem, 
an external 5!4-inch drive, an external 1200-bps modem, 
the battery pack and charger, a carrying case, and a por- 
table printer. The printer has a 27-pin print head that 
provides type that's quite readable on thermal paper or 
smooth sheet paper— this rules out rough-surfaced bond 
paper. The printer can run from the system's power sup- 
ply or its own set of nickel-cadmium batteries. 

Software 

The Data General/One supports MS-DOS, CP/M-86, and 
various programming languages. According to Data 
General's software team, a great deal of IBM PC soft- 
ware will run as is, using the external 5^-inch drive. In 
addition, several software developers have signed agree- 
ments with Data General to release their software in 
3/2-inch format. Among these developers are Ashton- 
Tate, Infocom, Lotus Development Corporation, Micro- 
Pro, Microsoft, Peachtree, and Software Arts. 

A few pieces of software have been built into the sys- 
tem's ROM (read-only memory). These programs include 
Notebook, a kind of scratch pad that lets you print out- 
put or send it via modem to another computer (but does 
not let you save it); Terminal, which enables the com- 
puter to act as a dumb terminal to the Data General line 



of minicomputers; and a system configurator that lets 
you configure the Data General/One for different moni- 
tors, keyboards, printers, and so on. Each of these pro- 
grams is menu-driven and makes use of the function keys. 
Data General has also announced DG Tferm, an ad- 
vanced terminal program, and CEO Connection, which 
enables the Data General/One to tie into the company's 
CEO office-automation system. 

Inside 

The Data General/One is built around the 80C88, a 
CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) ver- 
sion of the 8088 microprocessor used in the IBM PC and 
most of the PC clones. The 80C88 uses less power than 
the 8088— an obvious advantage in a portable system— 
but it is a little slower, operating at 4 MHz as compared 
to the 8088's 4.77 MHz. 

The Data General/One comes with 1 28K bytes of RAM 
on the main printed-circuit board, 80K bytes of which 
is available to the user. (The system uses 48K bytes of 
RAM to manage screen graphics.) Also located on the 
main board are 32K bytes of ROM that contain the BIOS 
(basic input/output system), diagnostics, and built-in 
software. 

Mounted on the main board is a small box in which 
up to three 128K-byte memory expansion cards may be 
added, providing a maximum of 512K bytes, with 464K 
bytes available for user programs. 

The I/O (input/output) components are located on a 
separate card, as are the power-supply components, and 
the disk-controller hardware is located on top of the disk 
drive(s). An optional 300-bps modem card may also be 
installed internally 

TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS 

The Data General/One could not have been built without 
pushing current technology to the limit— in many cases, 
designing the machine around parts announced but at 
the time not available. Three innovations stand out: 
technology to create an LCD panel the size of a stan- 
dard monitor display, the inclusion of custom gate ar- 
rays that decrease the component count, and the use 
of CMOS parts to reduce heat and power consumption. 

The Data General/One's LCD panel is innovative from 
both manufacturing and design standpoints. A liquid- 
crystal display consists of two glass sheets separated by 
a conductive liquid material. Nippon Data General 
engineers overcame manufacturing difficulties associated 
with creating an LCD of this size, the main problems be- 
ing the size of the glass sheets and the evenness of the 
distance between the two inner surfaces. 

LCDs are often criticized for being "slow— that is, leav- 
ing a ghost image that fades slowly enough for the eye 

{continued) 



104 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



Development of the 
Data General/One 



According to Kazuhiro Miyashita, 
head of the research and devel- 
opment team that designed the Data 
General/One, a portable computer was 
the last thing on his mind when he 
went to the National Computer Con- 
ference (NCC) in May of 1982. 

"We had just finished designing a 
laser printer for Nippon Data General, 
and 1 went to NCC in search of a new 
project for our team," Miyashita says. 
'At the time, we had no intention of 
doing a portable computer." 

At NCC, however, laptop portables 
such as the Gavilan were stealing the 
show, and when Miyashita returned to 
japan, his list of possible projects in- 
cluded a proposal for a portable com- 
puter. The laptop project was approved 
in September of 1983. 

At the time, the proposal was only 
a concept, with none of the hardware 
specified. By January of 1984, however, 
an initial design was presented, one 
that included a large LjCD (liquid-crystal 
display) screen and emphasis on 
CMOS (complementary metal-oxide 
semiconductor) technology. In other 
respects, the design differed signifi- 
cantly from the final product. The cover 
of the proposed portable flipped aside 
to reveal an LCD, a microcassette, and 
a small keyboard. It looked, literally like 
a three-ring notebook— thus the code 
name for the project, Book-I. 

The microcassette was the first major 
element to change; it was replaced by 
a floppy-disk drive because, as Bob 
Miller, senior vice president for Data 
General, put it, "Nobody's going to buy 
a portable computer with a microcas- 
sette." 

Although there were many floppy- 
disk options to choose from, the 
design team settled on 3 '/2-inch drives 
(licensed by Sony and made by Epson) 
for three main reasons: a small size 
that would allow for two built-in drives, 
less power drain than other drives, and 
use of hard-shell disks that can contain 
increased amounts of data. 



The change in storage media dictated 
a change in software philosophy, away 
from a concentration on ROM (read- 
only memory) software and toward 
mass-market applications. To the Data 
General software team located in 
North Carolina— they had struggled to 
convince vendors to make software for 
the company's Desktop Generation 
microcomputer— this meant only one 
thing: as much IBM PC compatibility 
as they could get. Ironically then, it was 
the third-party software team that 
spelled out the requirements for much 
of the Data General/One's internal 
hardware, in order to make the system 
IBM PC compatible. 

In lune of 1983, Edson DeCastro, 
president of Data General, visited Nip- 
pon Data General to discuss the proj- 
ect. DeCastro wanted the portable to 
be compatible with his company's line 
of mini- and microcomputers; he 
pressed the team to incorporate a full 
2 5-line by 80-column display in the 
design. Nippon Data General's contacts 
with other Japanese manufacturers 
quickly became invaluable 

The largest LCDs available at the time 
were 480 by 128 pixels, and no ven- 
dor was willing to commit to making 
a larger screen because the technical 
challenges were too great. Miyashita 
was able to convince two vendors, 
however, that to develop a full-size LCD 
screen would be beneficial for all in- 
volved. In September, Hitachi agreed 
to try and make a 640- by 2 56-pixel 
LCD that would provide 2 5 rows and 
80 columns of 7 by 9 characters (8 by 
10 with spacing). Epson followed quick- 
ly thereafter. (Interestingly, the division 
of Epson that makes the LCDs is 
distinct from its sister company that 
makes portable computers. The LCD 
maker apparently prefers to sell its 
parts to outside companies because it 
makes more money that way. As one 
member of Data General's third-party 
software team put it, ' 'Good old 
capitalism strikes again") 



By October of 1983, the essential 
elements of the design had been 
finalized in spite of the fact that major 
parts, such as the LCD and 80C88 
microprocessor, were not available yet. 
"We had to design to the specifications 
given to us by the parts designers and 
synchronize our design with theirs," 
Miyashita says. In this "design by 
speculation," Nippon Data General had 
an advantage over American laptop 
portable manufacturers such as 
Hewlett-Packard and Apple, which have 
had trouble getting Japanese manufac- 
turers to commit to volume production 
of large LCDs. 

During this time, the design of the 
Data General/One's case was taking 
place in Data General's Westboro, Mas- 
sachusetts, division, while develop- 
ment of the ROM software and deals 
with third-party software vendors were 
taking place in North Carolina. The 
ROM software was purposely limited 
so as not to scare off the vendors of 
application software; those vendors 
generally found that making versions 
of their programs for the Data General/ 
One consisted of simply putting the 
IBM PC version on a 3 /2-inch micro- 
floppy disk. 

In January, the "final form factor" of 
the project was completed— a proto- 
type with essentially the same exter- 
nal appearance as the final product 
would have. Still, neither the 80C88 nor 
the commercial gate arrays were yet 
available; they were included in the 
second prototype, released in April. 
The third and final prototype was 
unveiled in June, and preproduction 
units began shipping to third-party 
software developers, like David Winer 
of Living Videotext. 

"We were blown away," Winer says. 
"When we wrote the article for BYTE 
I see "Portables— 1984 and Beyond" on 
page 243 of the January issuej, it 
seemed as if we were being overam- 
bitious in our projections. Actually, we 
were conservative." 



NOVEMBER 1984 » BYTE 105 



to catch. The challenge for the designers of the Data Gen- 
eral/One was to create a full-size panel that would be 
both readable and v, fast." Faster LCDs have to receive 
electrical pulses more often in order to retain their opac- 
ity, a doubly difficult challenge for a proposed panel with 
more than 2.6 times as many pixels as the largest LCDs 
being produced then (640 by 2 56 pixels versus 480 by 
128 pixels). 

The solution was an ingenious one. Since there was 
no way to pulse 163,840 pixels often enough to produce 
a dark image, the designers created a single physical 
panel divided electrically into a number of smaller panels 
that are driven simultaneously Functions such as smooth 
scrolling from one screen to another are tricky with this 
kind of system, and the challenge was finding video- 
display drivers that could handle the task. 

The engineers solved this problem by using CMOS gate 
arrays, which also significantly contributed to the Data 
General/One's compactness and portability. TWo 
4000-gate gate arrays control the video display and 
replace about 500 integrated circuits (ICs), which would 
use lots of space and power: one gate array controls the 
LCD panel's contents and contrast, based on the con- 
tents of video memory; the other mediates the pro- 
cessor's access to video memory and emulates a super- 
set of the functions of the Motorola 6845 video- 
controller chip (the one used in the IBM PC). The com- 
puter "sees" the same character and graphics memory 
areas as are in the IBM PC 

Reducing Power Consumption 

As previously stated, extensive use of CMOS parts such 
as the 80C88 processor and the memory chips radically 
decreases the power needed to run the Data General/ 
One. (Because machines using CMOS parts also develop 
negligible heat, a designer can create compact designs 
without having to worry about heat-dissipation prob- 
lems.) CMOS integrated circuits hold information with 
virtually no current (usually in the range of microamps) 
and require only milliamps of extra current when that 
information is being accessed or changed. Also, the 
80C88 has half as many data lines as its parent chip, the 
80C86. Although this means about a 20 percent 
decrease in processing power, it also means that the 
computer has eight fewer data lines to drive. 

The designers also reduced power consumption by 
careful choice of their 64K-byte static CMOS RAM chips. 
Most memory designs use 64K- by 1-bit designs, thus 
requiring eight chips to be activated to retrieve a single 
byte (1 bit from each chip); by using 8K- by 8-bit chips, 
the designers made it possible for the processor to read 
or write 1 byte of data by activating only one CMOS chip. 

Finally the designers created hardware and software 
that automatically switch power on and off to subsystems 



(such as the floppy disks and communications subsys- 
tem) that normally consume large amounts of power. 

Making It Smaller 

The Data General/One fits in a space of 355 cubic 
inches— about the size of two three-ring binders. The wise 
choice of components (31^-inch disk drives, gate arrays, 
and the thin LCD panel) helps in terms of size as does 
a state-of-the-art printed-circuit-board technique known 
as surface mounting. Surface mounting lets manufac- 
turers put specially packaged ICs directly onto the cop- 
per traces without having to first drill holes through the 
board. The lack of holes means that the designers can 
lay more traces per board and use both sides of the 
board. For example, the 128K-byte memory card (see 
photo 2b) packs 18 ICs onto both sides of a board about 
the size of a playing card and only a quarter-inch thick. 

Other Innovations 

Because the Data General/One is not designed to be 
opened by the end user, the machine's engineers in- 
cluded the aforementioned configuration program in 
ROM. The user's choices are stored in RAM, backed up 
by a lithium battery that should, according to Data 
General, last for three years. 

Another nice touch is that the Data General/One char- 
acter set is downloaded from ROM to RAM at C5000 
hexadecimal (see table 1). This lets software vendors and 
other programmers redefine the character set, a feature 
that often makes software more versatile. 

IBM PC COMPATIBILITY 

According to Data General, programs that use the docu- 
mented IBM DOS and BIOS interfaces will run on the 
external 514-inch drive without modification. Although 
we did not conduct exhaustive tests, a fair amount of 
the PC software we had on hand booted up without 
problems, including WordStar, PeachText, PC-Talk, TUrbo 
Pascal, and others. Some programs exhibited problems. 
Flight Simulator ran fine, but there were scattered pieces 
of graphics along the top and bottom of the screen. 
Lotus 1-2-3 ran well except that the printer driver did not 
work; the 3'/2-inch-disk version announced concurrently 
with the Data General/One does not have this problem. 
On the hardware end, Data General has announced 

{continued) 

Photo 2: A top view (2a) of a preproduction Data 
General! One shows the power-supply board at top 
left, the disk-drive controllers at the right, and the 
main board at bottom left. The I/O board is not 
shown. A case mounted on the motherboard holds 
\28K-byte RAM cards {2b), which are the size of 
playing cards. The bottom of the main board is in 2c. 



106 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 




NOVEMBER 1984 • B Y T E 107 



Table I: The Data General/One memory map. The 128K 
bytes of memory on the motherboard includes 80 K bytes of 
available memory and 48K bytes of dual-ported RAM 
{marked with asterisks) used to support the LCD panel (This 
video memory actually totals 52 K bytes, not 48K bytes. This 
is because 4K bytes are shared by the monochrome and 
color-video memory areas and are mapped to the appropriate 
address depending on the video mode that is active at the 
moment) 



BEGINNING 

LOCATION AMOUNT 

(HEXADECIMAL) OF MEMORY 



NOTES 



00000 


80K bytes 


motherboard; user 
memory 


14000 


128K bytes 


optional memory 
board 


34000 


128K bytes 


optional memory 
board 


54000 


128K bytes 


optional memory 
board 


74000 


240K bytes 


memory space for 
external memory 


BOOOO 


4K bytes* 


monochrome video 
memory 


B1000 


28K bytes 


used by gate arrays 


B8000 


16K bytes* 


color video memory 


BCOOO 


16K bytes 


used by gate arrays 


COOOO 


20K bytes* 


image buffer that 
stores bit map for 
LCD panel 


C5000 


12K bytes* 


font memory 


C8000 


32K bytes 


reserved for future 
use by Data 
General 


DOOOO 


128K bytes 


memory space for 
external memory 



F0000 



32K bytes 



system ROM; in- 
cludes BIOS, boot- 
strap code, Note- 
book and Terminal 
programs 



FFFFF 



end of address 
space 



its intention to release an expansion chassis that will 
enable you to add IBM PC-compatible plug-in boards. 

Caveat 

The information in this product description is based on 
two days of meetings with Data General people, a tele- 
phone conversation with the design team leader in Japan, 
access to the Data General/One programmer's manual 
and more than a week's access to a fully functional, late- 
preproduction machine with 512K bytes of memory, two 
3 '/2-inch disk drives, battery pack, internal modem, and 
external 5!4-inch floppy-disk drive. All photos and mea- 
surements in this article were taken from this preproduc- 
tion machine. 

Initial Tests 

We ran a few tests on the Data General/One in our of- 
fices. The system completes its internal memory test (with 
512K bytes) in 10.3 seconds; an IBM PC at BYTE with 
the same amount of memory takes 43.8 seconds. 

Data General claims the batteries will last 8 to 10 hours 
with the disk being used 20 percent of the time. With 
the battery fully charged, the Data General/One we tested 
lasted 6 hours, 51 minutes running a GW BASIC program 
that wrote to disk once a minute, a process that took 
8 seconds, resulting in a 13.3 percent duty cycle. (The 
nickel-cadmium batteries are said to recharge in 6 to 8 
hours; for this test, we left the recharger connected 
overnight.) 

The infamous Gilbreath Sieve of Eratosthenes bench- 
mark took 202 seconds to complete one iteration using 
Microsoft's GW BASIC; the IBM PC took 191 seconds 
using its BASICA. 

The prototype Data General/One we had (fully con- 
figured) weighed 12 pounds, 10 ounces. The AC power 
adapter weighed 1 pound, 13 ounces. The battery 
recharger weighed 4 ounces. 

Strengths and Weaknesses 

The Data General/One's most important strength is that 
it is truly portable and fully functional. We've seen 
machines that are small light (under 15 pounds), and 
useful (the Radio Shack Model 100 is the most popular 
example so far). But this is the first such machine that 
is as useful as the computer on your office desk, has 
512K bytes of memory, an LCD panel the size of a stan- 
dard display, two large-capacity disk drives, a comfort- 
able keyboard, and a modem. 

One of the nicest things about the LCD panel is that 
its low-persistence pixels make it possible for text to 
scroll at normal display speed without leaving behind 
ghost images (a problem with many LCD panels). It is 
also different in that it uses 2-to-l aspect pixels (rec- 
tangular pixels twice as high as they are wide) instead 



108 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



of the 1 -to- 1 aspect pixels used in other LCD panels. 
Because the 2-to-l aspect pixel most closely matches 
that of video displays, the Data General/One display 
looks like a CRT (cathode-ray tube) display, while others 
(the announced LCD panel for the Apple He, for exam- 
ple) give a distorted image that is compressed vertically. 

The Data General/One brings us again to the inevitable 
adjustments to yet another keyboard layout. All in all, 
Data General has done a good job of creating a keyboard 
that is compatible with both IBM PC and Data General 
keyboards. The keys, though they give some audible 
feedback, are not as loud as those of the IBM PC or other 
portables. For those of us who have finally gotten used 
to the location of the left Shift key on the IBM PC, Data 
General's decision to place it in its preferred, pre-PC posi- 
tion means we'll have to readjust again. 

One change that we like is the placement of the func- 
tion keys above the number keys. This enables you to 
insert directly above the keys plastic templates that tell 
the function of each key and its function when used with 
Shift, Control, and Control-Shift. Because Data General 
computers have 1 5 function keys, the keyboard layout 
lets Data General software use the Fl through F10 keys 
and the five keys to their right as function keys. 

Data General is to be commended for choosing a stan- 
dard disk format for its 3 '/2-inch drives. The Data General/ 
One uses unmodified Sony 80-track, double-sided disk 
drives and formats each track as nine 512-byte sectors; 
this is the proposed standard used by Microsoft for 
3/2-inch-disk MS-DOS systems. Hewlett-Packard and 
Apple, the first major vendors to use 3!/2-inch drives, have 
both used incompatible, nonstandard disk formats. Ac- 
cording to one engineer, Data General places a high 
value on industry-wide compatibility and hopes that 
future vendors will adopt this format. (The Data General/ 
One can read and write disks using one or two sides and 
8 or 9 sectors per track. With some limitations, it can 
also write sectors of 128, 2 56, and 1024 bytes each.) 

On the negative side, we must point out that the LCD 
panel is difficult to read in conditions less than ideal. 
It looks great if you have diffuse light coming over one 
shoulder and you're wearing light-colored clothing; other- 
wise, the image is not strong enough to overcome the 
image reflected on the glass face of the LCD (even when 
you adjust the LCD's contrast). Also, because of the 
physics of driving rows and columns of LCD pixels, you 
can see faint streaks above and below and dark vertical 
bars in the LCD image. The LCD image is functional- 
good enough for an airport but not for sustained use 
at the office. (Fortunately, Data General claims it will fix 
this inadequacy with a "system expansion box"; see 
"Plans.") 

Another disappointment is the quality of the ROM- 
based Notebook and Terminal programs, which are 



limited in that they cannot interact with the microfloppy 
disks. Although you can use the Notebook to write some- 
thing and print it out (or transmit it to a remote com- 
puter using the Terminal program), you cannot recall and 
save work directly to a disk, which makes us think that 
we wouldn't use these programs very often. The Data 
General engineers explained that the two programs 
"came free" because of ROM space left over after the 
Configuration program had been written. They also didn't 
want to anger third-party software developers, who are 
less enthusiastic about writing software for a given 
machine if adequate programs are bundled with it (in 
ROM or on disk). 

Finally, we must point out a simple inadequacy of some 
importance: the machine has no built-in handle. Granted, 
Data General will offer several carrying cases, but they 
are too inconvenient for those times when you want to 
carry the machine to the library downstairs. Maybe some- 
one will invent a harness that has a handle and never 
needs to be removed from the machine. 

Plans 

A Data General spokesperson said that a "system expan- 
sion box" would be available "60 to 90 days after prod- 
uct announcement" (September 20). Although he could 
not provide specifications for the unit, he said that it 
would definitely include the ability to drive a color or 
a monochrome monitor. With this feature (and perhaps 
the 5!4-inch disk drive), we can see possibly buying a 
Data General/One instead of an IBM PC. 

On the Data General/One main board, there is an 
empty socket beside the 80C88 that is the same size as 
the empty socket beside the 8088 in the IBM PC. Since 
we now know that that IBM PC socket is meant to house 
an Intel 8087 arithmetic coprocessor chip, it is plausible 
to speculate that the empty Data General/One socket will 
house an 80C87 or some other coprocessor that will 
enhance the machine's performance. The Data General 
spokesperson would not comment, but he pointed out 
that the Data General/One is "not the only product in 
this line we intend to put out" and that Data General 
has plans to ensure that its products will provide state- 
of-the-art performance. 

Another interesting possibility springs from the fact 
that there are four DMA (direct memory access) chan- 
nels in the Data General/One, two internal and two ex- 
ternal. Of the internal DMA channels, one is used for 
the 3 1 /2-inch drives, and the other is reserved "for future 
use." An obvious enhancement to this machine would 
be substitution of a 3^-inch Winchester hard disk (which 
might hold, say, 10 megabytes) for the second disk drive. 
A machine of such capacity, at less than half the weight 
of a suitcase-size AC-powered transportable computer, 
would be impressive indeed. ■ 



NOVEMBER 1984 • BYTE 



109 




110 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



CIARCIAS CIRCUIT CELLAR 



THE 
LIS'NER 1000 



by Steve Ciarcia 



Build a low-cost, high-performance 
speech-recognition system 




The concept of a com- 
puter understanding 
speech is not new. For 
years we have watched 
Capt. Kirk and Mr. Spock 
on the bridge of the Enter- 
prise talking with the ship's 
computer or have remarked at the 
diabolical mind of HAL in 2001: A Space 
Odyssey. These computers represent the 
ultimate in automatic speech recognition 
(ASR). Unfortunately, most of their capa- 
bilities are still science fiction. 

The ultimate goal of all speech-recogni- 
tion techniques is to characterize the 
spoken word into a recognizable pattern. 
Specifically, ASR is the ability that would let 
a computer recognize the spoken word. Ex- 
actly how the words are spoken, however, 
determines the hardware cost and analysis 
techniques employed. 

Speech-Recognition Units 

The first type of unit is the speaker-dependent 
recognition system, which creates its recog- 
nition vocabulary by "listening" to the voice 
of a single speaker. It then concerns itself 
only with recognizing the same word as 
spoken by that speaker. 

First, the user speaks into a microphone 
all the words the machine is to recognize. 
The acoustical characteristics of each word 
are analyzed and stored as templates, which 



are digital patterns used by a recognition 
algorithm to identify words. The procedure 
of creating templates is referred to as train- 
ing. Depending upon the available memory 
and the recognition-algorithm speed, the 
total vocabulary can be from 4 to 100 
words. Generally speaking, the more words 
in the vocabulary, the longer it takes to 
recognize a specific word and the more 
sophisticated the algorithm must be. 

The second type of unit is the speaker- 
independent recognition system. Other than 
HAL or the Enterprise computer, few func- 
tioning speaker-independent systems exist 
that have more than a 10-word vocabulary. 
This system requires no template training 
by a single speaker. Its speech templates 
are preprogrammed, and the matching 
algorithm is supposed to be adaptable to 
the voices of a variety of speakers and 
accents. 

The third type of unit is unconnected speech. 
Also called discrete-utterance recognition, 
unconnected speech is simply single words 
preceded and followed by pauses. This is 

[continued) 

Steve Ciarcia (pronounced "see-ARE-see-ah") is an elec- 
tronics engineer and computer consultant with experience 
in process control digital design, nuclear instrumenta- 
tion, and product development. He is the author of 
several books about electronics. You can write to him 
at POB 582, Glastonbury, CT 06033. 



COPYRIGHT © 1984 STEVEN A. CIARCIA. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



NOVEMBER 1984 • BYTE 111 




Photo 1: The General Instrument SP1000 voice-recognition chip. 









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Photo 2: A prototype printed-circuit board of the Apple II recognition-only 
Lis'ner 1000 circuit The two connectors on the top right are for an external speaker 
(RCA) and the microphone {minlphono). An IBM PC version is in the works. 




Photo 3: A prototype printed-circuit board containing Lisner 1000 circuitry, which 
performs recognition, and speech-synthesis circuitry for the Apple II. It contains 
both the SP1000 and an SSI-263 speech synthesizer with a text-to-speech algorithm. 
Together they facilitate a functional hands-off computer with complete speech I/O. 



the easiest recognition approach and 
generally the technique used in most 
inexpensive systems. Each template is 
for a single utterance that must be 
spoken as a discrete word rather than 
as part of a longer word or phrase. 

The final type of unit is connected 
speech, Also called continuous speech, 
this is the way we normally talk. Un- 
fortunately much of our understand- 
ing is dependent on recognizing the 
words in context. One major problem 
for the computer is coarticulation, 
where words are blended so that 
there are no distinct word boundaries 
for direct template matching. The 
result is costly computing overhead 
because every template must be 
aligned with every possible interval of 
the utterance. While significant ad- 
vances have been made in this area, 
connected-speech ASR systems are 
expensive and generally require some 
monitoring of context as well. 

Today most speech-recognition sys- 
tems are discrete-utterance speaker- 
dependent units. They may be in the 
form of expansion boards for existing 
computers or stand-alone black 
boxes. Ultimately, however, their pur- 
pose is singular. When the user 
speaks, the computer analyzes the 
acoustical signal, compares it to the 
stored templates, and decides which 
most closely resembles the spoken 
word. Once a candidate is chosen, the 
computer can itself respond to the 
user's utterance or output a control 
signal to another device. 

Each stage of the analysis and pat- 
tern-matching procedure can be car- 
ried out by a variety of techniques. 
The earliest techniques used a simple 
zero-crossing detector to produce a 
pattern somewhat related to frequen- 
cy. It soon became evident that 
speech, which is a complex combina- 
tion of frequencies, could not be so 
easily represented. The next refine- 
ment was to break the voice frequen- 
cies out through a series of filters and 
separately record energy levels. While 
economically attractive, since it used 
readily available components, the 
massive quantities of data gathered 
proved ponderous and slow to com- 
pute. Many systems on the market still 
use this technique. 

One significant advance in estimat- 
ing the amplitude spectrum of speech 
is linear predictive coding (LPC). Also 
known as autoregressive analysis, this 
method predicts the amplitude of a 



112 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



speech waveform at any instant by 
combining the amplitudes at a 
number of earlier instants. The LPC 
coefficients that best approximate the 
speech waveform can be mathemati- 
cally converted to approximate the 
amplitude spectrum. In speech appli- 
cations, the LPC analyzer is basically 
a lattice of filters that approximate a 
series of resonant cavities, thus simu- 
lating the vocal tract. 

A Circuit Cellar System 

Up until now, it hasn't seemed worth- 
while to present a speech-recognition 
system that merely imitated others. 
My article in the March 1982 BYTE 
("Use Voiceprints to Analyze Speech," 
page 50) demonstrated the sepa- 
rated-filter and energy-level recording 
technique in the hopes that I could 
learn enough to quickly present an 
ASR system based on that principle. 
While feasible in theory, 1 ultimately 
scrapped the idea as having too many 
components, even if they were read- 
ily available. Since then, I have been 
watching for any new components 
that might improve the situation. 

Fortunately, the wait has not been 
in vain. The new SP1000 voice-recog- 
nition chip from General Instrument 
allows me to demonstrate the con- 
struction of a low-cost, high-per- 
formance voice-recognition system 
(see photo 1). To my knowledge, this 
project is one of the first recognition 
devices using the SP1000. 

The Circuit Cellar speech-recogni- 
tion system, which I've called the 
Lis'ner 1000, is both a voice-recogni- 
tion and voice-synthesizer board 
using the SP1000. The schematics i 
present are specifically for the Apple 
II, but they are applicable to other 
6502-based systems such as the Com- 
modore 64. The Apple II version 
plugs into any of the computer's ex- 
pansion slots, but slot 4 is preferred. 
The Commodore 64 version (shown 
in the opening photo) plugs into the 
rear expansion connector. The Com- 
modore board is configured for 
recognition only; the Apple II board, 
shown in photos 2 and 3, supports 
the LPC speech output from the 
SP1000 and has optional provision for 
an SSI-263 phonetic speech synthe- 
sizer with a text-to-speech algorithm. 

The Lis'ner 1000 hardware forms 
merely the front end of a recognition 
system by performing feature extrac- 
tion of the incoming audio signal. The 



host microcomputer compares these 
features with those of the templates 
stored in memory and makes the rec- 
ognition decisions. Such a separation 
of system tasks leaves control of sys- 
tem performance to the system de- 
signer. You can use the Lis'ner 1000 
board in speaker-dependent or 
speaker-independent systems with 
connected or unconnected speech. 
The designer is not locked into a 
specific recognition algorithm that 
may not be suitable for a particular 
application. Instead, the recognition 
algorithm is contained in software 



This project is 
one of the first 
recognition devices 
using the SP1000. 

resident in the host microcomputer 
and can be easily upgraded to take 
advantage of advances in recognition 
techniques without requiring hard- 
ware redesign. 
In an effort to more fully support 

[continued] 



(a) 






TOP VIEW 










— v^ — 








v S sC 


1 




28 


] IRQ 




WAIT[ 
A0[ 


2 
3 


SP1000 


27 
26 


]D7 
] D6 




AlC 


4 




25 


]D5 




R/W[ 


5 




24 


] D4 




CS1[ 


6 




23 


]D3 




STROBE C 


7 




22 


] D2 




XTAL IN C 


8 




21 


]D1 




XTAL OUT [ 


9 




20 


] DO 




CLOCK IN/OUT [ 


10 




19 


] ADCDATA 




DIGITAL OUT [ 


n 




18 


J ADCCE 




RESET I 


12 




17 


] ADCCLK 




GAiN 6C 


13 




16 


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GAIN 12 [ 


14 




15 


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ft) 



A0 Al R/W 



CS1- 

STROBE - 



INPUT 

CONTROL 

LOGIC 



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WAIT • 

RESET ■ 



XTAL IN- 
XTAL OUT* 
3.58 MHz* 



DO 



DATA 
INPUT/OUTPUT 



ENERGY 



ADCCE- 

ADCCLK* 

ADCDATA ■ 



RECOGNITION 

INPUT 

CONVERTER 



DATA- 
STORAGE 
REGISTERS 



GAIN GAIN GAIN 
6 12 24 



SYNTHESIS 
EXCITATION 



RECONFIGURABLE 
LATTICE 

FILTER 



PULSE-WIDTH 
MODULATOR 



-DIGITAL OUT 



Figure I: The SPI000 pin configuration (a) and block diagram (b). 



NOVEMBER 1984 • B Y T E 113 



MAIN 

INPU Jw^ 


OUTPUT 


f 


r 






b 


zO\^ 


/ 


\ 

i 


i 


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AUXILIARY 
INPUT 







Figure 2: A CCL loop. 



the Lis'ner 1000 and make it im- 
mediately usable, I've had developed 
a package of software routines that 
allows the board to function as a 
voice-operated keyboard on the Ap- 
ple II and Commodore 64. Not to lose 
touch with true experimenters, 
however the source code necessary 
to make the basic system function will 
be available to those who build the 
project and want to modify the soft- 
ware (see Experimenter Support on 
page 123). 



7.16MHz CL - 
DATA BUS ( 

INTERRUPT - 

CHIP SELECT - 
AO - 
Al - 








MICROPHONE 
\ ' / 


HIGH -PASS 
FILTER 


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DO 

D1 GAIN 6 

02 GAIN 12 

03 GAIN 24 
D4 

D5 
D6 

07 

IRQ 

CSl 

A0 

Al ADCCLK 


if 




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Dl 

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D 4 

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l D7 ~ 




AUTOMATIC 

GAIN-CONTROL 

AMPLIFIER 










' 


) 




ANTIALIASING 
FILTER 






< 


' 










ANALOG-TO- 

DIG1TAL CONVERTER 

WITH 

SAMPLE AND HOLD 




+ 5V 

t_ 




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AD CD ATA 
STROBE 















Figure 3: A block diagram of the voice-recognition hardware. 



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Figure 4: The high-pass filter for the microphone. 



The software I provide makes the 
Lis'ner 1000 a speaker-dependent, 
discrete-utterance recognition system. 
The present software supports 64 
words in two groups of 32. You'll need 
a disk drive for either unit to function 
with the present software. 

Before I get too far ahead, however, 
let me describe the SPIOOO chip itself 
and what's necessary to build the 
Lis'ner 1000. 

General Instrument SPIOOO 

The SPIOOO, block-diagramed in 
figure 1, is a 5-volt (V) 28-pin NMOS 
(negative-channel metal-oxide semi- 
conductor) microprocessor peripheral 
chip that can be used for both speech 
recognition and LPC speech synthe- 
sis. Using a bidirectional data bus and 
control lines, the SPIOOO interfaces to 
most 8-bit processors as a memory- 
mapped peripheral device. 

The unique aspect of the SPIOOO is 
its ability to do LPC analysis in real 
time. LPC analysis solves for the coef- 
ficients Ai in an equation of the form: 

Xk = AiXk-i + A 2 X K _ 2 + . . . +A N X K _ N 

where X' K is an approximation of X K . 

Typical techniques used to solve for 
the coefficients involve matrix calcula- 
tions and manipulations. Such tech- 
niques, which require vast amounts of 
memory and extensive calculations, 
preclude their use on an inexpensive 
device at this time. 

The SPIOOO uses a modified form 
of the correlation cancellation loop 
(CCL) shown in figure 2 in a recon- 
figurable lattice structure. The CCL ap- 
proach can be used to operate direct- 
ly on the incoming data stream 
without extensive buffering of data or 
exorbitant processing power. The 
predictor coefficients (Ai) are taken 
from the integrator output of each 
stage. The stages can be cascaded for 
higher-order analysis and multiplexed 
in low-bandwidth applications. 

In simpler terms, by modifying the 
feedback-control scheme within the 
filter itself, the ultimate number of 
computations is reduced. The CCL ap- 
proach requires 300 bits of working 
storage versus 3 kilobits for a stan- 
dard covariance or autocorrelation 
analysis. It also has the interesting 
property of being able to run back- 
ward with a minimum of reconfigura- 
tion. This property allows the SPIOOO 
to be used as a speech synthesizer as 
well as an analyzer for recognition. 



114 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



The SP1000 can perform useful 
speech analysis with a relatively inex- 
pensive 8-bit A/D (analog-to-digital) 
converter. The major reason for this 
is the use of an on-board automatic- 
gain-control (AGC) algorithm. The 
three gain outputs from the SPIOOO 
are used to control a variable gain 
amplifier. The SPIOOO tests the 2 most 
significant bits of each incoming sam- 
ple and lowers the gain if they are too 
high. The net effect is to keep the 
amplitude of the analog signal within 
the dynamic range of the A/D con- 
verter, preventing distortion and 
stabilizing the signal level entering the 
lattice filter. 

When used as a synthesizer, the 
filter is presented with LPC coeffi- 
cients of the speech frame to be syn- 
thesized. Typically, these coefficients 
are computed on a minicomputer and 
stored as files to be loaded into the 
microprocessor's memory. Eventual- 
ly, General Instrument intends to 
supply an allophone set that will let 
the user synthesize any word using a 
text-to-speech algorithm or dictionary 
table. The functional use of the Lis'ner 
1000 in recognition applications is not 
dependent on this software, which 
can be added when it is available. 



The desire for user-programmable 
voice-output capability immediately 
did not go unnoticed, however. I an- 
ticipated the interest in a functional 
recognition/synthesizer board and 
purposely designed the Lis'ner 1000 
to perform as one. While the project 
described is for an SPlOOOonly 
device, the Apple II printed-circuit 
board for this project is also etched 
to accommodate an SSI-263 phonetic 
speech-synthesizer chip (see ,l Build a 
Third-Generation Phonetic Speech 
Synthesizer," March, page 28). Adding 
the SSI-263 and the text-to-speech 
algorithm facilitates true voice I/O 
(input/output) and supports both 
phonetic-generated and allophone- 
generated (LPC) speech. 

Building the Lis'ner 1000 

Figure 3 is a block diagram of the rec- 
ognition portion of the Lis'ner 1000, 
which interfaces to the Apple II and 
Commodore 64 through an 8-bit bi- 
directional bus and a few control lines. 
The SPIOOO occupies four address 
locations and is written to or read 
from as any other peripheral device 
at that address. Data is transferred 
through the data lines whenever the 
chip-select line is active. The read/ 



The source code that is 
necessary to make the 
basic system function 
will be available. 



write line determines the direction of 
the transfer, and the two address lines 
specify the particular register within 
the chip. Of the four registers, three 
are read/write and one is write only 

A typical system consists of the 
SPIOOO and an assortment of analog 
components. The analog interface 
consists of filters, amplifiers, switches, 
and an A/D converter. The purpose of 
the circuitry is to convert the ut- 
terances spoken by the user into a 
form that the chip can understand. 
The entire circuit is designed to run 
on +5 V and, except for the SPIOOO 
connection to the host computer, is 
virtually the same for all applications. 

The first section (see figure 4) con- 
tains the microphone input and high- 
pass filter. For best performance, you 
should use a 600-ohm-impedance, 
condenser-type electret microphone. 

{continued) 



GAIN 12 
GAIN 6 
GAIN 24 



13 



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Figure 5: A programmable automatic-gain-controlled amplifier. 



NOVEMBER 1984 -BYTE 115 



Table I: 

gain pins 


Signal amplifications possible 
which are shown in figure 5. 


with different combinations 


of the SP1000 




i 


Gain Pins 




I 








4- 

1 


24 | 


12 | 


6 


+ 

I 


Gain 






4- 

1 
1 
1 
1 

1 
1 
1 


o 1 

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1 

1 

1 

1 


o I 


1 
1 
| 

| 

1 ! 
1 




1 


1 



1 



1 


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6dB 
12 dB 
18 dB 
24 dB 
30 dB 
36 dB 
42 dB 






+ 


+ _ 


+ _ 




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FROM 



0.1/tF 



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•— wv — • — vw — • + s s^ 

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10K Q.QlfxF-±r 

5% 



68K 
-VW— 



TO A/D 
CONVERTER 



r 



-a v 



Figure 6: An antialiasing filter. 



FROM 
ANTIALIASING O 

FILTER 


























Oref 


SP1000 
AD CD ATA 

ADCCLK 


19 




17 












ADCCE 


18 i 


















7 




1 


ADC0831 


6 










CTL 








5 1 


IN 


*s 




OUT 
















CD4016 










3 


4 




■^0.02^ 
5% 


















n 


7 





Figure 7: The sarnple-and-hold 8-bit A/D converter. 



To avoid background noise pickup, I 
suggest the microphone headset 
combination shown in the opening 
photo. This keeps the microphone 
close to the mouth and limits 
interference. 

The high-pass filter removes all 
sounds below 2 50 Hz. 

The output from the high-pass filter 
is connected to an automatic-gain- 
controlled amplifier (see figure 5). The 
SP1000 provides three output lines 
that control switches to vary the 
resistor values within a circuit con- 
sisting of two noninverting opera- 
tional amplifiers connected in series. 
These signals are GAIN 6, GAIN 12, 
and GAIN 24, corresponding to 6-, 
12-, and 24-decibel (dB) signal levels 
(this is a voltage gain of 2, 4, and 1 5.8, 
if you are interested). See table 1 for 
the gain produced by combining 
these pins. 

The SP1000 updates these signals 
at a predetermined interval, depend- 
ing upon the value of the digital out- 
put from the A/D converter. The three 
lines create eight combinations of 
signal amplification from dB to 42 
dB in 6-dB steps. The purpose of the 
AGC is to monitor and modify the in- 
coming signal amplitude so that it 
always stays within the range of the 
A/D converter. 

Switching these resistors in and out 
in the AGC produces high-frequency 
transients known as aliases. These un- 
wanted frequencies are removed by 
a two-pole, 3200-Hz, low-pass, anti- 
aliasing filter (see figure 6) before go- 
ing to the A/D converter. 

Once a conditioned signal with all 
the extraneous noise removed is ob- 
tained, it is directed to the sample- 
and-hold A/D converter to be read by 
the SP1000 (see figure 7). 

The SP1000 provides two signals for 
controlling the A/D converter and the 
sample-and-hold circuit: ADCCLK and 
ADCCE. The ADCCE signal provides 
an active-low chip select that turns off 
the sample switch (the switch, which 
is normally closed, opens when the 
A/D converter reads the voltage level 
stored on the capacitor) and enables 
the A/D converter. I used a National 
Semiconductor ADC0831 8-bit serial- 
output converter clocked at 1 50 kHz 
provided through ADCCLK as the A/D 
converter. The serial-output data is 
read through the ADCDATA line. You 
can program the SP1000 to read the 
input data at 5 k to 16k samples per 



116 B YTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



second. As configured in this project, 
the sample rate is 6.2 5k samples per 
second. 

A complete schematic showing the 
recognition part and LPC-synthesis 
portion of the Apple II Lis'ner 1000 
is shown in figure 8. Figure 9 shows 
the circuit changes necessary to add 
the SSI-263 specifically for the Apple 
II. Figure 10 is the Commodore 64 
version. 

SP1000 Software 

Figure 1 1 is a flowchart of the basic 
software control of the Lis'ner 1000. 
The routines described assume that 
the SP1000 is implemented as a 
discrete-utterance speaker-dependent 
unit. The software can be segmented 
into two major functions: the creation 
of training templates and actual rec- 
ognition of utterances relative to the 
training templates previously created. 

Training 

The purpose of training is to create 
a set of patterns, each of which rep- 
resents a specific utterance. (Note that 
an utterance may be a single word or 
a phrase.) When recognition is per- 
formed, these patterns are compared 
to a pattern created from the word to 
be recognized, The pattern or tem- 
plate from the training utterances that 
is closest to the word to be recog- 
nized is the one the system chooses 
as the recognized word. 

A well-designed training process will 
create templates that capture the 
unique features of an utterance in a 
form simple enough to facilitate the 
matching process and the efficient 
use of a system's memory. With this 
in mind, let's examine the training pro- 
cess implemented here. 

The first step is initialization of the 
hardware and software. The SP1000 
is an extremely flexible device that 
allows the user to specify several 
parameters that govern its analysis 
calculations. The parameters include 
the sample rate (6.2 5 kHz), the analy- 
sis-frame duration (20 milliseconds 
|ms|), and the gain-update period (10 
ms). Once these parameters have 
been specified and the software has 
enabled the interrupts, the SP1000 
will provide the processor with a fresh 
analysis frame at the end of each 
frame period. 

The software initialization consists 
of setting the counters for the number 
of templates and the number of train- 



ing passes for each template. The 
number of templates (utterances) is 
variable. The system uses two training 
passes for each template. 

After initialization, the program 
enters the endpoint-detection pro- 
cess. Since this is a discrete-utterance 
recognizer, it must identify the start 
and finish of each utterance it "hears." 
This applies to both training and rec- 
ognition. The endpoint-detection al- 
gorithm is designed around a finite- 
state machine with four states: silence, 
rising, plateau, and falling. 

The SP1000 continually analyzes 
the audio input and sends its analysis 
data to the host processor. Whenever 
no speech is reaching the micro- 
phone the SP1000 will be analyzing 
the ambient room noise. This repre- 
sents the silence state. While in this 
state, the processor is constantly cal- 
culating a noise level based on the 
average energy of the last 16 frames 
of silence. If an incoming frame has 
an energy 6 dB or more above the 
noise level the machine enters the ris- 
ing state. Similar energy measure- 
ments control the state transitions 
throughout the duration of the ut- 
terance until the machine exits back 
to silence, indicating that the end of 
the utterance has been reached. 

Once the machine enters the rising 
state, it saves all the analysis frames 
generated by the SP1000 until the end 
of the utterance has been found. At 
that point, the data collected is tested 
with criteria pertaining to minimum 
duration and dynamic range to con- 
firm its legitimacy as speech input and 
pinpoint the endpoints more closely. 
A normalization process is also per- 
formed on the energy coefficients to 
equalize weighting. 

At the end of this process, we have 
captured a parametric representation 
of the utterance. The next step is to 
include that representation in a train- 
ing template. 

It is worth noting that the data col- 
lected for an utterance with one sec- 
ond of duration is calculated "as 
follows: (8 bits/coefficient) x (9 coef- 
ficients/frame) x (50 frames/second) x 
(1 second) - 3600 bits of data (450 
bytes). Utterances of 3 seconds in 
duration would generate 1 3 50 bytes. 
If left in this form, a few dozen ut- 
terances would take a sizable quanti- 
ty of memory just for storage. 

Fortunately, the system need save 
only the unique characteristics of an 



The purpose of training 
is to create a set 
of patterns, each 
representing a 
specific utterance. 

utterance in order to perform good 
recognition. The unique sounds that 
constitute a particular utterance will 
usually be several frames in duration. 
Thus, the algorithm tests the ut- 
terance data one more time, essential- 
ly to perform a type of averaging in 
which adjacent frames with similar 
coefficient values are combined to 
form one new frame that replaces the 
two old ones. This process reduces 
the total number of frames in an ut- 
terance to 12. Theoretically, these 12 
frames are representative of the 
unique speech sounds that occurred 
in the utterance. This process also 
provides a time normalization for all 
utterances. Since all utterances are 
reduced to 12 frames, they all have an 
identical length for comparison 
purposes. 

The resulting 12 frames constitute 
a template. Since different repetitions 
of an utterance are never exactly alike, 
even when spoken by the same per- 
son, the software averages two tem- 
plates created from two repetitions of 
the utterance in order to form a more 
general template. This is stored as the 
training template for that utterance. 
The final size of the training template 
is 1 2 frames of 9 coefficients each (or 
108 bytes of data). 

RECOGNITION 

Recognition is performed with the 
same front-end software as the train- 
ing. It uses the finite-state machine 
and post-processing functions to iden- 
tify the endpoints of the utterance 
and performs time normalization to 
create a 12-frame unknown utterance 
template. It then tries to find the best 
match among the training templates 
previously stored. The two key 
elements of the matching process are 
the frame-to-frame distance measure 
and nonlinear time alignment. 

Distance Measure 

I have mentioned the closeness of 
templates, which is used to determine 

{continued) 



NOVEMBER 1984 • BYTE 



117 



the best match. But just how do you 
determine the closeness of two tem- 
plates? The answer lies in a frame-to- 
frame distance measure, which is 
used to build a template-to-template 
distance The smaller the template-to- 
template distance, the closer the two 
templates are to one another. 



A Chebyshev distance measure is 
employed as the frame-to-frame 
distance measure. The equation ABS 
VAL (A^Bj) is summed for all i, 
where i is the distance from frame A 
to frame B, A; is the Ith element of 
frame A, and Bj is the Ith element of 
frame B. 



Thus, frame-to-frame distance mea- 
surement consists of simply summing 
the magnitudes of the differences of 
corresponding elements in the frames 
being compared. 

To find a template-to-template dis- 
tance, the frame-to-frame distance 
measure is applied within the context 



+12V |7cT> 



DMA OUT[jr> 
INT In[28> 

INT out[7F> 

IRQ<30} 
DEVICE |1T> 



RES£T|"3?> 




Figure 8: The Us'ner 1000 schematic without the SSI-263 for the Apple II. 



118 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



of the nonlinear time alignment of the 
frames. 

Nonlinear TIme Alignment 

The need for nonlinear time align- 
ment arises because human beings 
do not speak the same words exactly 
the same way each time. Volume and 



duration of words obviously vary but 
a more subtle variation is very signifi- 
cant to a speech recognizer. The in- 
dividual speech sounds comprising a 
word vary in duration relative to one 
another in different repetitions of the 
same word. This time distortion is 
nonlinear because simply stretching 



or compressing one entire repetition 
will not time-align the boundaries of 
the speech sounds with those of an- 
other repetition of the same ut- 
terance. 

Consider a word with two syllables, 
such as table. T\vo repetitions of this 

{continued) 




+ 12V 




NOVEMBER 1984 'BYTE 119 



word may have the same total dura- 
tion, but the first syllable may con- 
stitute 50 percent of repetition one 
and only 30 percent of repetition two. 
If we created templates for the two 
repetitions and compared them on a 
frame-by-frame basis, we would not 
get the best match because at some 
point we would be comparing parts 
of syllable one with parts of syllable 
two. 

On different occasions, the timing of 
these patterns may vary considerably 
but they must all be present in the 
described order if the utterance is to 
count as a reasonable rendition of the 
word table. The misalignment can be 
corrected by stretching the template 
in some places and compressing it in 
others, so that a mathematically op- 
timum match is found. This procedure 
is called dynamic time warping (DTW). 



(See "Speech Recognition: An Idea 
Whose Time Is Coming," January, 
page 213.) 

Rejection threshold 

Once we have a best match, we have 
to determine if it is usable or not. One 
method is to qualify the match by set- 
ting a rejection threshold. This allows 
the recognizer to request that an in- 
put be repeated because it is not con- 
fident of a good match. With no re- 
jection, the recognizer is forced to 
make a choice. The rejection thresh- 
old itself is the degree of confidence 
necessary to consider a match valid. 
The use of rejection criteria implies a 
trade-off between two types of error, 
the incorrect match versus no match 
at all. Rejection criteria can enhance 
the performance of the recognizer if 
they are adjusted to suit specific ap- 



plications. The problems caused by 
the two types of error are application 
dependent. 

As part of the recognition process, 
a template is made of the word just 
spoken, and it is compared to the 
templates made during training. For 
each comparison, a distance is com- 
puted that is used to determine the 
best fit to the spoken word. In order 
to reduce the number of false alarms 
(i.e., extraneous room noises being 
recognized as words), a method of re- 
jection is used. Three parameters are 
used during rejection: the lower limit, 
the upper limit, and the rejection 
threshold. 

The lower limit specifies a distance 
below which a word is automatically 
accepted and no more rejection tests 
are performed. This is useful in reduc- 
ing recognition times and allows the 



APPLE SLOT BUS 

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06 

05 

D4 

D3 

D2 

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00 



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SP1000 FILTERED 



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Figure 9: The Lis'ner 1000 schematic with the SSI-263 for the Apple II. 



120 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



obvious correct matches to pass 
through. However, if it is set too high, 
many false alarms may occur. 

The upper limit specifies just the op- 
posite, the distance above which a 
word is automatically rejected. This 
too is helpful in speeding reaction 
times and discards obvious room 
noises such as clapping. If this 



number is set too low, a large in- 
cidence of rejecting good words will 
occur, resulting in a good deal of 
frustration for the user. 

The last parameter is the rejection 
threshold, which is used to control 
just how close the spoken word may 
be to the two next closest reference 
templates. In short, a small rejection 



threshold results in a higher degree 
of rejection; a large rejection thresh- 
old is more forgiving and rejects less. 
These three parameters are com- 
bined to tailor the system to the user's 
particular needs. If a highly speaker- 
dependent system is desired, a small 
lower limit, a small upper limit, and 

(continued) 



COMMODORE EXPANSION PORT 



n> — i 




D5 <T?>- 
D4 <T7>- 
03 <T8>- 
D2 <T9>- 
Dl <20>- 
00 <Tl>- 



27 



26 



25 



23 



vcc 

D7 
06 
D5 
04 
03 
02 
Dl 
DO 



IC1 
SP1000 



ADCCE 

ADCCLK 

GAIN 24 

GAIN 12 

GAIN 6 

ADCDATA 

GND 



rh 



1M 



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18 



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00 



33 



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CERAMIC 

RESONATOR 



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Figure 10: The Lis'ner 1000 schematic for the Commodore 64. 



NOVEMBER 1984 • BYTE 121 



a small rejection threshold should be 
used. The result would be that only 
the person who trained the system 
would have good recognition results. 

Lis'ner 1000 Software 

The Lis'ner software consists of a 
combination of BASIC and assembly- 
language routines. The recognition al- 
gorithm and template matching are 
handled in assembly language to 
speed execution. Training and other 
infrequently used housekeeping func- 
tions are done in BASIC. 

The purpose of the software is to 
function as a parallel voice input for 
application programs or normal oper- 
ation of the computer. When first 
starting the system, for example, you 



are prompted to train a preselected 
vocabulary of DOS (disk operating 
system) and system commands. Rather 
than typing CATALOG and a carriage 
return, you merely have to say 
"catalog" and "return" (you can still 
type any part of it if you wish). In ef- 
fect, the Lis'ner 1000 can be pro- 
grammed to send a sequence of char- 
acters to the keyboard input handler 
as if they had been typed. This func- 
tion can be turned on and off at will 
or used at specific points in applica- 
tion programs. 

The process of selecting and train- 
ing a vocabulary is prompted by a 
menu. You start by entering your own 
list of words to be recognized. Up to 
four groups of 8 words, or 32 words, 



TRAINING MODE 



RECOGNITION MODE 



INITIALIZE 
SP1000 



INPUT FRAME 
ON INTERRUPT 






INITIALIZE 
SP1000 




J> 










INPUT FRAME 
ON INTERRUPT 


NC 


v^start\. 



YES 



sSPEECH, 



YES 



SAVE FRAME 



INPUT FRAME 
ON INTERRUPT 




SAVE FRAME 



INPUT FRAME 
ON INTERRUPT 



COMPRESS DATA 




COMPRESS DATA 



MAKE 
TEMPLATE 



MAKE 
TEMPLATE 




EXIT 



EXIT 



Figure II: The SP1000 recognition-software flowchart. 



are entered at one time, as shown in 
photo 4. A total of 64 words may be 
entered into the system. Next, you are 
asked for each spoken word followed 
by its corresponding command se- 
quence, as shown in photo 5. The 
command sequence is the group of 
characters that the recognizer routine 
will respond with when it hears this 
particular utterance. The command 
sequence may contain any combina- 
tion of letters, numbers, punctuation, 
and control characters. 

The recognition software responds 
with the preset command sequence 
when it hears a particular word, re- 
gardless of whether it is appropriate. 
For example, you could make one of 
the speech commands a phrase such 
as "DIRECTORY, PLEASE." In 
response, the command sequence 
would print CATALOG and a carriage 
return for an Apple. (If you plan to use 
the device to simulate the direct func- 
tion of discrete keyboard keys, it is 
best to use words such as APPLE, 
BAKER, CHARLIE, etc., rather than 
the single-syllable letters A, B, C, etc.). 

Once all the words have been 
entered and a series of questions 
regarding rejection levels has been 
answered, you are prompted to train 
the system by saying each of the 
words two times. When this is done, 
the computer knows your voice and 
saves the templates to disk. The 
following is a list of editor commands, 
which can be spoken or typed. Their 
function is to aid in producing a 
vocabulary that approaches 100 per- 
cent recognition accuracy. 

TEST-Enter test mode. This option, 
shown in photo 6, is useful in testing 
how well each word was trained. After 
each word is spoken, the letter "A" (ac- 
cept) or "R" (reject) is displayed next 
to the word. If an "R" is displayed, the 
match between the spoken word and 
the word as the computer knows it is 
totally unacceptable. It may be due to 
the fact that the word that was 
recognized wasn't even the word 
spoken, or two words that sound alike 
may keep being confused. If any word 
or words consistently get low scores, 
that word or words should be re- 
trained. To get back to command 
mode, hit any key. 

EDIT— Add, delete, replace, and 
retrain any of the words. 

LOAD— Load prestored templates 
so that editing and training may be 
performed. 



122 B YTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



SAVE— Save the templates being 
worked on for later use. This is used 
to save all the work you've done up 
to now. These templates may then be 
loaded by one of the Hello programs 
at some later date for use in your ap- 
plication programs. 

QUIT— Leave the editor and return 
to BASIC. Once all your editing and 
saving are done, you may enter BASIC 
with the recognize routine and DOS 
templates still active. 

Software design is of course 
dynamic. Some aspects of the Lis'ner 
software I've described here may have 
been modified by the time you read 
this. 

Experimenter Support 

I try to support the individual exper- 
imenter as much as I possibly can, 
and this project is no exception. To 
aid you in building the Lis'ner 1000 
or an SPlOOO-based system, I have 
coordinated parts and software sup- 
pliers. 

The Lis'ner software package con- 
sists of a combination of source-code 
and executable-only code files that 
are much too lengthy to print for 
distribution or to be published here. 
The Lis'ner software is supplied as 
BASIC source code with assembly-lan- 
guage executable code. Since I expect 
that many of you won't be happy until 
you've personally experimented with 
dynamic time warping and converted 
the routines to run on a different pro- 
cessor, I am making available demon- 
stration source code for an SP1000 
recognition algorithm for the Apple 
II. This code, which is less com- 
plicated than the Lis'ner software, was 
written by General Instrument. Also 
included are LPC coefficient files that 
will demonstrate the SPlOOO's syn- 
thesis capability. 

Although this software is well an- 
notated, it is unsupported and distrib- 
uted for its educational value only. It 
contains all the necessary structure 
should you care to roll your own. (If 
you do convert these routines, I would 
be very interested in seeing your 
handiwork.) 

The Experimenter Support package 
contains the General Instrument 
SP1000 demonstration software, 
Lis'ner software, and the Lis'ner 1000 
User's Manual It is available on disk for 
either the Apple II (except He) or Com- 
modore 64 (please specify) directly 
from me for a $17 shipping-and- 



handling charge ($27 for overseas air- 
mail). This offer is valid until March 1, 
1985. 

Finally, while it isn't a requirement 
that you include a picture this time 
when you write to me I'd like to see 
your finished product so that I can 
add your picture to the many hun- 



dreds I've received on 
projects. 



previous 



Conclusion 

The toughest part about writing this 
article was deciding how much to say 
about recognition techniques. I have 

(continued) 




Photo 4: \n this training mode, you select and train up to 32 words at a time. 
Multiple overlays of these template dictionaries result in potential recognition 
vocabularies of thousands of words. \n practice, 64 concurrent-available words is a 
reasonable search vocabulary that maintains a high response reaction time. 




Photo 5: These standard DOS commands comprise one of the vocabularies that 
the user is directed to train. Once trained, many keyboard entries can now be verbal. 



NOVEMBER 1984 • BYTE 123 



barely scratched the surface in my 
explanation. 

It is equally difficult for me to list 
and describe the multitude of poten- 
tial applications for computerized 
voice recognition. Besides the ob- 
vious aids for the disabled, the Lis'ner 
1000 can be used in order-entry sys- 
tems, voiceprint-security systems, 
video games, and telephone commu- 
nications. Also, many people sub- 
scribe to the notion that the world 
needs a voice-operated typewriter. In 
my opinion, it will be a long time 
before voice entry becomes common- 
place in an office environment, but 
.there have been inroads. 

1 intend to apply the board to tele- 
phone communications so that I can 
call and correspond with my com- 
puter. Since the Apple II Lis'ner has 
both recognition and synthesis, it 
would seem natural that all conversa- 
tion over the phone with the Apple 
should be spoken. "Hello, computer, 
how are you?" Tine, Steve your 
house is still here." 

While this is a possibility, the quali- 
ty of the telephone lines suggests that 
an alternate means of backup com- 
munication also be used. Some time 
ago I wrote an article about DTMF 
(dual-tone, multiple-frequency) de- 



coders ("Build a Touch Tone Decoder 
for Remote Control," December 1981, 
page 42). In it, I suggested that one 
way to communicate with your com- 
puter was through an auto-answer 
device with a DTMF decoder. Once 
the computer answers, simply send 
your message by pressing the Touch- 
Tone keys on the telephone. 

Your first thought might be to add 
a DTMF decoder in parallel with the 
recognition board, but it is quite un- 
necessary. DTMF tones and spoken 
words are all sounds as far as Lis'ner 
is concerned. It is simply a matter of 
pressing the telephone buttons while 
in the template training mode to pro- 
gram the Lis'ner to respond to the 
DTMF tones. Adding a few select 
words in addition will make it a truly 
unique answering system. Using just 
DTMF tones will allow invited sub- 
scribers a certain level of access to 
your system, but combining speaker- 
dependent voice recognition with 
DTMF tone recognition will allow you 
to reserve certain functions only for 
yourself. 

Circuit Cellar Feedback 

Circuit Cellar Feedback is a new 
feature I'm starting. Every month, I'll 
answer letters about past projects. 




Photo 6: One of the features of the Lis'ner software is the ability to make and 
test a recognition vocabulary. In the modified editor program shown here, as the words 
are spoken, the acceptance level is noted so the user can select words with less 
interference. Words like "computer" and "sequence" have few differentiation 
problems. "Nine" and "mine" would present difficulties, as would "next" and "text'.' 



This month's Circuit Cellar Feedback 
begins on page 430. 

Next Month 

I'll show you how to build an AC I/O 

controller. ■ 

Special thanks to Dennis Intravia for his work 
on the recognition software. 

Diagrams and data specific to the SP1000 are 
reprinted courtesy of General Instrument. 

Editor's Note: Steve often refers to previous 
Circuit Cellar articles. Most of these past ar- 
ticles are available in reprint books from 
BYTE Books, McGraw-Hill Book Co., POB 
400, Hightstown, NJ 082 50. 

Ciarcia's Circuit Cellar, Volume I covers articles 
that appeared in BYTE from September 1977 
through November 1978. Volume 11 covers 
December 1978 through June 1980. Volume 
111 covers July 1980 through December 1981. 
Volume IV covers January 1982 through June 
1983. 

The following items are available from 

The Micromint Inc. 
561 Willow Ave. 
Cedarhurst, NY 11516 
(800) 645-3479 for orders 
(203) 871-6170 for information 

1. Apple II Lis'ner 1000 with SP1000 recogni- 
tion/synthesis components only— includes 
headset-style microphone and software on 
disk. 

VR01 assembled and tested $189 

VR02 complete kit $149 

2. Apple II Lis'ner 1000 with SP1000 recogni- 
tion/synthesis components and SSI-263 
phoneme synthesizer chip with text-to- 
speech algorithm— includes headset-style 
microphone and software on disk. 

VR03 assembled and tested $2 59 

VR04 complete kit $219 

3. VR01/VR02 phoneme-synthesis upgrade 
to VR03. Includes SSI-263, miscellaneous 
components, and text-to-speech algorithm 
on disk. 

VR05 VR01/VR02 upgrade kit $79 

4. Commodore 64 Lis'ner 1000 with SP1000 
recognition/synthesis components— includes 
headset-style microphone and software on 
disk. 

VR10 assembled and tested $149 

VR11 complete kit $119 

5. Apple 11 speech experimenter's kit- 
includes SP1000, 7.16-MHz ceramic 
resonator, ADC 0831 A/D chip, Lis'ner 
manual, and Lis'ner software on disk. 
VR20 complete kit $60 

Please include $4 for shipping and handling 
in the continental United States, $10 else- 
where. New York residents please include 8 
percent sales tax. 



To receive a complete list of Ciarcia's Cir- 
cuit Cellar project kits, circle 100 on the 
reader-service inquiry card at the back 
of the magazine. 



124 BYTE ■ NOVEMBER 1984 



by Bruce F. Webster 



A GO BOARD 
FOR THE 
MACINTOSH 



Explore the capabilities of the Mac and 
MacFORTH with this computerized game 



(Editor's Note: Although Mr. Webster's program is rather straightforward, you will need some previous 
experience with FORTH to understand this program. His comments and descriptive word names 
demonstrate how these things make a FORTH program more readable and easier to understand] 

I bought a Macintosh about three weeks after Apple announced and released 
it. Despite the marvelous things it can do, 1 felt frustrated because / couldn't 
make it do more. T\vo months later, though, I received a copy of MacFORTH 
(from Creative Solutions Inc.), which gave me substantial access to the Mac's 
myriad features. After writing several small programs, I decided to try something 
a little more ambitious: bringing up a go game board on the Mac 
Go is an Asian game of ancient origin (see the text box The Ancient Game of 
Go" on page 434). Played with black and white stones on a wooden board, go has 
simple rules but subtle and complex strategies. Unlike chess, go has not readily 
yielded to computerization, so this program does not attempt to play against a human 
opponent. Instead, it provides a board with which two people can play a quick, friend- 
ly game. 

I wrote this program for several reasons. First, the program does most of the book- 
keeping for you: removing captured stones, preventing illegal moves, counting ter- 
ritories, and so on. Second, you can't accidentally jiggle or bump the board and 
send the stones flying. Third, I wanted to learn how to use MacFORTH. (By reading 
the code, you can learn about MacFORTH, too.) The board is 1 3 by 13 inches (often 
used instead of the usual 19 by 19 inches), which makes for a quicker game. 

The program, given in listing I, is organized into 30 screens, a division of code 
peculiar to FORTH (a screen is 1024 bytes of text, displayed as 16 lines of 64 
characters). lhb\e 1 shows a rough breakdown of the program by screens. 
The program is not as long as it seems— I could have fitted it into fewer than 30 

{continued) 

Bruce F. Webster (do FTL Games, 7907 Ostrow St., Suite F. San Diego, CA 92111) is « Macintosh 
owner, FORTH and go enthusiast, and contributing editor of BYTE. He wrote a go-playing program 
as his project for a class in artificial intelligence and is currently working on another go-playing program 
that builds on top of the listing in this article. 



NOVEMBER 1984 • BYTE 125 



screens, but this would have been bad 
programming practice. Instead, I com- 
mented heavily on the routines, which 
expanded the program's size con- 
siderably. Also, I suspect that my 
FORTH coding could be improved in 
quite a few places; 1 ask for patience 
(and suggestions) from those more 
experienced than I. 



Inside the Go Program 

This go program uses many of the 
Macintosh's unique features: custom 
menus and their command-key equiv- 
alents, windows, graphics, input using 
the mouse, and even a custom 
mouse-cursor shape (while a game is 
in progress, the cursor becomes a 
round circle the color of the player 
whose move it is). By looking at cer- 
tain parts of the program, you can see 
how the Macintosh and MacFORTH 
amplify each other's efforts. (See the 
text box "How the Program Works" on 
page 445.) 

Creating the board window: Screen 2 
(lines 1-5) defines the window for the 
go board and displays it on the 
screen. Screen 2 (line 8) creates the 
"wood-grain'' pattern used to fill the 
go board itself. This pattern is 8 by 8 
pixels and uses 8 bytes; the first byte 
is the top row of the pattern, and the 
most significant bit of each byte forms 
the leftmost pixel of a row. 

Screen 16 (lines 6 to 14) contains 
the routine draw. board . This word 
creates the board's frame, fills it with 
the wood-grain pattern, puts the grid 
on the board, and prints the headings 
for tallying the stones captured by 
each side. 

Defining custom cursors: Screen 4 (lines 
1 to 12) defines the two cursors 
( wcurse and bourse ) used to let the 
players place their stones on the 
board. Each cursor is 68 bytes or, 
more logically, 34 (16-bit) words long. 
The first 16 words form the 16- by 
16-pixel shape of the cursor itself, 
following the top-left convention of 
the wood-grain pattern (the first word 
is the top row, with the most signifi- 
cant bit of each word being the left- 
most pixel in a row). The next 16 
words form the 16 by 16 mask, which 
defines what portion of the area under 
the cursor shows through. If a bit is 
0, then the area underneath shows 
through; if a bit is 1, then it is blocked 
out. The last two words specify the 
row and column numbers, respective- 



Table 1 


: Screen contents of the go program (listing 1). 


Screen 


Contents 





program information 


1 


load block (executed when block file is loaded) 


2-4 


definitions of constants, variables, and data structures 


5-7 


various utility routines 


8 


expand routine for tracing armies 


9-10 


more utilities 


11-15 


routines to handle placing and capturing stones 


16-17 


game save and restore routines 


18-20 


endgame routines (pick up stones, count territory) 


21 


routines to manipulate the Go menu 


22-25 


driving routines for major portions of the game 


26-28 


Go and Handicap menu routines 


29 


main body of program (listing captions) 



Listing I: The MacFORTH go program. FORTH programs are split into 
\024~byte units called screens, usually presented as 16 lines of 64 characters 
each. The parenthetical comment on the first line of most word definitions briefly 
describes the word. The part before the vertical bar provides a picture of the stack 
before and after the word is executed: for example, the notation "ric—val" should 
be read, "The word takes r and c from the stack (c is on top-of-stack) and 
returns val'.' 



SCREEN # "Go Blocks" 

( A simple go program for the Macintosh 



06/29/84 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 



Version: 1.0 
Author: Bruce F 



Webster 
FTL Games, Inc. 
7907 Ostrow, Suite F 
San Diego, CA 92111 



Last Update: 
Language: 



03:48:04 AM 

( 062884 bfw) 
28 June 1984 

MacFORTH 
Version 1.0 
Level 1.1 



Allows two people to play go on a 13x13 board, using the mouse 
to place stones. Detects and prevents illegal moves. Detects 
capture and removes stones. Ends game after two consecutive 
passes. Allows players to remove dead stones. Counts up con- 
trolled territory and declares winner. Allows 2 to 9 stone 
handicaps. Has "undo" feature to take back last move. 

Copyright (c) 1984 by Bruce F. Webster. 
All commercial rights reserved. 



SCREEN # 1 

( load block for 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 



SCREEN # 2 "Go Blocks" 

( create board window, data structures 

1 new. window board 



"Go Blocks" 
'GO" program 



options. menu I 

20000 resize. object I 

10000 resize, vocab 

cr ." Loading GO program..." 
2 load 

sys. window board send. behind 
init. cursor event. loop 



06/29/84 



03:48:10 AM 
( 060984 bfw) 



put up apple, FORTH options menus ) 
allocate memory for code, words ) 



06/29/84 03:48:15 AM 

( 062884 bfw) 
( define and name window for board ) 



126 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 



" GO Version 1.0 — © 1984 Bruce F. Webster" board w.title 

( set title ) 
40 40 330 460 board w, bounds ( set bounds of board window ) 

board add. window ( create actual window ) 

5 constant go. menu 6 constant hand. menu ( define menu #'s ) 



create texture hex 04000200 , 00010008 , 
decimal 



( "wood grain' 



create pstk 512 allot 
create tmap 256 allot 
create map 256 allot 



( used for stack for army search ) 

( used for capture detection ) 

( set aside data structure for board ) 



SCREEN # 3 "Go Blocks 

( variables, bmap, cmap 



06/29/84 03:48:22 AM 

( 060884 bfw) 
( current player's color: 1 = black, 2 = white 
variable freedoms ( values for a given army 

( stack pointer in pstk— incremented by 2 
( color flag: = empty, 1 = black, 2 = white, 3 = edge 
( game status flag — controls states 
variable wtaken ( total stones captured 

variable bspace ( total spaces controlled 

( used to detect consecutive passes 
( handicap level— 1 = none, 2. .9 = # of stones 
variable ko ( stone played, single stone taken 

variable tstones ( last taken, total # taken 

( bmap, cmap automatically adjust their size to fit everything 
create bmap bmap map - allot ( used for backup 

create cmap cmap bmap - allot ( used to save game 



1 variable bflag 

2 variable stones 

3 variable stptr 

4 variable color 

5 variable gflag 

6 variable btaken 

7 variable wspace 

8 variable pflag 

9 variable hlevel 

10 variable playy 

1 1 variable taken 
12 
13 
14 
15 



SCREEN # 4 "Go Blocks" 

( set up cursors for stones 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 



hex create wcurse 
03C00C30 , 10082004 



40024002 , 
, 1FF83FFC 
, 7FFE7FFE 



80018001 
03C00FF0 
FFFFFFFF 
00080008 . 
create bcurse 
03C00FF0 , 1FF83FFC 



FFFFFFFF , 
03C00FF0 , 
FFFFFFFF , 
00080008 , 
create stars 
04040A0A 
decimal 



7FFE7FFE 
1 FF83FFC 
7FFE7FFE 



40024002 
20041008 , 
, 7FFE7FFE 
, 3FFC1FF8 



7FFE7FFE 
3FFC1FF8 
7FFE7FFE 

3FFC1FF8 



06/29/84 



80018001 , 
0C3003C0 , 
, FFFFFFFF 
, OFF003CO 



FFFFFFFF 
0FF003C0 
FFFFFFFF 
0FF003C0 



03:48:31 AM 
' ( 060884 bfw) 
( cursor for white stone ) 

( shape) 

( mask) 

( offset ) 

( cursor for black stone ) 

( shape) 

( mask) 



040A0A04 , 07070704 



( offset ; 
( handicap locations on board ; 
070A0407 , 0A070707 , 



SCREEN #5 "Go Blocks" 

( bounds checking routines; draw.stone 



06/29/84 



03:48:44 AM 
( 060884 bfw) 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 



: legal ( n — n/- 1 or [ checks if n in 1 . . 13 ) 

dup 0> over 14 < and dup if ( nothing) else swap drop then ; 
: bounds ( n - low/high | converts row or col into bounds ) 

18*10 + dup 7 - swap 7 + ; 
: get. bounds ( r/c — x1/y1/x2/y2 | gets coords for spot 

bounds rot bounds rot swap ; 
: stretch. bounds ( x1/y1/x2/y2 — x1/y1/x2/y2 | expands by 1 

1 + swap 1 + swap 2swap 1 - swap 1 - swap 2swap ; 
: at. point ( coord - loc/flag | converts x/y to c/r 

1-18/ legal ; 

: draw.stone ( r/c/f — - | draws black stone at location 
>r get. bounds 2over 2over stretch. bounds frame oval 
r> 1 = if black else white then pattern oval ; 



— > 

{continued) 



ly, of the "active point" of the cursor. 
This defines the point considered 
when the cursor's coordinates are 
read. Both cursors have offsets of 
(8, 8), meaning that the center of each 
cursor is where it is "pointing" at. The 
FORTH word set.cursor makes one of 
these cursors active. (In this program, 
line 13 of screen 10 changes the cur- 
sor shape.) 

Drawing and erasing stones: Screen 5 
gives us draw.stone , a routine that 
draws the black and white stones 
once they have been placed on the 
board. It first draws a circular frame 
slightly larger than the stone, then 
draws a white or black (solid) circle for 
the stone itself. 

Screen 11 contains clear.stone , 
which removes a stone from the 
board. This word first erases the stone 
by filling the appropriate rectangular 
area with the wood-grain pattern ( tex- 
ture ). Then the word redraws the in- 
tersecting lines, doing the necessary 
clipping for correctly drawing the in- 
tersections of an edge or corner in- 
tersection. (The word vector interprets 
the top four items on the stack as two 
points and draws a line between 
them.) 

Controlling the program: Screens 22, 24, 
and 2 5 contain the four main driving 
routines of the program. Each con- 
tains a loop of the form begin 
do.events ... until . The FORTH word 
do.events returns a value that in- 
dicates if a special event has occurred. 
The constant mousedown is the value 
indicating that the mouse's button has 
been pressed; two of the driving rou- 
tines ( play.go and end.game , both 
on screen 24) use this to tell if a stone 
is being placed or picked up. In all 
four cases, this loop continues until 
the game state flag ( gflag ) changes 
(usually as a result of some selection 
on the Go menu), moving the pro- 
gram to another state. 

Screens 21, 26, 27, and 28 set up 
and handle the two menus (Go and 
Handicap). Screen 21 contains rou- 
tines to enable and disable the items 
in the Go menu (note that the Quit 
selection is never disabled). Screen 26 
creates both menus, specifying the 
entries in each. Screen 27 defines the 
results of any item selected from Go, 
while screen 28 does the same for the 
Handicap menu. Screen 28 also con- 
tains in it. prog ram , which contains all 
the code that is executed once short- 

{continued) 



NOVEMBER 1984 -BYTE 127 



ly after the board window is activated. 
This includes graphics initialization 
( ginit ), clearing the window ( page ), 
setting the origin to the upper-left cor- 
ner of the window ( upper. left ), defin- 
ing the pen size ( 2 2 pensize ), and 
setting the text mode to "overwrite" 
( srccopy textmode ). 

Screen 29 represents the highest 
level of the program. The routine 
exit. program does the final cleanup, 
deletes the Go and Handicap menus 
(making the FORTH window the active 
one), and changes the mouse cursor 
back to the familiar arrow. The routine 
go.program is the main body of the 
program itself. Below it is the phrase 
board on.activate gaprogram , which 
is directly executed when this block 
is loaded. This phrase "attaches" 
go.program to the window board . 
Whenever board is activated, a - 1 
("true") is pushed on the stack and 
go.program is executed. The same 
happens if board is deactivated ex- 
cept that a ("false") is placed on the 
stack instead. This causes go.program 
to use the "else" branch of the if . . . 
else . . . then construct to make an 
orderly exit. 

Loading the Program 

To use this program, boot up your 
working MacFORTH disk and double- 
click the FORTH BLOCKS file (to load 
the editor). Then type in the follow- 
ing command: 

include" Go Blocks" 

This will create a work file named Go 
Blocks and enable you to enter 
FORTH source code with the editor. 
Your next step is to key in the 30 
screens of text shown in listing 1. Do 
this one screen at a time and proof- 
read your work very carefully. Your 
biggest problem will probably be ac- 
cidentally omitting the right paren- 
thesis at the end of most lines; FORTH 
considers everything between that 
point and the next right parenthesis 
to be a comment. You might consider 
leaving off the comments altogether, 
putting them in later. 

You might get an error loading 
screen 6 if you have already loaded 
the MacFORTH editor. If this occurs, 
you can get the screen to load cor- 
rectly by adding the following 
definition: 

: 2dup over over ; 

{continued on page 434} 



SCREEN § 6 "Go Blocks" 06/29/84 03:49:00 AM 

( get.addr, put.on.map, get. stone, empty. spot ( 060884 bfw) 

: get.addr ( r/c — addr | calculate address into map 
1 - 13 * swap 1 - + map + ; 



1 
2 
3 

4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 



put.on.map ( r/c/f - r/c/f 
3 pick 3 pick 3 pick >r 
get.addr r> swap c! ; 



non-destructive placement on map) 

( duplicate parms and save f ) 
( get loc, restore f, and store ) 



: get. stone ( r/c - stone | gets stone value at r,c 
legal if swap legal if swap get.addr c@ ( check if legal spot) 



) 



else drop 3 then else drop 3 then ; 

: empty. spot ( r/c - r/c/flag | checks if spot is empty 
2dup get. stone 0= If -1 else then ; 



06/29/84 



( else off of board ) 



SCREEN # 7 "Go Blocks" 

(fill. spot, st+, push, pull, get.adj 

1 : fill, spot (r/c — - | sets loc to 3 = filled spot 

2 get.addr 3 swap c! ; 

3 : st+ ( n — | adds n to stptr and stores in stptr 

4 stptr @ + stptr ! ;' 

5 : push (r/c 1 pushes row, column onto pstk 

6 stptr @ pstk + dup rot swap c! 1 + c! 2 st + ; 

7 : pop ( r/c/- 1 or | gets row, column from pstk 

8 stptr @ pstk + 1 - dup c@ swap 1 - c@ - 2 st + 



03:49:14 AM 
( 060884 bfw) 



9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 



get.adj ( r/c/i — r/c | gets adjacent row/column 
CASE ( = down, 1 = up, 2 = right, 3 = left ) 
OF 1 + ENDOF 1 OF 1 - 

2 OF swap 1 + swap ENDOF 3 OF swap 1 
ENDCASE ; 



ENDOF 
swap ENDOF 



SCREEN # 8 
( expand 



"Go Blocks" 



06/29/84 



03:49:28 AM 
( 060884 bfw) 



1 : expand (r/c |c0unt stones, freedom of army at r,c ) 

2 stptr ! stones ! freedoms ! ( clear all values ) 

3 map tmap 256 cmove ( backup map for count ) 

4 2dup fill. spot push begin ( fill spot, push on stack, start ) 

5 pop 1 stones + ! ( pop stone from stack, increment counter ) 

6 4 do 2dup i get.adj ( check all 4 adjacent locations ) 

7 2dup get. stone dup ( get color and act appropriately ) 

8 CASE ( = space — add 1 to freedoms, fill it up ) 

9 OF 1 freedoms + ! drop fill. spot ENDOF 

10 12 RANGE. OF ( if color matches, add to army, else drop ) 

11 color @ = if 2dup fill. spot push else 2drop then ENDOF 

12 3 OF drop 2drop ( ignore edge ) ENDOF 

13 ENDCASE 

14 loop 2drop stptr @ 0= until ( continue until stack is empty) 

1 5 tmap map 256 cmove ; ( restore map from tmap ) — > 



SCREEN # 9 "Go Blocks" 

( lim, limit. bounds, blackif 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 



06/29/84 03:49:49 AM 

( 060884 bfw) 



lim ( n — n | forces n to 28 . . 244 

244 28 rot 2dup > if drop swap drop 
else swap drop 2dup < if else 
swap then drop then ; 

limit.bounds ( x1/y1/x2/y2 — x1/y1/x2/y2 
lim swap lim swap 2swap 
lim swap lim swap 2swap ; 

blackif ( — flag | checks if color = black 



) 
( force n > = 28 ) 

( force n < = 224 ) 



put limits on 

( condition x1 ,y1 to 28 . 
( condition x2,y2 to 28 . 



244 ) 
244 ) 

) 
(listing continued on page 438) 



128 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



Nonsense imitation 
can be disconcertingly recognizable 



English letter-combination frequencies can be used to 
generate random text that mimics the frequencies found 
in a sample. Though nonsensical, these pseudo-texts have 
a haunting plausibility, preserving as they do many 
recognizable mannerisms of the texts from which they are 
derived. For example, the following text was generated by the first 
sentences of this article: 

English letter-combination frequencies from text was generived. For 
example Though nonsentendes from text was the text was 
generated to generisms of that mimics the first sentencies from text 
the texts have a have a sample, they article: 

The nature of such texts has been little explored, in part because its been 
difficult to get samples. Claude Shannon generated ' ■ 'approximations to 
English" by hand in 1948, but the laborious calculation it involved 
prevented extensive study. This is clearly a task for a computer, but pro- 
grams have been hampered by the need for impractical amounts of 
memory. 

We offer a Pascal program, Travesty, to fabricate Hugh tenner and 
pseudo-text quickly from any input text. Students of fo*P* onourke teach 
style and linguistics will see possibilities. So may pro- Znatisk and computer 
grammers, since Travesty contains a feature that can ^2^X2' * 
greatly speed up general pattern-matching proce- university, Baltimore, 
dures. We add a special-case version that is (continued) md 2I2I8. 



NOVEMBER 1984 • BYTE 129 




BO BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



LLUSTRATED BY JOAN HALL, WITH APOLOGIES TO JAMES JOYCE AND HENRY JAMES 



Each of these writers 
had his own way 

matte 
he surely gave no thought. 



even speedier To make clear what IVavesty does, we'll first discuss lan- 
guage statistics and what they imply 

Language Statistics 

Finish typing a page of English prose, and the key you hit most often 
will have been the space bar. Either "e" or "t" will rank second. You did 
not make those decisions, the language did. In fact, the language makes 
three-quarters of your writing decisions for you. Not only do the letters 
observe preferred frequencies, they keep preferred company. A familiar 
example: write "Q" and (unless you are drafting a QANTAS ad or some 
comments on Iraq) the next character is almost sure to be "u" 

If probability coerces the successor to a single letter, what follows a 
letter pair is even more tightly bound. Write "th" and the probability is 
very high that what follows will be M e". If it is, then the character after 
"e" is most likely to be either a space or an "r". Pairs like "th" are called 
digrams; triplets like "the" are trigrams. They have frequencies, like let- 
ters. The most common English digram is "he"; you will find it three times 
in the sentence you are reading now 15 times in this paragraph. And 
you will guess correctly that as we move up from single letters to diagrams 
and trigrams, the probabilities that govern the next character grow ever 
more rigorous. By the time we've reached, say pentagrams, has the author 
any choice at all? 

\fes, he has; otherwise Henry James could have had no way to be Henry 
James, or James Joyce to be James Joyce At a fairly low level, the statistics 
of English would have taken over from both of them, and neither would 
have been distinguishable from The New York Times. 

But that is not what happens. Tftie, even with a James or a Joyce holding 
the pen, the statistics do not lie dormant. However, they no longer derive 
from the undifferentiated language, i.e., from a large sample of everything 
we can find. The significant statistics derive from the personal habits of 
James, or Joyce, or Jack London, or J. D. Salinger. Each of these writers, 
amazingly had his own way with trigrams, tetragrams, pentagrams, mat- 
ters to which he surely gave no thought. [continued on page 449) 



NOVEMBER 1984 -BYTE 131 



PART 2: SYSTEM CONTROL 



THE PICK 

OPERATING 

SYSTEM 



by Rick Cook and John Brandon 



Programming 
capabilities and 
control elements 



Rick Cook (2318 West Hayward. 
Phoenix, AZ 85021) is a freelance 
writer specializing in computers and high 
technology. He has written for Popular 
Computing and many other computer 
magazines. John Brandon (2432 West 
Peoria Ave., Suite 1303, Phoenix. AZ 
85029) has worked with the Pick oper- 
ating system for eight years and is 
president of interactive Systems, a Phoe- 
nix corporation that supplies software, 
education, and consulting for the Pick 
operating system. 

132 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



(Editor's Note: last month we looked at Pick's struc- 
ture and information-management facilities. This 
month, we'll discuss the system's control and pro- 
gramming capabilities and take a brief look at the 
IBM PC implementation of Pick {see the tat box 
on page 133).) 

Pick BASIC 

Like Access, Pick BASIC is an integral part 
of the Pick operating system. It is a com- 
piled/interpreted version of Dartmouth 
BASIC which makes it a rather distant 
cousin of the version of BASIC used on 
home computers. Unlike most microcom- 
puter versions of the language Pick BASIC 
contains all the constructs you need to write 
highly structured code. It is not, however, 
strongly typed like Pascal and it does not 
force you to declare variables before using 
them. 

Among the commands available in Pick 
BASIC are CASE, COMMON, IF . . . THEN 
. . . ELSE, FOR . . . NEXT, FOR . . . UNTIL, 
FOR . . . WHILE, LOOP . . . WHILE, and 
LOOP . . . UNTIL. There are also a number 
of matrix and array commands and other 
commands that have no close parallels in 
microcomputer BASICS (SLEEP, for in- 
stance). Writing modular programs is made 
easier by the use of statement labels (not 
line numbers) for references in flow-of- 
control commands. 

Pick BASIC supports two types of arrays. 
One is the conventional dimensioned array 
(via a DIM statement limited to about 3000 
elements). However, in Pick you don't have 
to specify the size of each element. Ele- 
ments in a dimensioned array will grow to 



absorb the data placed in them. Pick also 
supports dynamic arrays, which allow any 
number of elements of any size. Like a Pick 
item, the dynamic array will grow and shrink 
as elements are added and removed. An 
item in a Pick file is processed as an array. 
Pick BASIC contains a number of com- 
mands to specify and operate on elements 
in an array. 

In Pick, subroutines are separate pro- 
grams that can be compiled individually 
and linked into other programs as needed. 
This encourages, but does not force, you to 
write several small programs that can be 
linked together rather than one long 
program. 

One of Pick's strong points is that it makes 
writing applications easy. Many of the 
chores that are time-consuming in other 
programming languages, such as writing I/O 
(input/output) routines and complex data 
manipulations, are either not necessary with 
Pick or can be done with utilities that are 
built into the operating system. In addition, 
Pick BASIC has a powerful built-in debugger 
and facilities to automatically generate a 
program map and a variable cross-refer- 
ence table upon compilation. 

Why BASIC? 

At this time, BASIC is the only high-level 
programming language available for Pick. 
There are several reasons for this. 

One is simply historical. When Pick was 
evolving, in the late 1960s and early 1970s, 
BASIC was the most suitable high-level 
language available. Most of the other high- 
level languages familiar in the micro- 



computer world were either still under 
development, not yet thought of, or not 
widely known. 

Richard Pick's original plan was to use 
APL as the Pick high-level language. If he 
had used APL, the system might be a lot 
more attractive to theoreticians, but it would 
be a lot less useful for managers and pro- 
grammers. 

A second reason Pick just has BASIC is 
that Pick BASIC fixes most of the common 
problems associated with microcomputer 
BASICS as serious programming languages. 
It contains the constructs needed to write 
structured programs, as well as the kind of 
I/O support and string-handling facilities 
lacking in Pascal. Features like the 
COMMON statement, the use of labels, and 
the ability to chain subroutines encourage 
you to write modular code. Because the 
language is closely linked to the data- 
base-management system, primitives are 
available for searches and sorts. Because 
Pick BASIC is compiled, it avoids the speed 
penalty of a purely interpreted BASIC 

Pick BASIC is not strongly typed— delib- 
erately Forcing you to declare the type of 
all variables may prevent certain kinds of 
errors, but it makes extra work and imposes 
some frustrating limits unless the language 
has facilities for crossing type boundaries 
when useful. However, at run time Pick 
checks for things like alphabetic characters 
where numbers were expected. 

Furthermore, the Pick operating system 
contains a number of commands and utili- 
ties that can be used to do the equivalent 
of type checking and, in most cases, do it 
more thoroughly than strongly typed lan- 
guages can. For example, Pick BASIC con- 
tains string-handling utilities that will not 
only check to see that numbers rather than 
letters are entered but can check for the 
form of the numbers as well. If you want to 
specify that only numbers in the form NNN- 
NNN-NNNN are acceptable (as in a tele- 
phone number), you can do it easily. If you 
choose to check data types you can do so 
readily, but the system doesn't force you to 
do so. 

Many programmers who work in Pick 
BASIC say that it is more like Pascal than 
conventional BASIC. 

The fact that every Pick system comes 
with an essentially identical high-level 
language ensures a high degree of applica- 
tions portability (There are, however, some 
relatively minor differences among the ver- 
sions of Pick BASIC on various systems.) The 
Pick world doesn't have the kind of dif- 
ferences in dialect that plague even close- 
ly defined languages like C. 

But perhaps the biggest reason for 



limiting Pick to one language is that, by 
tying the language into the operating 
system, it can directly know the data struc- 
tures and other features of the system. By 
offering a single, tightly integrated, high- 
level language, Pick can use the system's 
abilities to full advantage from within the 
programs. Pick BASIC contains commands 
that let it operate directly on elements in 
the kind of three-dimensional dynamic ar- 
rays you can build with the Pick file 
structure. 

Incidentally, Pick Systems Inc. is report- 
edly planning to offer a C compiler as part 

{continued on page 474) 



IkE IBM PC 

Implementation 

Recently, Pick Systems Inc. ported Pick to the IBM PC XT. The IBM 
PC version of Pick is a full implementation. It converts the PC XT, or 
the PC with the expansion chassis and a minimum of 256K bytes of RAM, 
into a multiuser system capable of supporting three users. The implemen- 
tation will also work with some of the IBM PC-compatible computers such 
as the Compaq Plus, the hard-disk version of the Compaq portable 
computer. 

On the IBM PC Pick requires a 10-megabyte hard disk and 2 56K to 640K 
bytes of RAM. No hardware modifications are required and the system 
uses stock IBM PC expansion boards. The second and third users are sup- 
ported via RS-232C ports and serial terminals. 

The first user is supported with the computer's screen and keyboard 
treated as an intelligent terminal with memory-mapped video. In this mode, 
the IBM PC version of Pick offers underlining, half intensity, protected fields, 
and— if the graphics card is installed and a color monitor is used- 
selectable colors. All these features are supported by commands that are 
an integral part of the operating system. 

The hard disk is required partially because the Pick operating system 
is big and partially because it needs the read/write speeds of a hard disk 
to function effectively. On the IBM PC, Pick can operate with as little as 
4.5 megabytes of a hard disk, The Pick software occupies 2.5 megabytes 
of disk space so this minimum configuration leaves 2 megabytes for user 
data. 

Because Pick doesn't have to take up the entire disk, the user can keep 
other operating systems and their files on the disk as well and switch back 
and forth between them. However, only one operating system at a time 
can be used. 

Due to the way the Pick virtual memory operates, it wasn't practical to 
use the ROM BIOS routines on the IBM PC for disk I/O. The expanded 
PC BIOS on a PC XT takes control on a disk seek and read, keeping con- 
trol until it is done. This is fine for a single-user machine, but it ties things 
up seriously in a multiuser environment, lb get around this, Pick Systems 
wrote its own hard-disk I/O drivers. 

Like the other versions of Pick, the IBM PC Pick makes a disk I/O request 
and goes on to other things while the request is acted on. Once the opera- 
tion has been performed, the disk controller issues an interrupt that tells 
the monitor the request has been serviced and the data is now in memory. 

Although the performance of IBM PC Pick is limited by the 4.77-MHz 
clock speed of the 8088 microprocessor and the 8-bit data paths, perfor- 
mance is still acceptable According to the company, testing with some 
simple benchmarks indicates that in a computation-intensive operation, 
IBM PC Pick runs about 35 percent as fast as minicomputer implementa- 
tions. 



NOVEMBER 1984 • BYTE 133 




134 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 




by Leo D. Bores, M.D. 



AGAT 

A SOVIET 
APPLE II 
COMPUTER 



The Russians first microcomputer 
is a bad copy of the Apple 



THE AVERAGE SOVIET citizen would be star- 
tled to hear about personal computers. A 
computer? In the house? Ne voz moshna— 
impossible! In Russia, the language does not 
even have a word for "private," the manufac- 
turing emphasis is definitely not on con- 
sumer goods, the thought of having a dishwasher is a flight 
of fancy, and the thought of having your own computer 
certainly is Peter Pan time. For Russians, computers con- 
jure up images of huge buildings filled with exotic elec- 
tronic gear located in the bowels of a major university 
guarded by platoons of soldiers in the heart of Siberia. 
Things are changing slowly. Products from the West are 
beginning to show up in Russia (Pepsi is for sale in kiosks 
all over Moscow), and Russian products are appearing in 
the West. Still, it was a surprise when the Soviets intro- 
duced the prototype of a 



tabletop computer at a 
Moscow trade fair in July of 
1983. Produced by ELORG, 
(Electronorgteknika) the 
organization responsible 
for the purchase, manufac- 
turing, and sale of elec- 
tronic instruments and 
computers in the Soviet 
Union, the machine repre- 
sents a milestone for the 
Russians. Systems that 
ELORG has produced in 
[continued) 



ILLUSTRATED BY ROBERT TfNNEY 



Leo D. Sores, M.D. (7350 East 
Stetson Dr., Suite 203, Scottsdale, 
AZ 85251), is an eye surgeon, well 
known internationally for his pioneer- 
ing work (along with a Soviet eye 
surgeon) in the development of a 
radical new surgical procedure for the 
eradication of nearsightedness 
[myopia) and astigmatism— called 
radial keratotomy (RK). He conducted 
the first joint U.S.-U.S.S.R. seminar 
in medicine and now conducts semi- 
nars in ophthalmology for American 
surgeons in Moscow. He is president 
of Sun Bear Software, a small firm 
specializing in medical software. 

NOVEMBER 1984 'BYTE 135 



AGAT 



the past are in the minicomputer category and usually run 
a clumsy form of the CP/M operating system or a similar 
BIOS (basic input/output system). Direct copies of early 
model IBM 1401s and 370s are known to be in use in 
Russia, many controlled by old-fashioned paper-tape 
readers and punchers. Except for an occasional Hewlett- 
Packard and a rare DEC (and perhaps a VAX hidden away 
in the Ural Mountains), computer systems in Soviet institu- 
tions are outdated but serviceable. An Apple-compatible 
computer, therefore, is a definite first. 

I first saw the machine called the AGAT in August of 1983 
when I had an "opportunity to use it for a week. After 
booting it and examining its operation, I dubbed it the 
yablocka (Russian for apple). The operating system and ROM 
(read-only memory) seemed to be a direct lift from the 
Apple computer, with only a few minor differences, and 
the case is finished in a patriotic red, so the sobriquet was 
a natural. (See photo 1.) 

Hardware 

The machine is definitely not in the portable category. It 
is, rather, a "transportable" computer (that is, you would 
not get a hernia or a backache, as long as you didn't carry 
it too far). I suppose that you could call it robust. The 
monitor that comes with it weighs almost as much as the 
computer itself. It is a standard 30-centimeter composite 
color SECAM (systeme electronique pour couleur avec 
memoire) television set with an RCA connector at the back 
for a video signal. 

The keyboard clips to the front of the computer with 
two light-duty metal clips. There is no provision for stor- 
ing the connecting cable. The one-meter cable is per- 
manently affixed to the keyboard and terminates in a 9-pin 
DIN (Deutsche Industrie Norm) type connector for inser- 
tion into the back of the main housing. 

The keyboard is full size, and it is mounted so that the 
upper edge is elevated to tilt the keys about 1 5 degrees. 
The layout is that of a standard Russian typewriter, which 
resembles nothing you've ever seen; the Cyrillic alphabet 




Photo 1: The AGAT, the Soviet Union's first microcomputer. 



has 33 characters (31 sounded). The Control key is located 
in the extreme upper left corner. The Return key is only 
slightly larger than the other keys and is located where 
it could easily be struck by accident. I never did find the 
Escape key There is a full numeric keypad to the right, 
separated from the alpha keyboard by a row of presum- 
ably programmable function keys, and there is the usual 
row of number/miscellaneous keys at the top of the key- 
board. Cyrillic, as well as English, characters are embossed 
into the key caps, one below the other. Auto-repeat and 
lowercase are implemented. The debounce circuitry is 
shaky, and occasionally a stray character shows up, espe- 
cially during rapid data entry The feel of the keys is very 
similar to that of an IBM Personal Computer (PC), and they 
are about as noisy The elevation of the keyboard base 
(about 3.5 centimeters) and the slightly steeper-than- 
normal board angle would cause rapid fatigue as well as 
wrist pain after prolonged use. 

One standard-height 544-inch disk drive is built into the 
right side of the machine. There does not appear to be 
any provision made for adding another drive, at least not 
internally. There is no port for adding on a drive at the 
rear, either. The AGAT has ports for a printer, a serial com- 
munication port, and a keyboard, but no game port. The 
machine is convection cooled through the top, bottom, 
and rear. 

I did not try to open the case, but I peeked into the in- 
terior through the openings in the back and top. What 
I saw was not reassuring. I was confronted with a night- 
marish wiring maze. The boards were a sickly brown color 
and looked like the old semi-glass boards of ancient 
renown. I could not see anything resembling a mother- 
board (although it's possible that there was one buried 
down there somewhere) and had to assume that I was 
looking at a variant of an old "back-plane" system, and 
a hard-wired one at that. 

Software 

I had not expected to be examining a Russian computer— 
especially a Russian "Apple —so 1 had not come prepared 
with my "hammer and tongs" with which I dissect Apple 
disks. However, I was able to perform a few tests and make 
notes of some impressions of the system. In a later visit 
I was able to examine the DOS (disk operating system) 
in greater detail. 

The boot-up process seemed to be quite a bit slower 
than it would be on the Apple using DOS 3.3. This slug- 
gishness is not confined to the booting process, as I found 
out later. The drive is noisier than I expected, both from 
the motor and the head-positioning mechanism. The 
greeting program was in Russian and turned out to be a 
demonstration of the three graphics modes available. 

The scrolling rippled, suggesting the use of graphics 
mode to display text. This was verified after the demo, 
when I reset the computer. The computer dropped into 
normal text mode displaying garbled English characters. 

(continued on page 486} 



136 BYTE • NOVEMBER 19 



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NOVEMBER 1984 • BYTE 139 



^ 




:AY 



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air uiffiuffis 



« ^ 



BYTE 



Introduction to Semiconductors 

by Alan R. Milter 143 

The MC68020 32-bit Microprocessor 

by Paul F. Groepler and lames Kennedy ... 159 

The Xtar Graphics Microprocessor 

by Terry Coleman and Skip Powers 179 

RISC Chips 

by John Markoff 191 

Gallium Arsenide Chips 

by Phillip Robinson 211 

The 80286 Microprocessor 

by Paul Wells 231 

The PF474 

by Steve Rosenthal 247 



New Chips 

SEVERAL YEARS AGO a computer scientist told us, "The biggest problem 
presented by VLSI (very-large-scale integration) design isn't new fabrication 
or computer-aided design tools; our biggest problem is simply getting the 
designer's brain around a VLSI circuit." 

Cal Tech computer scientist Carver Mead has compared the density of 
current-generation VLSI circuits to street maps of major U.S. cities like Los 
Angeles and New York. He suggests that in the future, chip densities may ap- 
proach the complexity of a similar map of the entire United States. 

Yet many of the obstacles facing designers are being surmounted. Computer- 
aided design and manufacturing tools permit microprocessor designs that 
equal the performance of the newest generation of super-minicomputers. And 
at the IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference held in San Francisco 
earlier this yean four manufacturers showed off experimental 1 -megabit RAM 
(random-access read/write memory) designs. 

This month's theme articles focus on new chip design, including an introduc- 
tion to semiconductor technology new microprocessor designs, new design 
technologies, and specialized semiconductor applications. 

BYTE contributing editor Alan Miller opens the new-chip section by pro- 
viding a general introduction to semiconductor technology. Miller explains 
how semiconductors function at the most basic level. 

We have included articles on both the Intel 80286 and the Motorola 
MC68020 microprocessors. The 80286 might gain widespread acceptance 
because it is used in the IBM PC AT. Likewise, the MC68020 also could attract 
a major following; its predecessor, the MC68000, is used in Apple's Lisa and 
Macintosh and the emerging software is an indication that Apple could move 
to the MC68020 to power its future 3 2 -bit personal computers. 

BYTE editor Phil Robinson looks at gallium arsenide technology to remind 
us that more processing power and speed will be available in the future based 
on advances in material sciences. The pluses of gallium arsenide are simple; 
the chips are fast and they run cool. The first commercial chips are now 
available. 

One way of dealing with the complexity of VLSI circuits is to simplify micro- 
processor design. This is exactly what faculty and students at Stanford and 
the University of California at Berkeley have done in experimental RISC (re- 
duced instruction set computer) microprocessors. As BYTE editor John Markoff 
reports, using CAD (computer-aided design) tools developed on campus, the 
two research groups have created VLSI microprocessors that outperform com- 
mercial 16-bit and 32-bit microprocessors. 

Steve Rosenthal writes about a specialized application; the PF474, a semicon- 
ductor optimized to perform fast string-search operations on text files. 

Finally, Xtar Electronics explains some details of its graphics coprocessors. 



— ]ohn Markoff, Senior Technical Editor, and 
Ezra Shapiro, Wesf Coast Bureau Chief 



NOVEMBER 1984 -BYTE 141 




i ^^fpi 



%-.^ ■■■■■ * 









J^ > i; 



IEEE 488 



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INTRODUCTION TO 

SEMICONDUCTORS 



by Alan R. Miller 



What they are and how they work 



ELECTRICITY IS THE MIGRATION of 
charge carriers. In metals, these car- 
riers are electrons; in ionic melts (such 
as sodium chloride), they are ions; 
and in gases (e.g., in a fluorescent 
lamp), ions and electrons are carriers. 
The charge carriers in semiconductors 
can be either electrons or electron 
holes. 

This article covers the fundamental 
concepts behind conduction in semi- 
conductor devices, including the 
thermistor, rectifier diode, zener 
diode, and Schottky diode. In par- 
ticular, the relationship between the 
band gap and the Fermi level is ex- 
plored for each device. 

Band Theory 

According to quantum mechanics, or- 
bitalized electrons are restricted to 
certain values of energy. Some energy 
levels are allowed and others are not 
allowed. For a single atom, the allow- 
able energy levels are discrete, while 
a solid material has broad ranges or 
bands of allowable energy. 

The values of energy that are not 
allowed fall in an area known as the 
band gap, which lies between the 
allowable energy bands. An energy- 
band diagram (figure 1) shows energy 



increasing vertically; that is, an elec- 
tron that is higher than another has 
more energy. In the unexcited (ground) 
state, bands with lower energy are 
completely filled with electrons. The 
regions of energy between filled 
bands are free of electrons and are 
the forbidden band gaps. 

For a material to act as a conduc- 
tor of electricity, some of its electrons 
must be excited above the ground 
state into orbitals that will allow them 
to roam across the material. For some 
materials, the top band is only partly 
filled with electrons; that is, energy 
states are available within this band. 
This material is an electrical conduc- 
tor since very little energy is needed 
to raise an electron to the next level 
and make it into a charge carrier. 
Figure la shows the corresponding 
energy-band diagram. For other ma- 

Alan R. Miller is a professor at New Mexico 
Institute of Mining and Technology {Socorro, 
NM 87801) where he has taught materials 
science, thermodynamics, electrical engineer- 
ing, and programming methods since 1967. 
He holds a Ph.D. in engineering from the 
University of California at Berkeley, and he 
has written six books about computer 
languages and operating systems. 



terials, the top band is exactly filled. 
Electrical conduction is not possible 
unless an electron is given sufficient 
energy to promote it across the band 
gap to the next available (empty) 
band. These two bands, the top filled 
band and the next empty band, are 
respectively known as the valence 
band and the conduction band. This 
band picture, diagrammed in figure 
lb, corresponds to both semiconduct- 
ing and insulating materials. 

What distinguishes semiconductors 
from insulators? At room tempera- 
ture, the normal thermal vibration of 
the atoms can provide sufficient 
energy to promote an electron across 
the band gap if the gap is not too 
large. On the other hand, materials 
with large band gaps will have few 
electrons available for conduction. A 
material with a large band gap is 
known as an insulator. However, if the 
band gap is small, the material is 
known as a semiconductor. Perhaps 
it should be called a semi-insulator. 

The Fermi Level 

At any temperature above absolute 
zero, energy will be available for the 
promotion of electrons. The higher 
the temperature, the more conduction 



NOVEMBER 1984 -BYTE 145 



SEMICONDUCTORS 



The variation of 
conductivity with 
temperature and light 
can be useful 

electrons can be found at any given 
energy level. The energy level where 
the probability of finding a conduc- 
tion electron is exactly one-half is 
known as the Fermi level. At absolute 
zero, all available states below the 
Fermi level are filled and all states 
above the Fermi level are empty. 

For a conductor, the Fermi level lies 
in the partially filled band at the top 
of the electrons. By contrast, the 
Fermi level for an insulator or semi- 
conductor lies in the band gap mid- 
way between the valence band and 
the conduction band. The Fermi levels 
for a conductor and for an insulator 
or semiconductor are marked by E f in 
figure 1. Notice that the Fermi level 
lies within a band for a conductor but 
it lies in the band gap for a semicon- 
ductor or insulator. 

Electron Holes 

When a valence electron becomes a 
conduction electron in a semiconduc- 
tor, it leaves a space in the lower- 
energy bonding orbitals that is avail- 
able for other electrons. This "electron 
hole" can carry electrical current just 
as an electron can; since both have an 
equivalent charge. (Of course the 
charges have opposite sign.) Clearly 
for each valence electron promoted 



across the band gap to the conduc- 
tion band, one electron hole is pro- 
duced. In this case, there are an equal 
number of conduction electrons and 
electron holes, and the material is 
called an intrinsic semiconductor. 

Mobility of Charge 
Carriers 

Electrons and holes respond to elec- 
tric fields in different ways. Electrons 
move against the electric field while 
holes move with the field. (In reality, 
of course, bonding orbitals do not 
move at all. The holes only appear to 
move as electrons are promoted out 
of one bonding orbital and fall into 
another, just as the sequentially lit 
lightbulbs of a movie marquee appear 
to move across the sign.) Although 
the two types of carriers move in op- 
posite directions, they also have op- 
posite charge. Consequently, the re- 
sulting electrical current is the sum of 
the two parts. 

Movement of electrons and holes is 
not symmetrical; they do not move at 
the same speed. The relative veloci- 
ty of charge carriers is known as the 
mobility, the velocity relative to the 
electric field. The units of mobility are 
m/s (meters/second) divided by V/m 
(volts/meter), or m 2 /v s. Mobility 
changes from one material to the 
next. However, the mobility of the 
electron is always greater than that of 
the corresponding hole. The ratio can 
be as small as three or as large as 
several hundred. The mobility changes 
with temperature and with the con- 







"Ef 










CONDUCTION BAND 








t 
Eg - 

\ 




"Ef 






VVALENCE BANDV/ 

/ /////////////y 






(la) 




(lb) 





Figure 1 : Energy-band diagram for a conductor (a) and for an insulator or 
semiconductor (b). 



centration of the carriers. If you keep 
in mind that the only thing that really 
moves is the electron, the reason why 
holes "move" more slowly is readily 
apparent. Holes would move at the 
same speed as electrons only if each 
conduction electron moved directly 
and unfailingly to the next available 
bonding orbital. Quantum mechanics 
tells us that the probability of this is 
always and necessarily less than one. 

Temperature, Light and 
Conductivity 

The normal thermal vibration of 
atoms can provide the energy need- 
ed to promote a valence electron to 
the conduction band. Consequently 
the electrical conductivity (the recip- 
rocal of resistivity) increases with in- 
creasing temperature. For an intrinsic 
material the relationship is 

s = A exp(-E g l2kT) 

where s is the conductivity, A is a con- 
stant, E g is the band gap, k is 
Boltzmann's constant, and 7 is the ab- 
solute temperature. This expression 
shows that the logarithm of conduc- 
tivity varies linearly with reciprocal 
temperature; that is, a plot of log con- 
ductivity versus 1/7 is a straight line. 

The variation of conductivity with 
temperature can be useful. An intrin- 
sic semiconductor designed for mea- 
suring or controlling temperature is 
known as a thermistor (for thermal 
resistor). 

The conductivity of a semiconduc- 
tor also changes when exposed to 
light. Photons of wavelength X (Greek 
letter lambda) have an energy 

E m hcl\ 

where h is Planck's constant and c the 
speed of light. 

When a semiconductor is exposed 
to light, valence electrons will be pro- 
moted to the conduction band if the 
energy of the photons is equal to the 
difference in energy between a 
valence band orbital and a conduc- 
tion band orbital. This is the principle 
of photodetectors. The band gaps of 
common semiconductors (in electron 
volts) are given in table 1 with the cor- 
responding wavelengths of the band 



144 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



SEMICONDUCTORS 



gaps. Silicon and germanium have 
band gaps that correspond to in- 
frared, cadmium sulfide's band gap is 
in the visible region, and zinc sulfide 
has a gap in the ultraviolet range. 
Therefore, silicon and germanium can 
be used to detect infrared light but 
not visible light, which has a higher 
energy. Cadmium sulfide is common- 
ly used for photographic light meters 
since its band gap corresponds to 
visible light. Zinc sulfide is used as a 



phosphor in fluorescent lamps, video 
screens, and television tubes. 

N- and P-TYpe Materials 

Silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge) use 
four valence electrons for bonding 
and appear as Group IV elements of 
the periodic table (figure 2). A semi- 
conductor made from silicon will be 
a single crystal in which each silicon 
atom is surrounded by four other 
silicon atoms. 



T^ble I: 


The band 


gap for selected semiconductors (eW=electron volts). 






Band Gap 


Corresponding 






(eV) 


Light 


Si 




1.1 


infrared 


Ge 




0.67 


infrared 


GaAs 




1.4 


infrared 


GaP 




2.3 


visible 


CdS 




2.4 


visible 


ZnS 




3.6 


ultraviolet 


diamond 




5.3 


ultraviolet 



If a small amount of a Group V ele- 
ment such as arsenic (As) is added to 
silicon, the arsenic atoms will occupy 
the regular silicon positions of the 
crystal structure. Arsenic has five 
valence electrons: since only four of 
these electrons are needed for bond- 
ing, the fifth will be loosely held. This 
fifth electron can readily become a 
charge carrier. The energy needed to 
promote this electron to the conduc- 
tion band is only about 4 percent of 
the band-gap energy of silicon. 

As stated earlier, when a valence 
electron is promoted to the conduc- 
tion band of an intrinsic semiconduc- 
tor, an electron hole is produced. 
However, when a conduction electron 
is created by doping a Group IV ele- 
ment with a Group V impurity no cor- 
responding hole is created. Thus 
silicon doped with arsenic has an ex- 
cess of electron carriers. The doped 
silicon is therefore known as an N- 

{continued) 





IA 


UA 
















O 




ZZT4 


ista 


YA 


WCA 


WLA 


O 






evecl^ 


«0^ 


1 
H 


2 

He 


S^o* 




















3 
Li 


4 

Be 


5 

B 


6 


7 

N 


8 




9 

F 


10 

Ne 




11 
No 


12 

Mg 


2HB ms 


YB MB 


JZZT8 


vtn 


VITT 


VIII 


IB 


MB 


13 

Al 


14 

Si 


15 

P 


16 
S 


17 
CI 


18 
Ar 


19 
K 


20 
Co 


21 

Sc 


22 

Ti 


23 

V 


24 
Cr 


25 
Mn 


26 

Fe 


27 
Co 


28 
Ni 


29 

Cu 


30 
Zn 


31 
Go 


32 


33 

As 


34 

Se 


35 
Br 


36 
Kr 


37 
Rb 


38 

Sr 


39 
Y 


40 
Zr 


41 
Nb 


42 

Mo 


43 

Tc 


44 

Ru 


45 

Rh 


46 
Pd 


47 


48 

Cd 


49 

In 


50 

Sn 


51 

Sb 


52 

Te 


53 
I 


54 
Xe 


55 

Cs 


56 
Bo 


57 
La 


k 72— 


73— -~-_ 
Ta 


W 


75 
"-Re — 


76 

-— s 


77 
If 


78 

Pt 


79 
Au 


80 

Hg 


81 
TI 


82 

Pb 


83 

Bi 


84 

Po 


85 
At 


86 
Rn 


87 
Fr 


88 
Ro 


89 
Ac 








































58 
Ce 


59 
Pr 


60 
Nrf 


61 
Pm 


62 

Sm 


63 

Eu 


64 

Gd 


65 
Tb 


66 
Dy 


67 
Ho 


68 
Er 


69 

Tm 


70 
Yb 


71 
Lu 








90 
Th 


91 

Po 


92 

U 


93 

Np 


94 

Pu 


95 
Am 


96 

Cm 


97 

Bk 


98 

Cf 


99 

Es 


100 
Fm 


101 

Md 


102 
No 


103 

Lw 





































Figure 2: The periodic chart of the elements. Customarily the A in group designations {e.g., Group III A} is omitted in discussing 
semiconductors. 



NOVEMBER 1984 • BYTE 145 



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THE 

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B-84-11 
Circle 346 on inquiry card. 



SEMICONDUCTORS 



type material. This designation does 
not mean that the material is nega- 
tively charged; that is, there are not 
more electrons than protons. Rather, 
it means that the material has more 
electrons than available slots in 
valence orbitals. 

If a small amount of a Group III ele- 
ment such as gallium (Ga) is added to 
silicon, the impurity atoms again oc- 
cupy regular silicon sites. But gallium 
can only provide three bonding elec- 
trons. Since four valence electrons are 
needed for bonding, the fourth is 
taken from the surroundings. 

Thermal energy has promoted the 
fourth electron into the conduction 
band, making it available for bonding. 
In the process, an electron hole was 
also created. Together they are known 
as an electron hole pair (EHP). Since 
the electron of this pair has been 
taken by a gallium atom for a bond, 
the electron hole is left by itself, 
creating an excess of electron holes. 
A material with excess electron holes 
is called a P-type material. 

Energy Bands for Extrinsic 

Semiconductors 

Semiconductors that have an excess 
of either conduction electrons or 
holes are known as extrinsic or doped 
semiconductors. P-type and N-type 
energy-band diagrams are given in 
figure 3. The band gap, E g , is the 
same, suggesting that both are for the 
same substrate. However, an acceptor 
band is near the bottom of the band 
gap of the P-type material. The accep- 
tor band is separated from the 
valence band by a small acceptor 
band gap, E a . A similar donor band 
is near the top of the band gap for the 
N-type material. The donor band is 
separated from the conduction band 
by a small donor band gap, E d . 

Notice that the Fermi levels are not 
in the center of the extrinsic band 
gaps as for intrinsic semiconductors. 
The Fermi level is below the midpoint 
for the P-type material and above the 
midpoint for the N-type material. Let's 
look at the N-type more closely. 

The relatively free fifth electron 
originally associated with the Group 

[continued) 



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SEMICONDUCTORS 



V impurity can become a conduction 
electron by applying a small amount 
of energy equal to the donor band 
gap. This amount of energy is con- 
siderably less than the energy needed 
to promote a valence electron across 
the band gap to the conduction band. 
Because the donor band gap is rela- 
tively small, with a small concentra- 
tion of donor atoms, the donor elec- 
trons are thermally excited to the con- 
duction band at room temperature. 
But the temperature is not high 
enough to promote electrons from 
the valence band to the conduction 
band. Thus, the conductivity of an ex- 
trinsic semiconductor is essentially 
constant at room temperature, unlike 
the great change in conductivity with 
temperature that occurs in an intrin- 
sic semiconductor. 

Compound Semiconductors 

I have been discussing semiconduc- 
tors that are primarily one element, 
such as silicon or germanium. When 
doped | with a small amount of a 
Group III or Group V element, the 
structure is still predominantly that 
of the Group IV element. However, 
another class of semiconductors, 
known as the compound semiconduc- 
tors, combines two elements in equal 
proportions. 

The chemical element immediately 
to the left of germanium on the 
periodic table (figure 2) is gallium, an 
element with an atomic diameter 
about the same size as that of ger- 
manium, but with one less electron. 
The element arsenic is immediately to 



the right of germanium. It too is about 
the same size, but has one additional 
electron. A compound made of equal 
parts of gallium and arsenic is similar 
in certain ways to germanium; that is, 
the total number of electrons will be 
the same. Furthermore, the bonding 
is similar to germanium. Each atom of 
gallium is surrounded by four atoms 
of arsenic and each atom of arsenic 
is surrounded by four atoms of 
gallium. The resulting band gap, 
however, is larger (table 1). 

A material of this type is known as 
a III-V compound semiconductor. 
Most of the Group III and Group V 
elements can combine in this way. 
Sometimes two Group III elements 
are combined with a Group V ele- 
ment or vice versa. Gallium aluminum 
phosphide and gallium arsenide 
phosphide are examples. 

A III-V compound semiconductor 
made with equal parts of Group III 
and Group V will be intrinsic. How- 
ever, extrinsic compound semicon- 
ductors are possible. Adding small 
amounts of zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), 
or silicon to gallium arsenide pro- 
duces a P-type material, while adding 
sulfur (S) or selenium (Se) makes it N- 
type. 

The P-N Junction 

Simple semiconductors are a single 
crystal throughout. If such a material 
is pure, the semiconductor is intrinsic. 
However, by adding one type of im- 
purity to one end and another to the 
other, you can create a P-N junction, 
a device with two different regions. If 



CONDUCTION BAND 



]' 


CONDUCTION BAND 










t 











.__-_ e* 


1 


1 


s;s/,>s///////A f 






t 

En 


/'VALENCE BAND ] 



77777 

VALENCE BAND; 



'/VALENCE BAND// 



Eg 

If 



a Group III impurity is added to the 
left end and a Group V impurity is 
added to the right end, then the left 
end will be P-type and the right end 
will be N-type. The resulting material 
is diagrammed in figure 4. 

Because of the small concentration 
of impurities in a P-N junction device, 
the structure is still physically the 
same throughout its length; that is, 
despite an excess of holes on the P 
side and an excess of electrons on the 
N side, the crystal structure and band 
gap remain the same throughout the 
device. 

As described above, a P-N device 
has an excess of holes (the majority 
carrier) in P-type material on the left 
side and an excess of electrons on the 
right. At some point near the center, 
the concentration of the two carriers 
is equal and the material is intrinsic. 
The energy-level diagram for the P-N 
junction (figure 4) shows the bands 
distorted so that the Fermi level is 
constant throughout. Notice that the 
valence band is close to the Fermi 
level on the P side while the conduc- 
tion band is close to the Fermi level 
on the N side. 

Motion of Carriers 

The operation of a P-N junction in- 
volves two types of carrier movement. 
The charge carriers move from 
regions of high concentration to 
regions of lower concentration. This 
movement is called a diffusion cur- 
rent. The movement alters the local 
electric field, which in turn induces 

[continued] 





p 


N 




1 


w//////<^ 


^4^%^ 
















-E f 




jjjl 




^//////M 





Figure 3: Energy-band diagrams for P-type (left) and N-type (right) semiconductors. 



Figure 4: A P-N junction device and the 
corresponding energy-level diagram. 



148 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



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NOVEMBER 1984 • BYTE 149 



SEMICONDUCTORS 



the charge carriers to move. This 
charge carrier movement in response 
to electric field fluctuation is called a 
drift current. With two types of charge 
carriers and two types of movement, 
four separate currents must be con- 
sidered. 

Since in the P-N junction a greater 
concentration of holes exists in the P- 
type material than in the N-type 
material, a diffusion current of holes 
occurs from the P side to the N side 
(from left to right in figure 4). Similar- 
ly a greater concentration of elec- 
trons exists in the N-type material. 
Here a diffusion current of electrons 
moves from the N side to the P side 
(from right to left). This diffusion 
creates a charge imbalance and an in- 
ternal electric field. The electric field, 
in turn, creates a drift current. 

The electric field of the P-N junction 
creates drift currents for both the 
electrons and holes. In contrast to the 




Figure 5: A forward-biased P-N junction 
device and the corresponding energy-level 
diagram. 

diffusion current, the drift current for 
electrons begins in the P region 
(where electrons are minority carriers) 
and moves to the N region (that is, the 
electron drift current moves from left 
to right in figure 4). The drift current 
for holes begins in the N region and 



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moves from right to left. Thus the dif- 
fusion currents arise from majority 
carriers while the drift currents begin 
with minority carriers. 

Since the electron diffusion current 
begins in the N region and ends in the 
P region, the electrons must climb the 
potential energy barrier from the con- 
duction band on the N side to the 
conduction band on the P side. Hole 
diffusion is similar. You can visualize 
this process by imagining that the 
energy of holes increases downward 
in the band diagram, opposite to the 
energy of electrons. The diffusion cur- 
rents are limited by the potential bar- 
rier they must climb at the P-N 
junction. 

In contrast to the diffusion current, 
the drift currents do not have to climb 
an energy barrier. An electron in the 
P region moving to the N region falls 
in energy as it crosses the P-N junc- 
tion. The drift current, therefore, is 
limited by the very low concentration 
of the minority carriers. 

All of the above can be more clear- 
ly understood from the perspective of 
orbital theory In the absence of an 
external field, there is no directionali- 
ty to the overall motion of the elec- 
trons. Without a vectored migration of 
electrons, there is no ordered ar- 
rangement of the orbitals they leave 
behind. That is, when no electric field 
is externally applied, the two diffusion 
currents and two drift currents cancel 
each other and the semiconductor is 
at equilibrium. However, when an ex- 
ternal electric field is applied, two 
situations can occur— forward bias or 
reverse bias. 

ThE Forward-Biased 
P-N Junction 

If you apply an external electric field 
to a P-N junction so that the positive 
lead is attached to the P side and the 
negative lead to the N side, the P-N 
junction is forward-biased. The energy- 
level diagram for a forward-biased P- 
N junction is shown in figure 5. 

By comparing figures 4 and 5, sev- 
eral features are apparent. The band 
gap is the same throughout for both 
examples. However, in figure 5 the 

{continued) 



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SEMICONDUCTORS 



Fermi level is displaced at the junction 
by an energy £ = qV where q is the 
charge on the carrier (in coulombs) 
and V is the applied voltage. The 
energy £ is in joules. The Fermi level 
is higher on the right or N side. 

Another feature of the forward- 
biased P-N junction is a lowering of 
the potential energy barrier between 
the conduction band on the P side 
and the conduction band on the N 
side. As discussed earlier, this energy 
barrier impeded the diffusion current 
since the carriers must climb the bar- 
rier to cross the junction. On the other 
hand, the drift current falls down in 
energy when crossing the junction. 
Therefore, a forward bias applied to 
a P-N junction should increase the dif- 
fusion current but should not alter the 
drift current. Figure 6 shows the rela- 
tionship between the applied external 
electric field and the resulting current 
for a P-N junction. The curve indicates 
that with a forward bias (positive V) 
the current rapidly increases with the 
voltage. 

The Reverse-Biased 
P-N Junction 

If the external electric field is reversed, 
that is, if the positive lead is attached 
to the N side and the negative lead 
is attached to the P side the P-N junc- 
tion is reverse-biased. The energy- 
level diagram for a reverse-biased 
junction is shown in figure 7. 

A comparison of figures 4, 5, and 
7 shows that a reverse bias separates 
the Fermi levels but in the opposite 
direction of a forward bias. The Fermi 
level is higher on the P side than on 



I 

1 


J 




S w 


io 


-^ V 





v////////^ 


^B 








-E» 




111 




y//////////A 





Figure 6: The current-voltage relationship 
for a P-N junction. 



Figure 7: A reverse-biased P-N junction 
device and the corresponding energy-level 
diagram. 



the N side. Futhermore, with reverse 
bias the potential energy barrier to 
carrier diffusion is greater than the 
equilibrium value, whereas a forward 
bias reduces the barrier. 

Diffusion current is negligible with 
no applied field; therefore, it is also 
negligible for a reverse bias because 
the barrier is greater. Drift current is 
not affected by the external field since 
carriers are falling down the potential. 
However, the drift current is not very 
large anyway since it depends on the 
concentration of minority carriers. 
The drift current, also known as the 
reverse saturation current, is shown as 
Io in figure 6. 

T>iE P-N Rectifying Diode 

The current-voltage relationship shown 
in figure 6 indicates that current flows ■ 
in a P-N device when the voltage is ap- 
plied in a forward direction but not 
when the voltage is reversed. A rec- 
tifier is a device that requires that cur- 
rent flow with only one bias direction. 
Alternating current periodically 
reverses direction and rectifying this 
current is sometimes necessary. The 
rectifying diode can perform this task. 
The electronic symbol and the corre- 
sponding identification of polarity are 
shown in figure 8. Positive current 
flows in the direction of the arrow, 
from the P side to the N side. 

High Carrier Concentration 

The semiconductors described above 
have a relatively low concentration of 
impurities (measured in parts per bil- 



lion). The Fermi level for these semi- 
conductors is off center but still within 
the band gap. As the impurity concen- 
tration in a semiconductor increases, 
the Fermi level moves further and 
further from the center position 
(downward for P-type and upward for 
N-type). If the concentration of im- 
purities is very large, the Fermi level 
will move out of the band gap and will 
actually be located within the valence 
band for P-type and within the con- 
duction band for N-type. A material 
with a high impurity concentration is 
known as a degenerate semiconduc- 
tor. Since the Fermi level is located 
within a band, rather than in the band 
gap, the material exhibits the proper- 
ties of a conductor rather than an in- 
sulator. Several semiconductor 
devices are based on degenerate 
semiconductors, including the zener 
diode. 

The Zener Diode 

Zener diodes are used to regulate 
voltage. To diagram the operation of 
a zener diode the curve given in figure 
6 must be extended. For a P-N diode, 
the forward current increases rapidly 
with the voltage, but the current for 
a reverse bias is negligible. However, 
if the reverse voltage is increased suf- 
ficiently, a point will be reached where 
current will flow (figure 9). The voltage 
where this breakdown occurs is 
known as the peak inverse voltage 
(PIV) and is one specification for a rec- 
tifying diode. Reverse breakdown can 
result from one of three effects: 
punch-through ("frying" the chip), 

{continued) 




Figure 8: The electronic symbol for the 
rectifying diode and the polarities of the 
corresponding material 



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SEMICONDUCTORS 



Schottky diodes are 
used in digital circuits 
because they can be 
turned on faster. 

avalanche (nondestructive ionization), 
or zener (field effects) breakdown. 

A zener diode is made by lightly 
doping one side of the junction (e.g., 
the P side) and heavily doping the 
other side (e.g., the N side). For such 
a semiconductor, the Fermi level lies 
in the band gap of the P side but is 
within the conduction band for the N 
side. At reverse breakdown, electrons 
can tunnel (another quantum me- 
chanics concept) from the valence 
band of the P side to the conduction 
band of the N side. (Technically, tun- 
neling is a thin-layer effect while zener 
is a field effect, but it is common to 
call any classically forbidden energy 
barrier penetration tunneling.) The 
idea here is that the applied field is 
opposed by the field within the chip, 
resulting in a deformation of the 
chip's orbital. At some point, the in- 
duced field will so deform the orbitals 
that the potential energy barrier to 
reverse current flow is less than the 
ambient thermal energy. The resulting 
current is constant, independent of 
further applied voltage. All modern 
voltage regulators are based on this 
device. 

The electronic symbol and the cor- 
responding identification of polarity 
for the zener diode is shown in figure 
10. The symbol is similar to a rectify- 
ing junction except that the cross 
arms are broken to represent the let- 
ter Z. Positive current flows in the 
direction of the arrow, from the N side 
to the P side, since the zener diode 
is reverse-biased. 

Metal-Semiconductor 
Junctions 

TWo types of junction can form when 
a metal is attached to a semiconduc- 
tor depending on the work functions 
of the materials. (The work function 
is the minimum energy needed to 
remove an electron from a material.) 



For some metal-semiconductor com- 
binations a regular ohmic junction is 
formed. This junction is nonrectifying, 
and the current is directly propor- 
tional to the voltage. For other metal- 
semiconductor combinations, a recti- 
fying junction known as a Schottky- 
barrier diode is formed. The current- 
voltage curve is similar to the one 
shown in figure 6 for P-N junctions. A 
Schottky diode is not used for general 
rectifier applications since the reverse 
saturation (maximum) current is 
greater than that for a silicon P-N junc- 
tion. The advantage of a Schottky 
diode is that it can be turned on faster 
than a P-N diode. Therefore Schottky 
diodes are commonly used in digital 
circuits. (The S, eg., in the designation 
74S04, indicates a Schottky device.) 
The electronic symbol for a Schottky 
diode is similar to a zener diode ex- 
cept that the arms are bent more 
sharply to look like a squared-off 
letter S. 

Every semiconductor device must 
be attached to at least two metal lead 
wires so that it can be attached to 





I 


J 






S VI 




r 


v 





Figure 9: The current-voltage relationship 
for a P-N junction extended to reverse 
breakdown. 




Figure 10: The electronic symbol for the 
zener diode and the polarities of the 
corresponding material 



other devices. However, these leads 
must form ohmic rather than rectify- 
ing junctions. As discussed earlier, 
ohmic junctions can be formed be- 
tween certain combinations of metals 
and semiconductors depending on 
the work function. However, there is 
another way to ensure an ohmic 
junction. 

Increasing the concentration of im- 
purities in a semiconductor moves the 
Fermi level further from the center of 
the band gap. At some point, the 
Fermi level will enter the valence band 
for a P-type material or the conduc- 
tion band for an N-type material. The 
semiconductor is degenerate and the 
energy-band diagram now looks like 
that of a metal. Consequently, a junc- 
tion between a metal and a degen- 
erate semiconductor will always 
create an ohmic junction. Degenerate 
semiconductors are indicated with a 
plus symbol; that is, the symbol N + 
represents a degenerate N-type 
material and the symbol P + repre- 
sents a degenerate P-type material. 
Making a semiconductor degenerate 
at the point where the metal lead is 
attached ensures an ohmic contact. 

Conclusion 

In this article I have explored the fun- 
damentals of electrical conduction in 
solids with special emphasis on semi- 
conductors. I've considered some 
simple semiconductors, such as the 
thermistor, photodetector, rectifier 
diode, zener diode, and Schottky 
diode. You can obtain more informa- 
tion from the works cited below. ■ 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

1 . Bar-Lev, Adir. Semiconductors and Electronic 
Devices. 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: 
Prentice-Hall, 1984. 

2. Barrett, Craig, William D. Nix, and Alan 
S. Tetelman. The Principles of Engineering 
Materials. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice- 
Hall, 1973. 

3. Malmstadt H. V., and C G. Enke. Digital 
Electronics for Scientists. New York: W. A. 
Benjamin, 1969. 

4. Streetman, Ben. Solid State Electronic 
Devices. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 
1972. 

5. Van Vlack, Lawrence. Elements of Materials 
Science and Engineering, 4th ed. Reading, MA: 
Addison-Wesley, 1980. 



154 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



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NOVEMBER 1984 • BYTE 157 




PCTURBO!56...SpeedWinstheRace. 



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NEW CHIPS 



THE MC68020 

3 2 -BIT 
MICROPROCESSOR 

by Paul F. Groepler and James Kennedy 

The latest member of Motorola's 68000 family 
includes onSoard cache and virtual memory 



THE MC68020, the newest addition to 
the Motorola M68000 family of micro- 
processors, is a full 32-bit processor 
with separate 32-bit data and address 
buses, an on-board instruction cache, 
dynamic bus sizing, and a coproces- 
sor interface. It is object-code com- 
patible with the earlier members of 
the M68000 family but has new ad- 
dressing modes in support of high- 
level languages. 

The MC68020 is an HCMOS (high- 
speed complementary metal-oxide 
semiconductor) microprocessor with 
some 200,000 individual transistors 
on a 375- by 3 50-millimeter die, 
operating at a 16.67-MHz clock fre- 
quency (60-nanosecond clock period) 
and dissipating less than 1.5 watts of 
power. It can process instructions at 
a sustained rate of 2 to 3 million in- 
structions per second (MIPS) and at 
burst rates exceeding 8 MIPS. 

MC68020 Parts 

Figure 1 is a block diagram of the 
MC68020 with the various internal 
sections labeled. We'll briefly describe 
their functions. 
The sequencer and control unit are 



the chip managers. They control inter- 
nal buses, registers, and the execution 
unit. 

The execution unit contains the pro- 
gram counter (PC), the address, and 
the data. The PC section calculates in- 
struction addresses and manages 
pointers. The address section calcu- 
lates operand addresses and stores 
the registers available to the user. The 
data section performs all data opera- 
tions, such as immediate data value 
moves. It also contains the barrel 
shifter, which performs one-cycle 
shifts of any amount on data. 

The bus controller manages cache 
and external memory accesses. It also 
provides control for the various parts 
of the 68020 microprocessor and in- 
terprets the nanorom information. 
This information is combined with de- 
coding the instruction pipe to gener- 

Paul F. Groepler is a systems applications 
designer in the High-end Applications Engi- 
neering Department at Motorola, \ames 
Kennedy is a software engineer in the MPU 
Design Department at Motorola. You can 
reach them at Motorola Inc., POB 6000, 
Austin, TX 78762. 



ate control for the micromachine. 

The instruction prefetch and decode 
unit fetches and decodes an instruc- 
tion for execution by the execution 
unit. The prefetch is a three-word- 
deep on-chip instruction store. It elim- 
inates the need for the processor to 
sequentially fetch an instruction from 
external memory, decode and ex- 
ecute it, and fetch another. 

Instead, because of the sequential 
nature of instruction accesses, the 
prefetch can anticipate the next ac- 
cess and make it before it is needed. 
Thus, external memory fetches are an- 
ticipated and overlapped with current 
processor execution. 

The instruction addresses for the 
prefetch are calculated independently 
of data addresses, allowing for par- 
allel accesses of instruction and data 
addresses. This simultaneous access 
will occur if the data access is from 
external memory and the instruction 
access is from the instruction cache. 
When this happens, a simultaneous 
instruction and data access occurs. 

The 2 56-byte instruction cache in- 
creases performance by reducing the 

{continued} 



NOVEMBER 1984 -BYTE 159 




Circle 58 on inquiry card. 

WHY 

JOHNNY 

CAN'T 

READ 

HIS 

OWN 

CODE 

Johnny's 
A Good 
Programmer, 
Even Brilliant, 

uul- Johnny works in 8080 /Z80 assembly 
language, with a conventional assembler. 
That can make yesterday's brilliance 
today's garble, a maze of mnemonics and 
a jumble of meaningless labels. Johnny's 
program is less than self-explanatory — 
even for Johnny. 

Johnny could read his own code if he used 
SMAL/80 —the superassembler — and so 
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clarity and your productivity by giving you: 

■ Familiar algebraic notation in place of 
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■ Control structures like BEGIN . . . END, 
LOOP. . . REPEAT WHILE, and IF. . THEN . . . 
ELSE. . . to replace tangled branches and 
arbitrary label names (eliminating up to 90% 
of labels with no overhead imposed) 

■ Complete control over your processor — 
because SMAL/80 is a true assembler, it 
doesn't reduce execution speed or burden 
your program with its own runtime routines. 

SMAL/80, the assembler that handles like a 
high-level language, lets you do it right the 
first time, and lets you read and understand 
your work afterward — the next day or a 
year later. Users say SMAL/80 has doubled 
and even tripled their output of quality code. 
But don't fake our word for W—TRY IT! 

Use SMAL/80 for 30 days. If you're not 
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SPECIAL BONUS: Order before Dec. 31, 
1984, and get Structured Microprocessor 
Programming — a $25 book FREE! 
SMAL/80 for CP/M-80 systems (all CP/M 
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160 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



THE MC68020 



number of instruction fetches, or bus 
cycles, from main memory. This lets 
system performance increase because 
the processor's bus use is decreased, 
freeing the bus for other system bus 
masters. Only instructions are stored 
in the cache. Data accesses must still 
be read from main memory. 

Hardware and software may control 
the cache. Hardware contr ol is in the 
form of the cache disable (CDIS pin), 
which can disable the cache. The 
GDIS pin has priority and overrides 
any software setting. 

Software control is in the form of 
two control registers: the cache con- 
trol register (CACR) and the cache ad- 
dress register (CAAR). The CACR and 
CAAR are organized as shown in fig- 
ures 2 and 3. Bits 4 to 31 are unused 
and always read as zeros. The CACR 
lets the systems programmer enable 
or freeze the cache, clear an entry, or 
clear the entire cache. The CAAR is 
a 32-bit register that provides an ad- 
dress for cache control functions. This 



register is used only for the clear en- 
try (CE) function in conjunction with 
the CACR. 

Dynamic Bus Sizing 

A nice feature of the MC68020 for the 
designer as well as the programmer 
is the dynamic bus. Now a designer 
need not worry about excessive hard- 
ware "glue" to interface to 16- or 8-bit 
peripherals and a programmer need 
not worry about word or long-word 
aligned data in data space. The 
MC68020 allows transfers of 8-, 16-, 
and 32-bit data between 8-, 16-, and 
32-bit ports. The only requirement for 
data alignment is that it occur on a 
byte boundary. Instructions and any 
associated extension words must still 
fall on word address boundaries, but 
word/long-word alignment is no 
longer required for program space 
operands. 

The processor lets misaligned trans- 
fers occur by determining the data 

{continued) 



SEQUENCER 



CONTROL 
UNIT 



<*> 



c 



ADDRESS 
BUS 



C=j=) 



<2- 



EXECUTION 
UNIT 



INSTRUCTION 
PREFETCH 
AND 
DECODE 



C 



BUS 
CONTROLLER 



INSTRUCTION 
CACHE 



c=> 



BUS CONTROL 



Cffc>* 



Figure 1: MC68020 block diagram. 



31 




a 


7 

























!• 


° 


° 


° 


« 


l«l 


F 


1*1 


c 

CE 

F 
E 


= CLEAR CACHE 
= CLEAR ENTRY 
= FREEZE CACHE 
= ENABLE CACHE 





















Figure 2: The cache control register. 



31 




8. 7 




2 


1 


| 


CACHE FUNCTION ADDRESS 


1 


INDEX 


1 


1 





Figure 3: The cache address register. 



WE CUT 



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10 meg shown. 
NOVEMBER 1984 • BYTE 161 



THE MC68020 



port size during each bus cycle. By 
handshaking lines between the pro- 
cessor and external memory or pe- 
ripherals, the MC68020 can transfer 
this mismatched or mis-sized data. 
Figure 4 illustrates the workings of the 
internal hardware that makes this pos- 
sible and the alignment of operand 
bytes for an 8-, 16-, and 32-bit bus in- 
terfacing with the MC68020. 

Misaligned operand transfers can 
lead to an increased number of bus 
cycles because the processor might 
not be able to successfully transfer 



the misaligned data across the port 
within one bus cycle. A normal trans- 
fer occurring from an aligned 32-bit 
operand address across a 3 2 -bit bus 
to a 32-bit peripheral would take only 
one transfer cycle. 

In a mis-sized transfer, as well as a 
normal transfer, the peripheral uses 
the DSACKO and DSACK1 pins to sig- 
nal to the processor that it has a bus 
width of 8, 16, or 32 bits. The proces- 
sor outputs the operand transfer size 
using the SIZO and SIZ1 pins. 

Notice that with an 8-bit peripheral, 



MC68020 
OPI 0P2 



INTERNAL SOURCE/ DESTINATION 



MULTIPLEXOR 



EXTERNAL DATA BUS 






1 


2 


3 


31 V- ■ 


/ / 







ROUTING ANC 


> DUPLICATION 






" / 


\ \ 


031-024 023-016 


015-08 D7-D0 


31 

] 


' 


1 


■ 


r 


BYTE 


BYTE 1 


j BYTE 2 


BYTE 3 



32-BIT PORT 



BYTE 


BYTE 1 


BYTE 2 


BYTE 3 


31 


16 


BYTE 




BYTE 1 


8 -BIT PORT 


BYTE 2 


BYTE 3 





16-BIT PORT 



Figure 4: The MC68020 interface to various port sizes. 



LONG-WORD OPERAND 


OP0 


OPI 


0P2 


0P3 


31 

DATA 


i 
BUS 










D31 J D16 
WORD MEMORY 
MSB LSB 



MC68020 



MEMORY CONTROL 



XXX 


0P0 


OPI 


0P2 


OP3 


XXX 



SIZ1 


1 





S1Z0 



1 
1 



A2 





Al 

1 



A0 
1 





DSACK1 DSACKO 



Figure 5: Example of a misaligned long-word transfer to a word-wide bus. 



only data bits D3 1 to D24 need to be 
connected to the peripheral. Four bus 
cycles are necessary to complete this 
transfer with only 1 byte being moved 
across the bus per cycle. 

The MC68020 relaxes word and 
long-word alignment restrictions for 
data. It is now possible to execute an 
operand transfer across a memory 
boundary that only needs to be byte 
aligned. Even and odd word restric- 
tions are gone. Some performance 
degradation can occur, due to extra 
bus cycles needed to transfer mis- 
aligned long-word or word data across 
boundaries. 

Figure 5 shows a misaligned long- 
word transfer across a word-wide bus. 
In the example, a byte box with "xxx" 
denotes that the location in memory 
is not overwritten and remains un- 
changed. As you can see from this ex- 
ample, it is important for the system 
designer to control the enabling/dis- 
abling of the appropriate data buffers 
to avoid overwriting or misreading 
nonpertinerit data during a mis- 
aligned cycle. 

For clarity's sake, figure 5 also shows 
line A2 in offset of the transferred 
data into word memory. The first cycle 
runs with A2/A1/A0 being 001, show- 
ing an offset of 1 byte in memory. 
SIZ1/SIZ0 is 00, indicating that the 
processor has a long word left to 
transfer. The second cycle shows A2/ 
A1/A0 with a 2-byte displacement, 
and SIZ1/SIZ0 showing the processor 
with 3 bytes left to transfer. The third 
cycle has no offset on the address 
pins and the SIZE pins indicating 1 
byte left to transfer. There is a two- 
bus-cycle degradation here, but it is 
transparent to the programmer, let- 
ting him ignore the restrictions of data 
alignment. 

Coprocessor Interface 

Though the MC68020 is powerful it 
might not have all the special com- 
mands or capabilities that a designer 
requires. For this reason, the design- 
ers of the MC68020 incorporated a 
general coprocessor interface and in- 
structions. The coprocessor interface 
provides a means by which Motorola 

{continued} 



162 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



Not Dow Jones. 



THE SOURCE INVESTOR SERVICES -- MR. WYflTT: THIS IS TO CONFIRM YOUf 
ONLINE PURCHASE OF 500 SHARES WESTINGHOUSE AT $25 5/8 UNIT. YOUR~ 
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APPLICATIONS FOR ARCHITECTS? HOWARD -STC 301- 



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THE SOURCE/MICROSEARCH - THIS IS THE REVIEW YOU REQUESTED ABOUT 
SYMPHONY SOFTWARE. TITLE: A SYMPHONIC PERFORMANCE. AUTHOR: 
ANDERSON, DICK. PUBLICATION: PC WORLD (JUL 1984) TEXT FOLLOWS' 



Only The Source. 



Before you read this, read the computer 
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Because what you see there will tell you 
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And those are just a handful of the hun- 
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that explains just how powerful a resource 
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Or mail the reader card at the back of this 
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Online trading provided by Spear Securities, Inc., an independent 
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The Source services are offered in participation with Control Data 
Corporation. ©Source Telecomputing Corporation, 1984 
1616 Anderson Road, McLean, VA 22102 



INFORMATION NETWORK 




The most powerful resource any personal computer can have. 



NOVEMBER 1984 * BYTE 163 



THE MC68020 



and other coprocessors (floating 
point, fast Fourier transform, or graph- 
ics processors) can extend the 
MC68020. 

The coprocessor interface is de- 
signed to support synchronous oper- 
ation between the MC68020 and up 
to eight coprocessors. With this inter- 
face downward compatibility is pos- 
sible because a coprocessor can be 
coupled with a main processor other 
than the MC68020 (e.g., 68008, 
68000, 68010, 68012). All the main 
processor must do is provide instruc- 



tion sequences that emulate the pro- 
tocol of the coprocessor interface. 

The coprocessor operates based on 
an F-line operation code, essentially 
the first word of a coprocessor in- 
struction. It is so named because the 
hexadecimal F in the upper nybble of 
the instruction word causes the pro- 
cessor to flag the instruction during 
decode. The F-line indicates to the 
main processor that it must call the 
coprocessor for proper execution of 
the instruction. See figure 6 for the 
format of the F-line word. 



15 


14 


13 


12 


11 10 


9 


8 7 


6 


5 


4 3 2 1 





1 


1 


1 


1 


Cp-ld 


TYPE 


TYPE DEPENDENT 





Figure 6: FAine format. 



ADDRESS 
DECODE 



7"T7*> 



MC68020 



COPROCESSOR 



I/O 



MEMORY 



D 



A0-A31 



c 



D 



J) 



BUS 
EXTENSION 



Figure 7: Coprocessor system configuration. 



C 



BUS ACTIVITY < PREFETCH 



>c 



>^ 



EXT INSTRUCT! 



ON ^> 



BUS CONTROLLER 



INSTRUCTION 
EXECUTION TIME 



CLOCK COUNT 



PREFETCH 
INSTRUCTION AFTER 
SUB 



PERFORM MOVE 



PERFORM WRITE 
FOR MOVE 



PERFORM SUB 



NEXT 
INSTRUCTION 



NEXT INSTRUCTION 



MOVE (An), (An) 



NEXT INSTRUCTI 



^D 



Figure 8: Overlap example. 



The coprocessor identifier (Cp-ld) 
field identifies which coprocessor is 
to be selected. The Type field iden- 
tifies which type of coprocessor oper- 
ation is to be performed (branch, 
general, save, etc.). 

Communication between the main 
processor and coprocessors is syn- 
chronous, but the main processor 
might not need to wait for the copro- 
cessor to complete an instruction 
before it begins execution of its next 
instruction. 

Hardware connection is a simple ex- 
tension of the MC68000 bus interface 
and is shown in figure 7. The copro- 
cessor is connected as a peripheral to 
the main processor and is selected 
based on combinations of function 
codes (FC2-FC0 are 1 1 1) and address 
bits (A19-A16 are 0010) as well as bits 
A 15-13, described in figure 6. 

Overlap 

Overlap occurs when the sequencer 
and bus controller are operating on 
different instructions simultaneously. 
For example, in figure 8 a MOVE (An), 
(An) instruction and a SUB Dn,Dn in- 
struction can operate concurrently for 
some of the total execution time. The 
overlap takes place during the exter- 
nal bus activity associated with the 
MOVE. Since for a certain clock time 
the bus controller is busy performing 
the write to external memory asso- 
ciated with the MOVE, the sequencer 
can continue with the next instruction, 
subtract (SUB). The SUB instruction 
does not require any external bus ac- 
tivity, so the sequencer alone can 
operate on it. This overlap time is 
shown from clocks 4 through 6. 

Also note that part of the instruc- 
tion following the SUB might have 
some of its execution time overlapped 
under the MOVE instruction. This oc- 
curs if calculations, such as effective 
address calculations, are needed to 
perform the instruction. An example 
of this would be if another MOVE in- 
struction followed the SUB instruction. 

Because the bus controller was per- 
forming an external bus cycle asso- 
ciated with the MOVE during the time 
the SUB was taking place internally, 

[continued) 



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THE MC68020 



the execution time is attributed to the 
MOVE instruction alone. If the pipe 
had been depleted and the SUB in- 
struction had not been inside the 
described overlap would not have 
taken place. 

This example illustrates an impor- 
tant point about this concurrent 
machine. With a sequential micropro- 
cessor (no prefetch and no concur- 
rency of operation), instruction timing 
is easy to calculate. It is virtually im- 
possible with a concurrent micropro- 
cessor such as the MC68020. Each in- 



dividual instruction is dependent on 
the instruction previous to it and is 
subject to the rules built into the 
prefetch mechanism. The best timings 
that can be given are in terms of best, 
average, and worst-case boundaries. 
Performance ratios and benchmarks 
become requisite in measuring per- 
formance. 

Programming 

As shown in the programming model 
(figure 9), the MC68020 has eight 
32-bit multifunction data registers, 





31 


16 15 8 7 




DATA REGISTERS 

ADDRESS REGISTER 

USER STACK POINTER 
PROGRAM COUNTER 
CONDITION CODE REGISTER 

INTERRUPT STACK POINTER 

MASTER STACK POINTER 

STATUS REGISTER 

VECTOR BASE REGISTER 

ALTERNATE FUNCTION 
CODE REGISTERS 

CACHE CONTROL REGISTER 

CACHE ADDRESS REGISTER 










00 
Dl 
02 
D3 
D4 
D5 
06 
D7 














































31 


16 15 













AO 
Al 
A2 
A3 
A4 
AS 
A6 




























31 


16 15 





|a7(USP) 

|pc 

|CCR 

|a7'(ISP) 

|a7 m (MSP> 

JSR 

JVBR 

JSFC 
I DFC 

JCACR 

> 
|CAAR 




1 


1 






31 









E 








31 


15 
16 15 


7 

1 






F 


1 






31 


16 15 







c 


1 










15 8 


7 




1 


I (CCR) 




31 









E 








31 




2 C 




I 




1 




H- — 

{ 




1 

c 




31 






E 








31 




c 




r~ 















Figure 9: MC68020 programming model 



seven 32-bit general addressing 
registers, three 3 2 -bit stack pointers 
(user, master, and interrupt), a 32-bit 
program counter, a 1 6-bit status 
register, a 3 2 -bit vector base register, 
two 3 -bit alternate function code 
registers, a 3 2 -bit cache address 
register, and a 32-bit cache control 
register. The MC68020 is object-code 
compatible with the M68000 family 
but has several new addressing mode 
capabilities (table 1) and several new 
and enhanced instructions (table 2). 

A principle in the MC68020 design 
is support for high-level language and 
system software implementation. This 
support is provided by the inclusion 
of special instructions that allow array 
bounds checking with a single instruc- 
tion, safe manipulation of system 
queues, support for linked lists, ex- 
pansion of system trap capabilities, 
and module support. 

The MC68020 has three new 32-bit 
registers: the master stack pointer 
(MSP), cache control register (CACR), 
and cache address register (CAAR) 
(figure 8). The interrupt stack pointer 
is virtually the same as the M68000 
family's supervisor stack pointer and 
therefore is not really a new register. 
The terminology has been changed to 
reflect a multiprocessing environ- 
ment. The MSP was created to facili- 
tate multiprocessing by letting each 
process have a small master stack 
area where process-specific exception 
data is stored, while maintaining a 
common large interrupt stack area 
among all the processes. The CACR 
clears the entire cache, clears a single 
cache entry, freezes the' cache, and 
enables the cache. Each of these func- 
tions is controlled by simply setting 
a bit in the CACR. The CAAR is used 
with the cache clear entry function to 
clear a single entry in the cache. 

T^ble 1 shows the MC68020 ad- 
dressing modes. Of particular interest 
are the memory indirect and program 
counter memory indirect addressing 
modes. 

There are two forms of memory in- 
direct addressing and program 
counter memory indirect addressing: 
indirect pre-indexed and indirect post- 

{cont'mued) 



166 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



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NOVEMBER 1984 • BYTE 167 



THE MC68020 



indexed. Program counter memory in- 
direct is similar to memory indirect 
addressing; however, where the ad- 
dress register is normally added into 
the calculation, the current program 
counter is used. The result is position- 
independent code where the memory 
pointer is accessed relative to the cur- 
rent program counter. In indirect pre- 



indexed and indirect post-indexed ad- 
dressing modes, the base displace- 
ment (bd) and outer displacement 
(od) can be null (zero), word (16-bit), 
or long-word (32-bit) sizes. 

Indirect pre-indexed addressing 
adds the index register into the ad- 
dress calculation before the memory 
indirection is performed. Indirect pre- 



Table 1: MC68020 addressing modes. 
Addressing Modes 



Syntax 



Register direct 
Data register direct 
Address register direct 



Dn 

An 



Register indirect 
Address register indirect 
Address register indirect with postincrement 
Address register indirect with predecrement 
Address register indirect with displacement 



(An) 
(An) + 
-(An) 
(d 16 ,An) 



Register indirect with index 
Address register indirect with index (8- bit displacement) 
Address register indirect with index (base displacement) 


(d 8l An, Xn) 
(bd,An,Xn) 


Memory indirect 
Memory indirect post-indexed 
Memory indirect pre-indexed 


([bd,An],Xn,od) 
([bd,An,Xn],od) 


Program counter indirect with displacement 


(di 6l PC) 


Program counter indirect with index 
PC indirect with index (8-bit displacement) 
PC indirect with index (base displacement) 


(d 8l PC,Xn) 
(bd.PC.Xn) 


Program counter memory indirect 
PC memory indirect post-indexed 
PC memory indirect pre-indexed 


([bd,PC],Xn,od) 
([bd,PC,Xn],od) 


Absolute 
Absolute short 

Absolute long 


xxx.W 
xxx. L 



Immediate 



$<data> 



Notes: 

Dn - Data Register, DO-DZ 

An = Address Register, A0-A7. 

d8-di6 = ^ two's-complement or sign-extended displacement; added as part of the 
effective address calculation; size is 8 or 16 bits (d-|6 and dg are 16- and 8- bit 
displacements); when omitted, assemblers use a value of zero. 

Xn = Address or data register used as an index register; form is Xn.SIZE*SCALE, 
where SIZE is ,W or 1 (indicates index register size) and SCALE is 1, 2, 4, or 8 
(index register is multiplied by SCALE); use of SIZE and/or SCALE is optional. 

bd = A two's-complement base displacement; when present, size can be 16 or 32 
bits. 

od = Outer displacement, added as part of effective address calculation after any 
memory indirection; use is optional with a size of 16 or 32 bits. 

PC ■ Program Counter 

<data> ■ Immediate value of 8, 16, or 32 bits. 

( ) = Effective address. 

[ ] = Use as indirect address to long-word address. 



indexed can be used to access oper- 
ands through an array of pointers or 
through a pointer located in a record 
item or an array of records. The ad- 
dress register or program counter, 
index register, and base displacement 
are added together and used as the 
address of the memory pointer. The 
32-bit memory pointer is fetched and 
the outer displacement is added to 
form the effective address. 

Indirect post-indexed addressing 
performs the memory indirection and 
then adds the index register to calcu- 
late the effective address. Indirect 
post-indexed can be used to access 
an element of an array that is pointer 
addressed. The base displacement 
and address register or program 
counter are added to form the mem- 
ory pointer address. The 32-bit quan- 
tity at the memory pointer address is 
fetched and added to the index 
register and outer displacement to 
form the operand's effective address. 

Scaling and Suppression 

An index register can be scaled— the 
value in the register is read and then 
logically shifted (zero fill) zero, one, 
two, or four bit positions to the left 
before it is used. This has the effect 
of multiplying the value in the register 
by 1, 2, 4, or 8. The original value in 
the register is not affected by this 
operation. Using scaling, the same in- 
dex value can be used to point to in- 
dividual bytes, words, long words, and 
quad words, without disrupting the 
value. 

Let address register AO be used as 
an index and contain the value 3. The 
A0*1 (assuming to be the first ele- 
ment in the array) will point to the 
fourth element in a byte-wide array, 
A0*2 will point to the fourth element 
in a word-wide array, A0*4 will point 
to the fourth element in a long-word- 
wide array, and A0*8 will point to the 
fourth element in a quad-word-wide 
array. This scaling takes no overhead 
on the MC68020. 

The suppression of the base ad- 
dress register or program counter 
allows the use of any index register in 
place of the base register. Since data 

[continued] 



168 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 




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THE MC68020 



registers can be used as index regis- 
ters, this gives the MC68020 the abil- 
ity to have addresses in data registers, 
Also, with suppression of the program 
counter the user has access to pro- 
gram space 

Bit-Field Instructions 

The MC68020 has eight new bit-field 
manipulation instructions over the 
previous M68000 instruction set. 
These instructions can be used to 
manipulate individual bits in registers 
or memory. The bit-field instruction 



mnemonics are described in table 2. 

A bit field is simply an array of bits. 
It can be small enough to be con- 
tained in a register or large enough 
to require millions of bytes of mem- 
ory. Some examples of bit-field ap- 
plications are bit-mapped graphics, 
communications with packed data, 
and assembler op-code construction. 

In each bit-field instruction, the field 
selection is specified by a field offset 
and field width. The field offset 
denotes the starting bit of the field in 
bits from the base address, and the 



field width determines the number of 
bits to be included in the field. The 
base address is the effective address 
and can be in memory or a data 
register. 

In a data register, the offset starts 
with the leftmost bit, bit 31, and the 
width determines the amount of bits 
to the right of the offset. Register 
wraparound is allowed; that is, if the 
combination of offset and width ex- 
tend the bit field past bit in the 
register, the field wraps back around 

{continued) 



Tkble 2: MC68020 instruction set summary. 


Mnemonic 


Description 


Mnemonic 


Description 


Mnemonic 


Description 


ABCD 

ADD 

ADDA 

ADDI 

ADDQ 

ADDX 

AND 

ANDI 

ASL,ASR 


Add decimal with extend 

Add 

Add address 

Add immediate 

Add quick 

Add with extend 

Logical AND 

Logical AND immediate 

Arithmetic shift left, right 


DBcc 

DIVS,DIVSL 
DIVU.DIVUL 


Test condition, decrement, 
and branch 
Signed divide 
Unsigned divide 


RESET 

ROL,ROR 

ROXL,ROXR 

RTD 
RTE 
RTM 
RTR 

RTS 


Reset external devices 
Rotate left, right 
Rotate with extend left, 

right 
Return and deallocate 
Return from exception 
Return from module 
Return and restore 

condition codes 
Return from subroutine 


EOR 
EORI 

EXG 
EXT 


Logical exclusive OR 
Logical exclusive OR 
immediate 
Exchange registers 
Sign extend 


Bcc 

BCHG 

BCLR 

BFCHG 

BFCLR 

BFEXTS 

BFEXTU 

BFFFO 

BFINS 

BFSET 

BFTST 

BRA 

BSET 

BSR 

BTST 


Branch conditionally 

Test bit and change 

Test bit and clear 

Test bit field and change 

Test bit field and clear 

Signed bit field extract 

Unsigned bit field extract 

Bit field find first one 

Bit field insert 

Test bit field and set 

Test bit field 

Branch 

Test bit and set 

Branch to subroutine 

Test bit 


JMP 
JSR 


Jump 

Jump to subroutine 


SBCD 

Sec 

STOP 

SUB 

SUBA 

SUBI 

SUBQ 

SUBX 

SWAP 


Subtract decimal with 
extend 

Set conditionally 
Stop 
Subtract 

Subtract address 
Subtract immediate 
Subtract quick 
Subtract with extend 
Swap register words 


LEA 
LINK 
LSLLSR 


Load effective address 
Link and allocate 
Logical shift left, right 


MOVE 
MOVE A 
MOVE CCR 

MOVE SR 

MOVE USP 

MOVEC 

MOVEM 

MOVEP 

MOVEQ 

MOVES 


Move 

Move address 

Move condition code 

register 
Move status register 
Move user stack pointer 
Move control register 
Move multiple registers 
Move peripheral 
Move quick 
Move alternate address 

space 


TAS 

TRAP 

TRAPcc 

TRAPV 

TST 


Test operand and set 

Trap 

Trap conditionally 

Trap on overflow 

Test operand 


CALLM 
CAS 

CAS2 

CHK 

CHK2 

CLR 

CMP 

CMPA 

CMPI 

CMPM 

CMP2 


Call module 
Compare and swap 

operands 
Compare and swap dual 

operands 
Check register against 

bound 
Check register against 

upper and lower bounds 
Clear 
Compare 
Compare address 
Compare immediate 
Compare memory to 

memory 
Compare register against 

upper and lower bounds 


UNLK 
UNPK 


Unlink 
Unpack BCD 


MULS 
MULU 


Signed multiply 
Unsigned multiply 


Coprocessor Instructions 


cpBcc 
cpDBcc 

cpGEN 

cpRESTORE 

cpSAVE 

cpScc 

cpTRAPcc 


Branch conditionally 

Test coprocessor condition, 

decrement, and branch 
Coprocessor general 

instruction 
Restore internal state of 

coprocessor 
Save internal state of 

coprocessor 
Set conditionally 
Trap conditionally 


NBCD 

NEG 

NEGX 

NOP 

NOT 


Negate decimal with extend 

Negate 

Negate with extend 

No operation 

Logical complement 


OR 
ORI 


Logical inclusive OR 
Logical OR immediate 


PACK 
PEA 


Pack BCD 

Push effective address 















170 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 





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Mark Williams has done for C Programming 



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NOVEMBER 1984 -BYTE 171 



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THE MC68020 



The MC68020 is an 
improvement on the 
M68000 family. 



and continues with bits 31, 30, etc. 
Tkble 3 shows the Motorola assem- 
bler syntax and examples of the bit- 
field instructions. 

Division and Multiplication 

The MC68020 has several enhance- 
ments to the original M68000 multi- 
ply and divide instructions. The most 
important of these enhancements is 
the ability to have 32-bit operands for 



multiplication with a 64-bit result, and 
a 64-bit dividend with a 32-bit divisor 
and quotient for division. 

The MC68020 also has special mul- 
tiply and divide instructions for high- 
level languages where the result is the 
same size as the operands. That is, a 
32-bit operand times a 32-bit operand 
yields a 32-bit result. This is equiva- 
lent to multiplication in Pascal or C, 
where an integer times an integer 
results in an integer of the same size 
data type. If overflow occurs, it will be 
reflected in the setting of the condi- 
tion codes after the operation. For 
division there is provision for a 32-bit 
dividend divided by a 32-bit divisor 
to yield a 32-bit quotient with no re- 



Table 3: Bit-field instructions, syntax, and examples. 


Instruction Motorola Assembler Syntax 


Assembler Example 


BFCHG BFCHG <EA> {offset: width} 


BFCHG (AO){DO:7} 


BFCLR BFCLR <EA>{offset:width} 


BFCLR D1 {25:10} 


BFEXTS BFEXTS < EA> { offset: width },Dn 


BFEXTS (A3){D2:5},D7 


BFEXTU BFEXTU <EA> {offset: width },Dn 


BFEXTU D5{2:5},D1 


BFFFO BFFFO <EA> {offset: width },Dn 


BFFFO (A6){D0:32},D7 


BFINS BFINS <EA> {off set: width },Dn 


BFINS D4{6:9},D2 


BFSET BFSET <EA> {offset: width} 


BFSET D3{30:9} 


BFTST BFTST <EA>{ offset: width} 


BFTST D1{0:32} 


<EA> = effective address of the base of the bit field 


offset = bit offset from base address of bit field to start to bit field 


width = bit width of bit field from 1 to 32 bits 




Dn = data register 





T^ble 4: Division and multiplication syntax and operation. 




Instruction Motorola Assembler Syntax 


Operation 


DIVS.W DIVS.W <EA>,Dn 


32/16 - 


-> 16r:16q 


DIVS.L DIVS.L <EA>,Dq 


32/32 - 


-> 32q 


DIVS.L DIVS.L <EA>,Dr:Dq 


64/32 - 


-> 32r:32q 


DIVSLL DIVSLL <EA>,Dr:Dq 


32/32 - 


-> 32r:32q 


DIVU.W DIVU.W <EA>,Dn 


32/16 - 


-> 16r:16q 


DIVU.L DIVU.L <EA>,Dq 


32/32 - 


-> 32q 


DIVU.L DIVU.L <EA>,Dr:Dq 


64/32 - 


-> 32r:32q 


DIVUL.L DIVUL.L <EA>,Dr:Dq 


32/32 - 


-> 32r:32q 


MULS.W MULS.W <EA>,Dn 


16x16 


— > 32 


MULS.L MULS.L <EA>,DI 


32x32 


— > 32 


MULS.L MULS.L <EA>,Dh:DI 


32x32 


— > 64 


MULU.W MULU.W <EA>,Dn 


16x16 


— > 32 


MULU.L MULU.L <EA>,DI 


32x32 


— > 32 


MULU.L MULU.L <EA>,Dh:DI 


32x32 


— > 64 


<EA> = effective address of source operand 






Dn = data register 






Dq = quotient in data register 






Dr = remainder in data register 






Dh = high 32 bits of product in data register 






Dl = low 32 bits of product in data register 







172 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



THE MC68020 



mainder. Several variations of syntax 
and operations exist for divide and 
multiply instructions. For more infor- 
mation, see the Motorola assembler 
syntax and operation examples 
shown in table 4. 

Binary-Coded Decimal 

T\vo MC68020 instructions, PACK and 
UNPACK, can store BCD (binary- 
coded decimal) data in packed form 
(two digits per byte) and then be ex- 
panded after calculations. The PACK 
instruction reduces 2 bytes of numeric 
data into a single byte, while the UN- 
PACK instruction reverses this opera- 
tion. In both cases, a user-defined 
constant is added to the original value 
to allow conversion from or to ASCII, 
EBCDIC (extended binary-coded- 
decimal interchange code), or any 
other data format. 

High-Level Languages 
and System Software 

The MC68020 has extended the 
bounds-checking capability of the 
M68000 family with the introduction 
of two new instructions, CHK2 and 
CMP2 (check 2 and compare 2). CHK2 
and CMP2 perform comparisons on 
the upper and lower bounds and can 
be signed or unsigned. The CMP2 in- 
struction sets the condition codes ac- 
cording to the result of the operation. 
The CHK2 instruction sets the condi- 
tion codes and causes a system trap 
if either boundary condition fails. 

The MC68020 also offers other new 
security and system-level instructions. 
The CAS and CAS2 instructions use 
the same read-modify-write cycle as 
the M68000's TAS (test and set). 
These operations are indivisible and 
noninterruptible, which ensures data 
security in single and multiprocessor 
systems. 

The CAS (compare and swap) in- 
struction compares the contents of a 
data register (the compare register) to 
the operand at the effective address. 
If the operand and the contents of the 
data register are equal, the contents 
of a second data register (the update 
register) are used to update the op- 
erand at the effective address. If the 

[continued] 




.TM 



The Quick Silver Fox 
Jumps Over The Big Blue Dog. 



We really hate to pick on the 
big guys but compared to the 
Silver Fox your basic IBM-PC™ 
is an overpriced dog. 

»S6k ram ~ 

Why? Well, for starters, your 
basic Silver Fox comes with 256k 
of RAM which acts like a disk 
drive so that more of your soft- 
ware is accessed at the speed of 
light rather than the speed of a 
mechanical drive head. 

1.6 Megabytes 

You also have more than twice 
as much software to access be- 
cause the Silver Fox comes with 
dual 800k disk drives for a total 
of 1.6 Megabytes. Yet the Silver 
Fox can read and write to all 
popular PC formats. 

13 Free Programs 

1. MS-DOS 

2. HAGEN-DOS 

3. M-DISK 

4. WordStar™ 

5. EasyWriter 

6. DataStar 

7. ReportStar 

8. FILEBASE 

9. CalcStar 

10. Color Graphics Basic 

11. MailMerge 

12. SpellStar 

13. 25 Games, graphics 
and utilities 

The best free software bundle 
in the business, and the Fox will 
run some programs written for 
the IBM-PC like dBase II and 
Multiplan, and program? written 
for Sanyo's new MBC-550 series. 



Reliability 



Because the Silver Fox is 
born on a totally automated 
production line in Japan it is 
inherently more reliable than 



systems built by hand. The Fox 
is burned and tested for 14 days 
in Japan, and further tested after 
final assembly here in the good 
old U.S.ofA. 

One Year Warranty 

The Silver Fox is built better 
so we can back it with a limited, 
one-year warranty, four times 
longer than IBM. We're Scotts- 
dale Systems and since 1980 
we've shipped over $10,000,000 
of microcomputer equipment 
directly to microcomputer users. 

Because we deal directly with 
users, we think we have a better 
idea of what you want. So the 
Silver Fox includes graphics 
with twice IBM's resolution, a 
printer port, a keyboard with a 
big return key, and a 12", high- 
resolution monitor as standard 
equipment. 

Of course, you could spend 
$4729 at Computerland for an 
IBM-PC that will perform almost 
as well as a Silver Fox. But why 
bother when you can call 

1-800-FOR-A-FOX 

and get your 

$1398 

to perform like $4729? 

For additional information call 1 -800-367-2369, or in AZ, 

AK. or HI call (602) 941 -5856. Or write Silver Fox Computers, 
617 N. Scottsdale Road #B t Scottsdaie, AZ 85257. 

IBM-PC price is based on a phone quote from the 
Mesa, Az Computerland on July 30, 1984. Price included 
256k RAM, dual 360K drives (800K's weren't available), 
software, and a graphics monitor. 

Trademarks: Silver Fox and Hagen-DOS, Scottsdale 
Systems Ltd. IBM-PC, International Business Machines 
Corporation. Wordstar, Calcstar, Mailmerge, Spellstar, 
andlnfostar, Micropro International MS-DOS, Multiplan, 
Microsoft Corporation. Filebase, EWDP Software, Inc. 
dBASE II, AshtonTate 

Ordering: Telemarketing only. Silver Fox price is for 
cash. FOB. Scottsdale, price subject to change, product 
subject to limited supply. Visa, Mastercard add 3%, AZ 
residents add 6%. Returned merchandise subject to a 
20% restocking fee. Personal/company checks take up to 
3 weeks to clear. No C.O.D.'s or A.P.O.s. 

NOVEMBER 1984 • BYTE 173 



THE MC68020 



compare register and the operand are 
not equal the operand is unchanged, 
but the value in the compare register 
is updated with the operand at the ef- 
fective address. The CAS2 instruction 
is basically the same as CAS, but there 
are two compare registers (upper and 
lower bound), two update registers, 
and two operands at two different ef- 
fective addresses. The CAS and CAS2 
instructions are useful for updating 
system counters and for insertion and 
deletion from linked lists. 

The MC68020 also has expanded 
system trap capabilities in the form of 
the TRAPcc instruction, where any 
condition code is allowed to be the 
trapping condition. The TRAPcc in- 
struction can be followed by a word 
or long-word quantity that can be 
used to convey information to the 
trap handler, such as a high-level lan- 
guage statement number or other de- 
bugging information. 



The MC68020 introduces module 
support to the M68000 family. 
Modules are high-level subroutines 
that can have different levels of pro- 
tection or access. Ttoo new instruc- 
tions, CALLM and RTM, support this 
module implementation. 

The CALLM instruction initiates the 
module call by referencing a module 
descriptor. The module descriptor 
contains access information, control 
information, and the entry point for 
the called module If the module ac- 
cess is valid, the CALLM instruction 
creates a module stack frame, stores 
the current module state in that frame, 
and loads a new module state from 
the module descriptor. 

The RTM instruction removes the 
module state that was stored on the 
module stack frame and returns to the 
calling module. The MC68020 module 
support is broken into two types: type 
where there is no access level 




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change and type 1 where the access 
level can be changed. No external 
hardware is necessary for type 0, but 
for type 1 CALLM, the MC68020 
relies on external hardware (a mem- 
ory management unit) to verify that 
calling modules possess the proper 
access level for the called module. 

Virtual Memory 

The MC68020 supports virtual mem- 
ory the ability to make a small 
amount of main memory look like a 
large or infinite amount of memory by 
using secondary storage devices to 
swap currently executing code seg- 
ments into the main memory. In a vir- 
tual memory system, the processor 
has access to a limited amount of fast 
main memory (the physical memory 
of the system), while the user writes 
programs that might require millions 
of bytes of memory (the virtual mem- 
ory of the system). 

If the processor attempts to access 
a memory location not currently re- 
siding in physical memory, a page 
fault occurs. The processor suspends 
the current instruction until the re- 
quired memory is moved into physical 
memory from slower but larger sec- 
ondary storage. When the required 
program segment is in physical mem- 
ory, the instruction is allowed to com- 
plete execution. All this activity is 
transparent to the user, so physical 
memory appears to be the same size 
as virtual memory. Virtual memory 
size has been increased from a 
1 6-megabyte direct addressing range 
in the MC68010 to 4 gigabytes in the 
MC68020. 

Conclusion 

The MC68020 is a fully compatible 
member of, and an improvement on, 
the M68000 family of processors. It 
is backed by the same powerful soft- 
ware and hardware design-support 
tools that back other members of the 
M68000 family. For more informa- 
tion, see the MC68020 32-Bit Micropro- 
cessor User's Manual (Prentice-Hall, 
1984) and the three-part article by 
Thomas W. Starnes, "Design Philos- 
ophy Behind Motorola's MC68000" 
(April-June 1983 BYTE). ■ 



174 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



Circle 200 on Inquiry card. 



BEHIND EVERY 
GREAT PROGRAM 

ISA 
GREAT PROGRAM 

Introducing Spotlight. 
Note it. File it. Schedule it. Calculate it. Save it. Find it fast. 



The Spotlight" program is a set of 
convenient desktop accessories all in 
one package. No matter which appli- 
cation program you're working in- 
including VisiCalcf V2-37 WordStarf 
dBase II? pfs:Filef MultiMatef 
Microsoft Word: TKISolverf and 
Symphony™- Spotlight gives you instant 
access to six essential functions. 

Just a keystroke suspends your 
application program and gives you a 
window into Spotlight. Another keystroke 
gets you back to where you were just 
as fast. It's that easy. 

Here's what you get: 

Appointment Book- schedule daily and weekly meetings or 
display monthly calendar. Set a sound alarm to remind 
you of appointments, even if you're using another program. 
DOS filer- perform operating system tasks without leaving 
your program. List, create, delete, copy, and sort files and 
directories. Even format disks. 




Phone Book- find and instantly display 
any name, address and phone number 
from 36 available lists. Each list can hold 
500 different entries. 

Note Pad- jot a note or write and edit 
messages up to eight pages long. 

Index Card File— search up to 36 sep- 
arate files, each of which contains 500 
cards. Cards are alphabetically sorted. 

Calculator -calculate any problems and 
insert the answers into the program 
you're using. 

Spotlight is the great program behind any great 
program you use. 

System requirements: IBM® PC or XT? or COMPAQ® por- 
table computers, one disk drive, 75K memory for RAM 
resident portion, DOS 2.0 or higher. Printer optional. Can 
be installed on hard disk. Runs with most IBM PC software 
packages. 



Spotlight 

By Software Arts ™ 



27 Mica Lane, Wellesley, Massachusetts 02181 



Circle 374 on inquiry card. 



NOVEMBER 1984 -BYTE 175 



Introducing FUevision for Macintosh: 
The fine art of filing by pictures. 



Now you can file things the way you 
see them. 

Because Filevision lets you store any 
kind of information visually. Within pictures 
you easily create yourself. Even if you 
can't type or draw 

Filevision. The first software that 
combines a practical filing system with a 
simple-to-use, object-oriented drawing 
system. Which lets you quickly visualize 
your data. Instead of sorting through 
tedious line-by-line listings. 

In the click of a mouse, you can retrieve 
the data stored behind each object in your 
picture. %u can even select the objects 
in your pictures, based on the 



Each object in your picture is 
. automatically connected to the 
information about that object. 




data in your files. 

What's more, Filevision lets you link 
another picture to an object. And lets you 
group objects together as a common type. 
So you can create zoom-like effects, step-by- 
step hierarchies, or overlays. Whatever 
your mind can picture. 

"Finally A filing system 
that sees things my way" 

Imagine. A filing system for less than 
$200, that lets you look at information the 
way you look at the world around you. 

Utilizing the simplicity of the 
Macintosh's eye-opening technology, 
Filevision allows you to create the most 
spectacular visualizations of whatever you 
need to file. Or anything you want to see 
in more detail. 

Whether you're an entrepreneur, a 
businessperson, or someone who collects 
things at home; if your data relates to 



Create technical illustrations or 
pictures of science class projects, with 
ease. Whatever you need to remember 
about your picture, Filevision lets 
you store on forms connected to it. 
And retrieve in the click of a mouse. 



176 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 




Organize office space by department. 
Diagram a summer home. Even 
i create a play book for your football 
team. It's a breeze with Filevision. 





something you can see, you can file it 
visually with Filevision. And retrieve it 
visually, too. 

\bu simply place 
objects in a 
picture, or select 
symbols from 
Filevision's ready- 
made symbol 
menu to represent 
pieces of the infor- 
mation you wish 
to file. 

Then there's 
Filevision's flexible 
way of handling alphanumeric data. Each 
object in your picture is automatically con- 
nected to a data form. Which you custom 
design, quick as a click. 

"For a change, it's simple 
to modify my files!' 

Updating your files is just as easy. 
Whenever the best-laid plans of mouse and 
man need a little replanning, remember 
you're just a click or two away from reper- 
fecting your files. Create new symbols and 
objects, and add them to your picture. 



Make a data form for any new object, and 
all objects of that type will have the same 
form. Automatically. 

Modify a symbol and all matching 
symbols in your picture will be modified. 
Automatically. 

Change an existing form, and all forms 
of that type will change. Automatically. 

"Picture the potential.'' 

The possibilities are endless. 

Filevision can help you quickly make 
maps, and dawdle over the demographics. 
Assemble anatomical drawings and look up 
the names of the ligaments. Separate a 
plan of Bar Mitzvah guests into those who 
do and those who don't eat Kosher food 
and actually see who you seat them next to. 
Pinpoint places and connect them to faces. 
Control your inventory by depicting your 
entire shelf space. And map out geography 
lessons, sales territories and direct-mail 
ad targets ad infinitum. 

Filevision. The unique filing system 
for your Macintosh that lets you store and 
work with information 
in pictures, as well as 
numbers and text. software products 

Software far the real world. 



Circle 431 on inquiry card. 




mammmmmm 



Map out sales territories. Sift out subdivisions 
for direct-mailings. Or search out the states 
that participated in the French and Indian 
Wars. Filevision makes your requests pop off 
the screen. In the click of a mouse. 




Plan a political fund-raiser with Filevision, and 
seat the non-smoking Independents away from the 
smoking Republicans. Or, click to see which blocks 
of seats have been reserved at your dinner theater. 



Filevision is a trademark of Telos Software Products. 

Telos is a trademark of Telos Corporation. 

Macintosh is a trademark licensed to Apple Computer Inc. 

NOVEMBER 1984 'BYTE \T\ 



— I i 

f l i 



flC PBOMETHEOS 







Hayes Compatible • More Features • Only $495 

The best price/performance ratio of any 21 2 A modem on 
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They're important features. The Real Time Clock/Calen- 
dar for example. Used with Applications Programs, or 
the OPTIONS PROCESSOR, gives you pre-set timed 
operation of the modem. Also, time and duration records 
of all calls. The convenient HELP command makes 
ProModem easy to use. It promptly displays the In- 
structions Menu whenever there's a question about 
what to do next. With Call Progress Detection, you can 
"tell" ProModem to do things like automatically "Redial 
When Busy." 

It's the only modem that lets you expand into a. full 
telecommunications center with add-ons. The OPTlONb 



PRUUfcooUH gives you uaui oiuic an« ^ w«*»w ww«. 

tinuity with battery backup, Personal/Business Tele- 
phone Directory, and Automatic Receipt/Transfer Buffer, 
expandable to 64K. The OPTIONS PROCESSOR also 
enables ProModem to operate unattended, with or 
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The optional 12-character ALPHANUMERIC DISPLAY in- 
dicates modem operating status, system diagnostics, 
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Together, these standard and optional features give you 
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STANDARD FEATURES 

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Hayes Command Compatible 
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Additional telephone jack 
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Analog loop back self test 
Self Test at Power Up 



\\S \\S \\S \w 



Tones, Trunk Busy, etc.) 

Speaker and External Volume Control 

Full Complement of Status Lights 

8 Switch Selectable power-up defaults 

Adaptive Dialing 

Auto Redial on Busy 

Economically designed easy to 
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Internal Stand-Alone Power Supply 
Built in Real Time Clock/Calendar 

Help Command 

300 baud connect while maintaining 
1200 baud RS-232 link 

EXPANDABLE OPTIONS 

Automatic Receiver Buffer 
Automatic Transmit Buffer 
Onboard Personal/Business Directory 
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Auto message transmission to 
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NEW CHIPS 



THE XTAR 

GRAPHICS 

MICROPROCESSOR 



by TtRRY Coleman and Skip Powers 



This graphics chip set draws filled-in polygons 
at superhigh speed 



GENERATING COMPLEX IMAGES on 
a CRT (cathode-ray tube) at real-time 
rates of 30 or more frames per sec- 
ond requires the ability to draw 
graphical primitives (points, lines, and 
polygons) rapidly into a display 
memory or frame buffer. A standard 
microprocessor working alone is not 
nearly fast enough. CRT controller 
chips can draw about 10 times as fast 
as microprocessors but still fall far 
short of the speed required for real- 
time simulations and smooth anima- 
tion, lb obtain the necessary through- 
put for these applications, you must 
use a dedicated graphics copro- 
cessor. 

Drawing Speed 
Specifications 

The key specification for a graphics 
chip is the drawing rate. Drawing rates 
are reported in two different ways. 
The burst pixel-drawing rate is obtained 
whenever video-refresh memory 
cycles are not occurring, i.e., during 
horizontal and vertical retrace and 
portions of the active display time. 
This is the rate usually given on manu- 
facturers' spec sheets. 

+ — Circle 343 on inquiry card. 



A more accurate benchmark of a 
system's drawing speed, the average 
pixel-drawing rate, is the total number of 
pixels (picture elements) that can be 
drawn in one frame time divided by 
the frame time. This rate will always 
be less than the burst rate. 

The number of frame updates per 
second achievable is obtained by 
dividing the average pixel-drawing 
rate by the number of pixels in the 
frame buffer. This provides an ex- 
cellent, indication of how well the 
system will perform real-time anima- 
tion. 

THE Xtar GMP 

The GMP from Xtar is a special- 
purpose microprocessor that ex- 
ecutes graphics instructions con- 
tained in an external program mem- 
ory. The instruction set is specifically 
designed for graphics applications 

Skip Powers is the chief executive officer of 
Xtar Electronics. Terry Coleman is Xtar's vice 
president of engineering and the designer of 
the GMP chip. They can both be reached at 
2262 Landrneier Rd., Elk Grove, IL 
60007 . 



and includes instructions for drawing 
points, lines, and filled polygons into 
a frame buffer. Because the GMP is 
specifically designed to draw filled 
polygons into a frame buffer, it can ac- 
complish this task at extremely high 
speeds. Polygons can be drawn at a 
rate fast enough to update every pixel 
in the frame buffer 130 to 300 times 
per second. The GMP eases the im- 
plementation of real-time simulation 
and animation systems by drawing at 
speeds that are often hundreds of 
times faster than can be attained with 
a CRT controller. 

Tables 1 and 2 illustrate the draw- 
ing speeds obtained by systems using 
the GMP. The average pixel-drawing 
rate increases as the resolution of the 
frame buffer is increased, while the 
number of screen updates per second 
remains relatively constant. This 
allows essentially the same level of 
performance to be maintained, re- 
gardless of system resolution. 

System Configuration 

A typical system based on the two- 
chip GMP is shown in figure 1. Oper- 

{continued) 
NOVEMBER 1984 'BYTE 179 



Circle 1 on inquiry card. 



SHIPPING 

WEST OF MISSISSIPPI 
EAST - 1 / 2 UPS CHARGES 



CALL FREE 
1-800-841-2748 




Hi — I'm Joan, 

I want to wish you 
all Happy Holidays and 
thank you for making 
my business a success. 
Ail of you who 
havn't tried us and are 
afraid of mail order, call 
us and give us a try. 
I'm sure you'll like our fast and courteous 
service. Get your order in soon, as Christ- 
mas is not far away. 

Thank you & God Bless 
Joan 



PRINTERS COMPUTERS 



ALTOS 580-20 $3350 

ALTOS 580-20 $5350 

ALTOS 98640 ........... $CALL 

LEADING EDGE PC $CALL 

NEC 8201 .$459 

SANYO 550-555 . . . $CALL 

TELEVIDEO 

803 ... . .$1769 1603 $2019 

1605 $CALL 



ABATI $389 

BROTHER HR 15P .$479 

DAISYWRITER 48K $819 

EPSON $CALL 

GEMINI 10X $258 

JUKI 6100 $419 

OKIDATA (LOW PRICES) .... $CALL 
QUME 1140+ W/INF. . . $1365 

CITOH 

8510 $319 1550 $499 

F10-40CPS .$899 F1055 . . . .$1179 
DIABLO 

620 $769 630 API . . .$1669 

NEC 

3550 . . . .$1495 3510 $1235 

7710 . . . .$1645 2030 $659 



TERMINALS - MONITORS 



ALTOS II $755 

QUME 102G $529 

WYSE 50 $485 

TELEVIDEO 950 $895 

AMDEK300G. $129 

B.M.C. COLOR $235 

PRINSTON HX12 .$462 



DISK DRIVES - MODEMS 



INDUS APPLE $259 

INDUS ATARI $345 

PROMODEM 1200 $325 

HAYS SMART MODEM $199 

SMARTMODEM 1200 . .$469 

SMARTMODEM 1200B $415 

MICROMODEM II E . . .$235 



1st PLACE 

COMPUTER SYSTEMS 
13422 N. CAVECREEK RD. 

PHOENIX, AZ. 85022 

OTHER INFORMATION: 602-867 9897 



XTAR GRAPHICS 



ating in a multiprocessing environ- 
ment with a general-purpose host 
microprocessor, the GMP communi- 
cates with the general-purpose pro- 
cessor through a shared memory. The 
shared memory is the program mem- 
ory or display list for the GMP. The 
general-purpose processor controls 
the GMP by downloading graphics in- 
structions into the GMP's memory 
While the host processor may be any 
general-purpose microprocessor, the 
system is simplified if the host has a 
16-bit data bus. 

As many as 64 K words of program 
memory can be addressed by the 
GMP Any combination of 16-bit wide 
RAM (random-access read/write 
memory) and ROM (read-only mem- 
ory) may be used, but if animation is 
to be done, at least part of the mem- 
ory must be RAM. 

Instructions in the shared-memory 
display list cause the GMP to draw 
graphical primitives into the frame 
buffer. The GMP performs all calcula- 
tions necessary to draw two-dimen- 
sional polygons. A separate circuit 
controls the Write Enable inputs of 
the RAMs in the frame buffer, which 
may be any size from 2 56 by 2 56 by 
1 byte to 2048 by 2048 by 32 bytes. 

The video shift register (VSR) chips, 
an option that is ancillary to the GMP, 
convert the parallel-pixel data from 
the frame buffer into the serial form 
required to drive the color-palette 
RAM or D/A (digital-to-analog) con- 
verters. In addition to the Shift- 
Register function, the VSRs allow the 
host processor to access the frame 
buffer for Read-Modify-Write opera- 
tions on individual pixels. Also, a stip- 
pling feature allows the filling of 
polygons with two-color patterns. This 
feature increases the number of ap- 
parent displayable colors without in- 
creasing the depth of the frame 
buffer— allowing about 1800 effective 
colors to be displayed simultaneous- 
ly while requiring only 4 memory bits 
per pixel. 

A color-palette RAM defines the ac- 
tual color displayed for each pixel 
value that comes from the VSRs. In a 
high-performance system the color- 
palette RAM may be as large as 4096 



by 24, which allows 4096 solid colors 
to be displayed at one time from a 
palette of over 16 million colors. In 
low-cost systems the color-palette 
RAM will not exist and the output of 
the VSRs will feed the D/A converters 
directly. 

Because the GMP chip set does not 
generate CRT sync signals or video- 
refresh addresses, a standard CRT 
controller chip is used. 

Specialized Instruction Set 

The GMP's instruction set allows the 
programmer to easily manipulate 
graphical primitives. There is no need 
for the programmer to be concerned 
with repetitive tasks usually required 
when programming graphics systems, 
such as calculating the actual frame- 
buffer addresses of pixels to be 
modified, calculating difference 
parameters defining lines to be drawn, 
and searching the frame buffer for 
polygon edges to do polygon fills. The 
instruction set is divided into three 
major categories: graphics primitive 
instructions, register loading instruc- 
tions, and program control instruc- 
tions (see table 3). 

Clipping Window 

Within the GMP, four 12-bit registers 
define the four sides of a rectangular 
clipping window, which can be placed 
anywhere on the screen. All points, 
lines, and polygons drawn by the 
GMP are automatically clipped to the 
current window. The registers are 
under software control and can be 
modified at any time using the LOAD 
instruction. The GMP can draw an 
image, change the clipping window to 
a different area of the screen, then 
draw a new image clipped to the new 
window. 

Automatic Program 
Memory Refresh 

The GMP's program memory may be 
designed with low-cost dynamic 
RAMs and the GMP will take care of 
RAM refresh. During noninstruction- 
fetch memory cycles, the GMP places 
the contents of its internal refresh 
counter on the lower 8 bits of the ad- 

{continued) 



180 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



The pros at Comp HQ 
and the pros at Delta 
are a winning team. 



Hon Skinner 
Coordinator-Flight 
Operations Analysis 
Delta Air Lines f Inc. 



Team up with these winners: 
Irma Boards and other networking alternatives □ 
Amdek half heights, Great Lakes, Iomega Bernoulli 
Box and Tsindon disk drives □ Hayes modems □ 
Comrex, Quadram and Zenith monitors D MAI 
Board, Hercules, Quadcolor and Tteemar Graphics 
Master monitor adapters □ Quadram, Ifecmar and 
Paradise boards D Brother, Diablo, Epson, NEC 
and Okidata printers □ EPD, Kaola, Microsoft, 
Networx Protectors and Microfezer accessories D 
Harward Project Manager, IUS, Microsoft, Think 
Tank and XQ business software D Crosstalk, 
Hayes and Remote communications □ Easy Filer, 
Infoscope, InfoStar, Knowledgeman, PFS, Power- 
base and RBase data bases □ Dayflo, Open Access 
and Vision integrated packages D BPS, ChartStar, 
Chartmaster, Graphwriter, PCDraw, Signmaster 
and Snapshot graphics D Lattice C, Microsoft, 
Morgan Professional and Vedit programming D 
Multiplan, SuperCalc 3 and VisiCalc spreadsheets 
□ ATI training packages □ Multilink, Morton, Peeks 
& Pokes, Prokey, Set FX+, Sideways, Inside Ttack, 
Watchdog Utilities D Easy Writer II, Microsoft Wbid, 
Multimate, PFS, VisiWord, Volkswriter, WordPerfect 
and WordStar word processing □ and much more. 

We offer complete Exporting Services 

through Ashford International; Tfelex: 59-5007 

We accept Volume Purchase Agreements and 
Blanket Purchase Orders. 

Show this ad to your Purchasing Agent and ask 
for a Corporate Products Catalog— well keep you 
informed of whaf s new on the market and what 
demos are scheduled for your area. 



Our Corporate Accounts find us the best professional 
source for software, peripherals, accessories and supplies. 

We maintain a large inventory to serve the business 
community and corporate accounts always receive special 
attention. 

Comp HQ's Corporate Account Representatives are 
pros who will understand your questions and solve your 
problems, quickly and efficiently. 

Our commitment to Sales, Service, Support & Speed 
is total. 



COMPUTER 

Headquarters 

333 Peters Street, S.W. 
Atlanta, Georgia 30313 

404-577-3899 



Circle 80 on inquiry card. 



NOVEMBER 1984 -BYTE 181 



XTAR GRAPHICS 



Table 1: \n systems based on the GMP, the time required to draw a line is a 


function of the slope t 


if the line. The figures 


here present the pixel-drawing rates 


for drawing lines and 


assume a large number of lines with the slopes equally 


distributed between and 90 degrees. 




System resolution and Burst pixel writes 


Average pixel Screen updates 


refresh rate 


per second 


writes per second per second 


512 x 512 30 Hz 


6.7M 


5.6M 21.3 


512 x 512 60 Hz 


6.7M 


4.6M 17.4 


1024 x 1024 30 Hz 


9.2M 


7.8M 7.4 


1024 x 1024 60 Hz 


9.2M 


6.3M 6,0 


2048 x 2048 60 Hz 


11. 9M 


8.1M 1.9 



Table 2: GMP pixel-drawing rates for 


drawing filled polygons. 




System resolution and 


Burst pixel writes 


Average pixel 


Screen updates 


refresh rate 


per second 




writes per second 


per second 


512 x 512 30 Hz 


50M 




42M 


160 


512 x 512 60 Hz 


50M 




34 M 


129 


1024 x 1024 30 Hz 


200M 




168M 


160 


1024 x 1024 60 Hz 


200M 




136M 


129 


2048 x 2048 60 Hz 


800M 




544M 


129 



dress bus and places zeros on the up- 
per 8 bits of the bus. The refresh 
counter is incremented after each 
refresh cycle. 

Applications 

As the increasing capabilities of per- 
sonal computers bring them into use 
as low-cost computer-aided design 
systems, greater demands are being 
placed on the graphics proficiency of 
these machines. Complex, real-time 
images can be generated by a GMP 
system at a fraction of the cost nor- 
mally associated with powerful graph- 
ics systems. The GMP could be the 
basis of a moderate-cost peripheral 
for personal computers that would 
provide graphics capability currently 
unavailable to small systems. 

Flight simulators, devices that allow 
pilots to practice maneuvers that 
would be unsafe in a real aircraft, are 

{continued) 



- BEFORE YOU BUY CABLE ASSEMBLIES- 



Heavy Guage 

Underflow 

Shield 

mi 

Underhood 



22AWG 
Twisted Conductors 

2mm PVC Cover 




GOLD Plated Pine 



22AWG 
Twisted 
Conductors 



Strain Reliever 



Aiummef 
Shield 



j 



From Alliance Research Corporation 



TM 



The Family of High Integrity Computer Support Products 



CHECK 

UNDER THE HOOD! 

DATA SPEC tm cable assemblies are the very best. Each 
cable is fully shielded to exceed FCC EMI/RFI emis- 
sion requirements. Furthermore, the unique P.D.T. 
technique is employed beneath the hood shield for max- 
imum integrity under the most adverse conditions. 
DATASPEC tm was the first to use the RDI process, 
and cable assemblies constructed with RDI carry a 
lifetime warranty. DATA SPEC tm has interface cables for 
all your requirements: Modems, Monitors, Disk Drives, 
and much more. Insist on DATASPEC tm cables in the 
bright orange package. Available at better computer 
dealers everywhere. For more information, call or write: 

20120 Plummer Street 
Chatsworth, CA 91311 

(818) 993-1202 



182 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



Circle 113 for Dealer inquiries. Circle 114 for End-User inquiries. 




lastmght We exchanged letters with 

mqm,then had a party for 

Eleven people in nine different States 

and Oniyhadto W\sh One Glass.- 



That's CompuServe, The 
Personal Communications 
Network For Every Computer 
Owner 

And it doesn't matter what kind 
of computer you own. You'll use 
CompuServe's Electronic Mail system 
(we call it Email™) to compose, edit and 
send letters to friends or business 
associates. The system delivers any 
number of messages to other users 
anywhere in North America. 



Circle 73 on inquiry card. 



CompuServe's multi-channel CB 
simulator brings distant friends together 
and gets new friendships started. You 
can even use a scrambler if you have a 
secret you don't want to share. Special 
interest groups meet regularly to trade 
information on hardware, software and 
hobbies from photography to cooking 
and you can sell, swap and post personal 
notices on the bulletin board. 

There's all this and much more 
on the CompuServe Information Service. 
All you need is a computer, a modem, 



and CompuServe. CompuServe connects 
with almost any type or brand of 
personal computer or terminal and 
many communicating word processors. 
To buy a Starter Kit, see your nearest 
computer dealer. To receive our infor- 
mative brochure or to order direct, call 
or write: ^ 

CompuServe 

Consumer Information Service 

5000 Arlington Centre Blvd., Columbus, OH 43220 

800-848-8199 

In Ohio call 614-457-0802. 
An H&R Block Company 

NOVEMBER 1984 -BYTE 183 



Heath enters the 
board room 

Now you can buy the finest PC compatible boards, accessories and 
software from a single, trusted source. The Heath Company. We 
guarantee these to be the best of breed for your PC. 



Access t -2-3 Smart # 
Modem. Fast, Single J! 
stroke log-on to 
40 entries, f 



^Wm0 




%Mmm£m 



A Heath Exclusive! 
DG Game Port Adapter 
for joysticks and 
other analog inputs. 



AST Six-Pak Pius. Six 
most popular functions 
at a great price! 




• „., -,.,.«> 







DG 64K Magic 
RAM. Add-on mem- 
ory at a super 
price! 



IN-STORE SPECIAL 
FREE BOARD INSTALLATION 

Buy any of these great boards at a 
Heathkit Electronic Center* and it will 
be installed free of charge at the store 
when you bring in your computer. See 
store list at right for locations. 



When you buy PC compatible boards, you want them to work with no 
problems, no delays. Now Heath has taken the guesswork out of who has the 
best cornputerware at the right price. Heath has done the testing and evaluat- 
ing for you and we offer nothing but the finest boards and accessories. And 
we back them all with our own 90 day money-back guarantee. So, forget the 
guesswork. Buying the best is easier.. .because the best comes from Heath. 



Heath/Zenith 

Heath 
Company 



I 



See and buy the finest 

boards and other 

accessories for your 

Heath/Zenith 

or IBM PC. 

Find them at these 
Heathkit Electronic Centers: 



XTAR GRAPHICS 



•PHOENIX, AZ 

2727 W. Indian School Rd. 
•TUCSON, AZ 

7109 E. Broadway 
•ANAHEIM, CA 

330 E. Ball Rd. 

• CAMPBELL, CA 
2350 S. Bascom Ave. 

•ELCERRITO.CA 
6000 Potrero Ave. 

• LA MESA, CA 
8363 Center Dr. 



• LOS ANGELES, CA 

2309 S. Flower St. 
•POMONA, CA 

1555 N. Orange Grove Ave. 
•REDWOOD CITY, CA 

2001 Middlefield Rd. 
•SACRAMENTO, CA 

1860 Fulton Ave. 
•WOODLAND HILLS, CA 

22504 Ventura Blvd. 
•DENVER, CO 

5940 W. 38th Ave. 
•AVON, CT 

395 W. Main St., (Rt. 44) 
•JACKSONVILLE, FL 

8262 Arlington Expressway 
•MIAMI, FL 

4705 W. 16th Ave., 

Hialeah 
•FT. LAUDERDALE, FL 

7173 W.Broward Blvd. 

Plantation 
•TAMPA, FL 

4019 W. Hillsborough Ave. 
•ATLANTA, GA 

5285 Roswell Rd. 
•PEARL CITY, HI 

98-1254 

Kaahumanu St. 
•CHICAGO.IL 

3466 W. Devon Ave. 

•downersgrove.il 

224 Ogden Ave. 
•INDIANAPOLIS, IN 

2112 E. 62nd St. 
•KANSAS CITY, KS/MO 

5960 Lamar Ave., 

Mission, KS 
•NEW ORLEANS, LA 

1900 Veterans 

Memorial Hwy. 
•LOUISVILLE, KY 

12401 Shelbyville Rd. 
•BALTIMORE, MD 

1713 E. Joppa Rd. 
•ROCKVILLE, MD 

5542 Nicholson Lane 
•PEABODY.MA 

242AndoverSt. (Rt. 114) 
•WELLESLEY.MA 

165 Worcester Ave. (Rt. 9) 
•FARMINGTON 

HILLS, Ml 

29433 Orchard Lake 

Rd (At13 Mile Rd.) 

•EAST DETROIT, Ml 

18149 E. Eight Mile Rd. 
•ST. JOSEPH, Ml 

Lakeshore Dr. 

"Units of Veritechnology Electronics Corporation 

For more information 
write: 

Heath Company 

Benton Harbor, Ml 49022 

Circle 190 on inquiry card. 



•MINNEAPOLIS, MN 

101 Shady Oak Rd., 

Hopkins 
•ST. PAUL, MN 

1645 White Bear Ave. 
•ST. LOUIS, MO 

3794McKelveyRd., 

Bridgeton 

• GREENSBORO, NC 
4620C W. Market St. 

• OMAHA, NE 
9207 Maple St. 

• ASBURYPARK.NJ 
1013 State Hwy. 35, Ocean 

•FAIR LAWN, NJ 

35-07 Broadway, (Rt. 4) 
•BUFFALO, NY 

3476 Sheridan Rd., 

Amherst 
•JERICHO, LI, NY 

15 Jericho Turnpike 
•ROCHESTER, NY 

937 Jefferson Rd. 
•N.WHITE PLAINS, NY 

7 Reservoir Rd. 
•CINCINNATI, OH 

10133 Springfield Pike 

Wood I awn 
•CLEVELAND, OH 

28100 Chagrin Blvd. 

• COLUMBUS, OH 
2500 Morse Rd. 

•TOLEDO, OH 
48 S. Byrne Rd. 

• OKLAHOMA CITY, OK 
2727 N.W. Expressway 

•FRA2ER, PA 

630 Lancaster Pike (Rt. 30) 
•PHILADELPHIA, PA 

6318 Roosevelt Blvd. 
•PITTSBURGH, PA 

3482 Wm. Penn Hwy. 
•WARWICK, Rl 

558 Greenwich Ave. 
•DALLAS, TX 

2715 Ross Ave. 

• FORT WORTH, TX 
6825-A Green 
Oaks Rd. 

•NORTH HOUSTON, TX 
5050 FM 1960 W, (#126) 

• HOUSTON, TX 
1704 W. Loop N. 

•SAN ANTONIO, TX 

7111 Blanco Rd. 
•SALT LAKE CITY, UT 

58 East 7200 South, 

Midvale 
•ALEXANDRIA, VA 

6201 Richmond Hwy. 
•VIRGINIA BEACH, VA 

1055 Independence Blvd. 
•SEATTLE, WA 

505 8th Ave. N. 
•TUKWILA, WA 

15439 53rd Ave. S. 
•VANCOUVER, WA 

516 SE Chaklov Dr. (# 1) 

• MILWAUKEE, Wl 
5215 W. Fond du Lac 



T^ble 3: The GMP instruction set. 

Graphics Primitive Instructions 

PNTDRW (DATA,Y,X) 

This instruction causes the GMP to draw a point into the frame buffer at screen 
coordinate (X,Y), DATA is the actual value (color or shading value) written into the 
frame buffer. 

LDRW(DATA,Y1,X1,y2,X2) 

Draws a line between points (X1,Y1) and (X2,V2). 

PDRW (/V,DATA,>aX1, . . . YN.XN) 

Draws a polygon of N+ 1 vertices, filled with DATA. N must be O to 255, The 

vertices must be specified in clockwise order, although any vertex can be first. All 

convex polygons are legal while concave polygons are legal, only if it is not 

possible for a horizontal line to intersect the edge of the polygon more than two 

times, 

Register Loading Instructions 

LOAD (REG#,DATA) 

Loads an internal register with DATA. 

Register Number Function 

pixel address of top clipping border 

1 pixel address of bottom clipping border 

2 pixel address of left clipping border 

3 pixel address of right clipping border 

4 MODE register; used to program the GMP for 

various sizes of frame buffers 

S32B 

Selects the 32- bit mode When in this mode all DATA words must be 32 bits. 

S16B 

Selects the 16- bit mode. When in this mode all DATA words must be 16 bits. 



Program Control Instructions 

JUMP (ADDRESS) 

Causes an unconditional branch to the specified address in the GMP's program 

memory. 

JSR (Yrel.Xrel.ADDRESS) 

A relative draw instruction. Calls a subroutine at ADDRESS and sets the X relative 
and Y relative registers. All primitives drawn after execution of this instruction but 
prior to execution of an RTS instruction are drawn at coordinates offset by Xrel and 
Yrel. Nesting of subroutines is not allowed, so an RTS instruction must be executed 
before another JSR or JSRC can be executed. 

JSRC (DATA,Yrel,Xrel,ADDRESS) 

Similar to the JSR instruction, except primitives drawn after execution of this 

instruction use the DATA specified in this instruction. 

RTS 

Return from subroutine. Clears the Xrel and Yrel registers. 

COMP 

Causes the GMP to stop executing instructions and wait for a new hardware START 

command. 



CB-101R1 



{continued) 
NOVEMBER 1984 'BYTE 185 



XTAR GRAPHICS 



WE 
GENERATOR 



FRAME 
BUFFER 



OPTIONAL 
ADDRESS 
CONVERSION 
LOGIC 



rm 



CRT 

CONTROLLER 

AND 

TIMING 

GENERATOR 



RMW 
SENSE 



CLK H4 RST 



r 



LLl. 




GRAPHICS MICROPROCESSOR (GMP) 



SEND 
BO-812 



LD1 

RMWO-1 



COLOR 
PALETTE 



OATAROY COMP 
SEND START 

BQ-812 AD0-AD15 

LD1 



I 



2nd DATA PIPELINE 
REGISTER 



DITHER 

PATTERN 

PROM 



1st DATA PIPELINE 
REGISTER 



Figure I: typical system block diagram. 




Photo 1: This is a frame from a real-time flight-simulation display. A simulator based 
on the GMP might be affordable by small airports and flight schools. The screen is 
updated at 30 frames per second to provide a realistic, moving view corresponding to 
the plane's position in space. The objects in the scene are defined as polygons in a 
three-dimensional space. 



currently too expensive to be used for 
general aviation training. (See photo 
1.) A significant part of the cost of 
these systems is in the display elec- 
tronics that generate realistic real-time 
views for the pilot. 

Other applications include solid 
modeling systems, architectural draft- 
ing systems, animation workstations 
for artists, and graphics systems for 
video production houses and cable 
TV stations. 

It would seem at first glance that ex- 
tremely high-speed graphics would be 
overkill for business graphics users. 
However, with this power made avail- 
able at moderate cost, people will 
find new uses for it. One intriguing 
possibility is generating animated 
storyboards for advertising agencies. 
An artist could render TV commer- 
cials directly on a computer, giving his 
client an opportunity to preview the 
action in a manner similar to the final 
product without the time and ex- 
pense of actually producing the com- 
mercial. ■ 



186 BYTE* NOVEMBER 1984 



THG FASTGST STANDBY SYSTEM 
RGACTS IN I/6QTH OF A 5GCOND. 




WmmSmmmm 



THAT'S I/60TH OF A SECOND TOO LAT€. 




It's also 1/60th of a second slower 
than an RTE Uninterruptible Power 
System. 

Here's the difference: a standby 
system waits until it senses a power 



failure and then takes over Unfor- 
tunately, by the time it does, your 
computer's memory could have left 
for the day, taking your work with it. 

But the RTE Series 3000 Uninterrupti- 
ble System is always on line. So when 
the utility fails, your computer gets 
500 watts of continuous power, no 
waiting. In fact, as far as your compu- 
ter is concerned, it's like nothing 
happened. 

What's more the RTE Series 3000 
gives you constant line condition- 
ing—full-time protection against all 
the AC noise, surges and dips that 
can scramble data. Standby systems 
don't have line conditioning— they 



just stand by and let your computer 
fend for itself. 

Of course you could add a line 
conditioner to the standby unit, and 
take your chances with blackouts. 
But for less money, you can have an 
RTE Uninterruptible Power System, 
and a lot more peace of mind. 

For the name of the local compu- 
ter dealer carrying the Micro-UPS call 
Toll Free 800-854-2658. In California 
(619) 291-4211. RTE DELTEC Corpora- 
tion. 



UfflM. 



Formerly Gould Inc., Power Conversion Division 



Circle 359 on inquiry card. 



NOVEMBER 1984 • BYTE 187 



Everything 
you expected 

from 
Symphony 

and Framework 
is now 

being delivered. 



By Enable: 



Think about it a moment. 

If you were to sit down and design your own 
integrated PC software system, what would you 
aim for? 

Wouldn't you want to be able to integrate infor- 
mation from all modules in one window right on 
the screen? And then print it? 

Wouldn't you work at it until every module 
gave you the functionality of the very best stand 
alone programs? 

Wouldn't you design each module to have its 
own appropriate file structure? 

Beyond the brass ring. 

Naturally, you'd also want it to run on a stan- 
dard 256K PC. 

It goes without saying that you'd want com- 
patibility with the leading single-purpose 
programs. 

And if you were to dream a bit, you'd go for 
concurrency because it would be great to do two or 
three jobs at the same time. 

If you'd do all that in designing your own inte- 
grated program you'd certainly expect companies 
like Lotus and Ashton-Tate to do the same. 

It didn't happen. 

They left it all out. 
We put it all in. 

And because we did put it all in, Enable lets 
you produce at levels far beyond Symphony or 
Framework. 

Enable can integrate data from all modules in 
one window and then print or transmit it. For 
instance, you can create graphs from a spreadsheet 
or database. Then insert the graphs, the spreadsheet 
and DBMS data between text in a single word pro- 
cessing document right on the screen. 

Functionality? Just as you'd do it, Enables word 
processing, spreadsheet, database management, 
graphics and telecommunications are, without ex- 
ception, equal to the leading stand alone business 
programs. 

Further, Enables files are not forced into clumsy 
or unsuitable structures. Enable isn't spreadsheet- 
based or document-based or DBMS based. Each 
module is designed for a specific application. 

Symphony and Framework? Hardly. 



More? There's more. 



Your eyes blinked at our mention of 256K. 
Yet that's all you need to operate a spreadsheet with 
136K of workspace. Or a word processing docu- 
ment whose size is limited only by available disk 
space. Or a DBMS file with up to 130,000,000 
bytes of data. 

We're sure you put a high priority on com- 
patibility. So did we. 

With Enable, you can use files from dBase II T 
Lotus 1-2-37 VisiCalc T , M WordStar™ EasywriterF and 
Volkswriter— all automatically, without conversion 
or rekeying. Then you can produce files in those for- 
mats for anyone who hasn't yet switched to Enable. 

And you can work on your spreadsheet while 
you're printing a monthly report and receiving 
stock quotes over the wire -all at the same time. 

How much good news 
can you handle? 

Its time to admit there's one area in which 
Enable does not rise head and shoulders above Sym- 
phony and Framework. Price. We're the same. 

$695. 

And now for the next step. Borrow a loaner 
copy from one of our dealers and give it a workout 
on your own. Or, if you're a company with at least 
25 PCs well send you a complimentary copy. No 
obligation. Once you're thoroughly satisfied with 
Enable you can trade up your Lotus 1-2-3 for $200, 
your dBase II for $400. 

Or send $12.95 for your copy of a complete 
Enable demonstration system. 

Just dial 1-800-932-0233. In New York dial 
1-800-338-4646. 

Will Enable live up to your expectations? Well, 
you designed it didn't you? 

Integrated 

software shouldn't 

be a matter of 

choosing which compromises 

to live with. 




integration without compromise 



For the IBM®-PC and selected compatibles. 

Trademarks: Enable— The Software Group, IBM — International Business Machines Corp. , Volkswriter— Lifetree Software, Inc. , 

EasyWriter I-Information Unlimited Software, Inc., WordStar- MicroPro International Corporation, 

dBase II, Framework— Ashton-Tate, Symphony, 1-2-3 and Lotus -Lotus Development Corporation, VisiCalc — Visicorp. 



Circle 3 75 on inquiry card. 



©Copyright 1984, The Software Group Northway Ten Executive Park, Ballston Lake, New York 12019 

NOVEMBER 1984 -BYTE 189 



computers 

■ ■ ■ of lew York ■ 

wholesale 



3156763004 

Box 150 Brewerton, N.Y. 1B020 



Circle 90 on inquiry card. 









•.raSilTlf- 



;>♦ p k - < : 




-PRINTERS- 

ANADEX 

DP-9501B $1049 

DP-9620B 1099 

DP-9625B 1199 

DP-6500 2399 

WP-6000 2159 

TEXAS INSTRUMENTS 

Tl 850 Par 499 

TI855w/T 899 

C ITOH 

Prowriter 8510APar. .$345 

Pro writer 85 10ASer. 499 

Prowriter II Par. 565 

Prowriter II Ser. .699 

EPSON 

RX-80 299 

RX-80FT Call 

FX-80 Call 

FX-100 Call 

GEMINI 

10X $295 

1 5X . . . 435 

MANNESMAN TALLEY 

MT-1601 $529 

MT-160L . . 579 

MT-180L 859 

DIABLO 

620RO25CPS $919 

630RO40CPS 1769 

OKI DATA 

ML-82A Call 

ML-83A Call 

ML-92Par. Call 

ML-92 Ser. Call 

ML-93Par. Call 

Pacemark 2350 Call 

Pacemark2410 Call 

PANASONIC 

KX-P1090 .$319 

NEC /V£WNEC2050 979 

3510. . .$1399 3530. . .$1490 
3550. . . .1849 7710. . . .1899 
7715.... 1949 8023 399 

QUME 

Sprint 11/40 $1299 

Sprint 11/55 1499 

RITEMAN Inforunner $299 

SILVER REED 

EXP 500 Par $459 

EXP 550 Par. . 529 

EXP770Par. . 939 

Advertised prices reflect a cash discount on prepaid 
orders only. Most items are in stock for immediate 
delivery in factory sealed cartons with full factory 
warrantees. 



-MONITORS- 

AMDEK 

Colorl $275 

Coiorl-f 319 

Color II (RGB) 399 

Color III (RGB) 349 

300 G (12" green) 135 

300 A (12" amber) 145 

310AOBMPC) . 169 

BMC 

12AU (12- green) $79 

NEC 

JB-1201 (12" green) $155 

JB-1 205 (12" amber) . . . 1 55 

JC-1212 (12" color) 339 

JC-121612 bgb) 439 

PANASONIC 

12" Green Monochrome $169 

12" Amber Monochrome 179 

13" RGB 389 

SAKATA 

SG- 1000 12" Green $99 

SC-100 13" Color 269 

SC-200 13" rgb 499 

SC-300 13" RGB 659 

TAXAN 

KG 12N (12" green) $129 

210 (13" color) 299 

400 (13" RGB color) 299 

410 (13" RGB color) 379 

ZENITH 

Z- 122 (12" amber) $139 

Z- 123 (12" green) 109 

-HARD DISKS- 

CORVUS 

Omninet6 $1695 

Mirror Back-up 670 

Print Server 839 

TALLGRASS 
TECHNOLOGIES 

20MB Hardfile Disk 

for IBM-PC 2695 

70MB Hardfile Disk 

for IBM-PC Call 

-DISKETTES- 

Maxoll 

5WMD1 $22.95 

5W MD2 32.95 

3M/Scotch 

5V4"SSDD $21.95 

5V4" DSDD 30.95 

Educator 

Lifetime Warranty 

5V4" SSDD $16.95 

51/4 "DSDD . . . 21.95 

Flip 'n' File/hoids so Disks ..... .17.95 



IBM PC BOARDS 

Amdek MAI Graphics Board . .$479 

AST Sixpak plus 64k 299 

AST Megaplus 256k 569 

CCS 132 Column Board 589 

Microsoft 256k RAM Board . . .299 
Plantronics Color + Board . . . .399 

Quadram New Quadboard Call 

Quadram Quadlink Board Call 

Tecmar 1st MATE Board 229 

Tecmar Graphics Master Board .569 
PC Peacock Graphics Board . . .299 
64k Chip Kit (9 Chips) Call 

-SYSTEMS- 
COLUMBIA 

VP Portable .Call 

MPC 1600-1 Call 

MPC 1600-4... ..Call 

CROMEMCO 

CS-1 3195 

CS-2 3755 

CS-3 5595 

64FDC 475 

TUART 255 

-COMPAQ- 

Computers Wholesale 
Now Stocks COMPAQ 

Call for Prices! 



MORROW 

New Portable w/2 Drives & Software . .Call 
MD11 w/H Disc & Software . ...... .Call 

NEC 

PC-8201 Portable Call 

PC-8800 Small Business System . . .1669 

PC-8800 16 Bit System 1999 

PC-8800 System w/8-in. Drives . . . .2299 

NORTHSTAR 

Advantage Call 

SANYO 

MBC1200 1299 

MBC550 Call 

MBC555 Call 

CRT-36 159 

TELEVIDEO 

TS-803 .$1989 

Portable .Call 

ZENITH 

151 -22 w/2 Drives $2495 

151-22w/HardDisk 3995 

161-22 Portable Call 



-TERMINALS- 

ESPRIT SYSTEMS 

Esprit $489 

Esprit II 499 

Esprit III 649 

Exec. 10/102 799 

Exec. 10/102G 1249 

New! 

Televideo Personal Terminal 

Personal Terminal $399 

Personal Terminal 529 

w/300 band modem 

Personal Terminal 849 

w / 1 200 band modem 



TELEVIDEO 

910 


$439 


914 


579 


924 


695 


925 


699 


950 


865 


970/50 


949 


QUME 

102 


$569 


108 


715 


WYSE 

50 


549 


75 color 


Call 


ZENITH 

Z-29 


$659 


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NEW CHIPS 



RISC 
CHIPS 

by John Markoff 

RISC means longer programs 
but faster execution 



IF YOU PEERmto a microscope at a 
certain VLSI (*ery large scale integra- 
tion) microprocessor designed and 
imbricated recently by faculty and 
graduate stude.its at the University of 
California at Berkeley, you will see 
something quite startling. There, in- 
scribed in tiny detail next to the ini- 
tials of the* microprocessor designers, 
\z a Porsche racing car. 

The Porsche is intended to sym- 
bolize a radical philosophical depar- 
ture from conventional thinking about 
microprocessor design. The depar- 
ture is known as a reduced instruction 
set computer (RISC), and it provides 
an alternate solution to one of the 
fundamental problems facing modern 
computer designers: how best to sup- 
port high-level languages. 

Until today the general trend in 
computer architecture design has 
been to increase the complexity of 
hardware in an effort to more closely 
match high-level language constructs. 
Sophisticated modern computers 
such as the DEC (Digital Equipment 
Corporation) VAX- 11 family of 
minicomputers and the Intel iAPX 432 
microcomputer exemplify this trend. 
These systems are referred to as 
CISCs (complex instruction set com- 



puters) by the RISC advocates. (In one 
of their papers, the Berkeley RISC 
designers contrasted their Porsche 
RISC symbol with a Cadillac symbol 
for CISC design.) 

CISCs are characterized by rich in- 
struction sets, a variety of address 
modes, and extensive microcode. The 
iAPX 432 in particular is represen- 
tative of the CISC approach in that In- 
tel designed the system to best sup- 
port one high-level language, Ada, 
which has been adopted as a stan- 
dard by the U.S. Department of 
Defense. The 432 has an instruction 
set intended to efficiently translate 
Ada into machine-language programs. 

By way of contrast, RISC designs of- 
fer exceedingly simple instruction 
sets, shortened design and fabrication 
cycles, and the freeing of scarce sili- 
con real estate for other microproces- 
sor tasks. 

Therefore, as the semiconductor in- 
dustry enters the era of VLSI for 
microprocessor design, CISC and 
RISC will offer conflicting avenues of 
approach: VLSI used to construct in- 

]ohn Markoff is a senior technical editor at 
BYTE. You can contact him at McGraw-Hill 
1000 Elwell Court, Palo Alto, CA 94303. 



creasingly complex microprocessors 
where hardware is used extensively to 
do functions previously done by soft- 
ware, versus simplified designs op- 
timized for speed of operation. 

RISC designers argue that even in 
VLSI circuits, transistors available on 
a limited chip area constitute a scarce 
resource when they are used to im- 
plement an entire processor. They 
argue that CISC instruction sets con- 
stitute an inefficient use of these 
resources. In fact, detailed analyses 
that the RISC advocates have made 
of machine code generated by 
modern compilers indicate that com- 
plex instruction sets are frequently 
not fully used by compilers; therefore, 
much of the power supplied in silicon 
by hardware designers is wasted. 

Furthermore because the cost of 
memory continues to fall rapidly, the 
relatively compact code afforded by 
CISCs is an increasingly insignificant 
factor in total system cost. Occasional- 
ly, complex architectural designs even 
lead to "irrational" implementation of 
instructions. In a number of cases, 
special-purpose instructions are not 
faster than a sequence of simple in- 
structions. David Patterson, an asso- 

{continued) 



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RISC CHIPS 



ciate professor in computer science 
at the University of California at 
Berkeley and one of the principal 
designers of the Berkeley RISC proj- 
ect, has cited a number of examples 
(see reference 1): 

One example was discovered by Peuto 
and Shustek for the IBM 370; they 
found that a sequence of load instruc- 
tions is faster than a load multiple in- 
struction for fewer than 4 registers. 
This case covers 40% of the load multi- 
ple instructions in typical programs. 
Another comes from the VAX-1 1/780. 
The INDEX instruction is used to 
calculate the address of an array ele- 
ment while at the same time checking 
to see that the index fits in the array 
bounds. This is clearly an important 
function to accurately detect errors in 
high-level language statements. We 
found that for the VAX-1 1/780, by 
replacing this single "high-level" in- 
struction by several instructions (COM- 
PARE, JUMP LESS UNSIGNED, ADD. 
MULTIPLY) that we could perform the 
same function 45% faster! Further- 
more, if the compiler took advantage 
of the case where the lower bound 
was zero, the simple instruction se- 
quence was 60% faster. Clearly, 
smaller code does not always imply 
faster code, nor do "higher-level" in- 
structions imply faster code. 

One of the criticisms of RISC is that 
new instruction sets require radical 
revisions of existing software bases. 
RISC advocates respond that a per- 
formance increase by a factor of two 
or possibly three times is worth the 
time spent modifying existing 
software. 

RISC History 

A number of experimental and com* 
mercial attempts have been made to 
build RISCs, both as microprocessors 
and by using discrete logic In this ar- 
ticle I will focus on the experience of 
the Berkeley RISC project, which has 
built two separate RISC micropro- 
cessors and is currently planning a 
third. 

Recent RISC history extends back to 
the IBM 801 project In 1975 the 801 
was originally designed as a minicom- 
puter. It was thought of as a simple 
alternative to the more complex IBM 



360 and 370 mainframe architectures. 
While no public performance figures 
are available on the 801, reports in- 
dicate that it could execute about 10 
mips (million instructions per second). 
This compares quite favorably to the 
IBM 370/168 (2.4 mips) and the IBM 
3033 (5 mips). 

The design of the 801 began after 
an analysis of trace tapes (measure- 
ments of instructions actually ex- 
ecuted by a computer) at the IBM 
Watson Research Center indicated 
that relatively simple instructions such 
as LOAD, STORE, ADD, SUB. and 
BRANCH are used much more fre- 
quently than complex instructions 
(see reference 2). 

IBM is still carrying on the 801 
research. Several implemeitations 
have been done in VLSI, arj several 
reports indicate that IBM night offer 
a commercial product bsed on the 
technology. 

A group of Stanford faculty and 
students is also experimenting in RISC 
design. The microprocessor is known 
as the MIPS machine (microprocessor 
without interlocked pipe stages) 
While the Berkeley RSC group \ nas 
used off-the-shelf compilers, the , mjps 
group has focused ,ts atten't/o/i on 
compiler technology, using software 
solutions to several traditional hard- 
ware problems such as pipeline in- 
terlocks (data dependencies that force 
one stage of a pipeline to wait for 
results from another stage). See the 
text box for further information. 

In addition to these research proj- 
ects, a number of companies are re- 
ported to be carrying out their own 
RISC research; several have RISC-de- 
signed computers already on the mar- 
ket. In addition to IBM, the companies 
TRW, Fairchild Semiconductor, Hew- 
lett-Packard, and DEC have research 
efforts under way, and Pyramid Tech- 
nology and Ridge Computer already 
have introduced RISC minicomputers. 
INMOS has announced a single-chip 
VLSI computer with on-board mem- 
ory and a RISC instruction set. In the 
supercomputer class, Seymour Cray's 
designs have consistently adhered to 
the RISC philosophy. 

{continued) 



■"— i 



T92 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



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RISC CHIPS 



The Berkeley and Stanford RISC 
groups are now working on several 
new designs. Students at Berkeley are 
completing final design work on 
SOAR (Smalltalk on a RISC). At Stan- 
ford, work is just beginning on MIPS- 
X, a microprocessor that is projected 
to have 10-mips performance. 

Architectural Design 

The Berkeley RISC project largely 
grew out of the design ideas of David 
Patterson and Carlos Sequin. Patter- 
son's thoughts about RISC developed 
after he spent a leave of absence at 
DEC where he gained experience with 
the difficulties facing VLSI computer 
designers. He realized that to build a 



computer like a VAX in VLSI, he 
would have to include a writable con- 
trol store because of the near impos- 
sibility of perfecting the microproces- 
sor's microcode. 

Patterson recognized that most of 
the current 16-bit microprocessors 
had essentially replicated the design 
complexity of the PDP-11. Instead of 
following the DEC approach, he 
decided to put a point on the other 
end of the complexity curve. 

From the first architectural studies 
in the spring of 1980, Berkeley faculty 
and graduate students began work on 
the design of a microprocessor known 
as RISC I. RISC I, a simple 32-bit 
NMOS (negative-channel metal-oxide 



TkE Software Solution 



The Berkeley RISC design isn't the 
only approach to building re- 
duced instruction set computers. Com- 
puter scientists at the Center for In- 
tegrated Systems (CIS) at Stanford 
University have designed MIPS to do 
in software much of what RISC does 
in hardware. 

Instead of taking up silicon area with 
a large bank of physical registers, MIPS 
attempts to keep operands in registers 
by using sophisticated compiler tech- 
nology. This strategy leads to a smaller 
chip and a faster register set than in the 
Berkeley RISC design. John Hennessy 
(a Stanford professor who is one of the 
leaders of the MIPS design team) notes 
that the Berkeley and Stanford strate- 
gies are not mutually exclusive In fact, 
a number of similarities exist in the two 
chips. Both RISC and MIPS have what 
is called a load/store architecture; this 
means that only load and store opera- 
tions can access memory. Data can be 
operated on only when it is in a 
register. 

What sets MIPS apart is the focus on 
compiler issues. "We attempt to get 
zero idle time in the pipeline," says 
Hennessy. "In practice, we get within 
5 percent of that goal." 

The MIPS compiler technology con- 
sists of several parts, including the rel- 
atively straightforward issue of code 
generation and more complex tech- 
niques such as instruction scheduling. 



branch scheduling, and instruction 
packing. A pipeline reorganizer that is 
part of the MIPS software system re- 
orders sequences of MIPS instructions, 
packs instructions, and handles the ef- 
fect of branch delays. 

At the heart of the MIPS architecture 
is a dense five-stage pipeline com- 
posed of instruction fetch (IF), instruc- 
tion decode (ID), operand decode 
(OD), operand store/execute (SX), and 
operand fetch (OF) components. MIPS 
allows packing of up to two instructions 
per 32-bit word; the combination of 
two operations per word and two 
cycles per instruction makes possible 
a peak rate of one operation per 
machine cycle. 

The argument in favor of doing in- 
struction reorganization in software in- 
stead of in hardware is that the perfor- 
mance price is paid for only once, at 
compilation time. 

And what's the performance bottom 
line? Hennessy says that MIPS outper- 
forms an 8-MHz Motorola 68000 by as 
much as a factor of five or six. What's 
next? Last May, work began on MIPS- 
X, a CMOS (complementary metal- 
oxide semiconductor) microprocessor 
projected to have 10-mips perfor- 
mance. MIPS-X will have an on-chip in- 
struction cache, some support for 
multiprocessing, and possibly some 
sort of interprocessor communications 
facility 



semiconductor) microprocessor, was 
fabricated and tested by the summer 
of 1982. Because of a design error, it 
did not meet performance expecta- 
tions. However, a second micropro- 
cessor, RISC II, exceeded them. 

The initial design specification of 
the RISC project was based on the 
concept of a simple 32-bit architec- 
ture to both test the RISC hypothesis 
and allow the research group to 
shorten design time and reduce de- 
sign errors. Shortened design time is 
not insignificant. Patterson estimates 
that it can be cut to as little as two 
years from the five years currently 
typical of a major commercial micro- 
processor. 

The RISC architecture includes four 
important design constraints. The first 
is execution of one instruction per 
cycle; instructions are intended to be 
as simple and fast as microinstruc- 
tions on computers like the VAX. (The 
LOAD and STORE instructions are the 
only operations that violate this 
single-cycle constraint; they take two 
cycles, adding an index register and 
an immediate offset during the first 
cycle and then performing the mem- 
ory access during the next cycle, 
thereby allowing sufficient time for 
main-memory access.) Also, all in- 
structions are the same size; this 
generally simplifies implementation. 
Third, system memory is accessed 
only with LOAD and STORE instruc- 
tions; this also simplifies the system 
design and is well matched for a mi- 
croprocessor optimized for keeping 
operands in internal registers. Finally, 
the RISC design was done with the 
idea of supporting high-level lan- 
guages in mind. 

The resulting microprocessor is a 
register-oriented NMOS design that 
has just 31 operation codes (shown in 
table I) and supports 3 2 -bit addresses 
and 8-, 16-, and 32-bit data. This 
design leaves floating-point calcula- 
tions and instruction and memory 
caches to peripheral devices. The fin- 
ished RISC II is a 41,000-transistor 
chip that is 25 percent smaller than 
RISC I, yet has 60 more registers and 
39 operation codes. However, both 

{continued) 



194 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



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Circle 48 on inquiry card. 



RISC CHIPS 



designs were fabricated at 2 microns 
(4 microns drawn gate length). RISC 
II was later resubmitted at smaller 
geometries of 1.5 microns. This ver- 
sion is reported to run at 330 nano- 
seconds per instruction with a 
12-MHz clock and 1.8 watts power 
dissipation. 

The RISC I microprocessor essen- 
tially consists of a large general- 
purpose register bank, a shifter, an 
ALU (arithmetic and logic unit), a set 
of program counter (PC) registers, 
data I/O (input/output) latches, the 



program status word (PSW) register, 
and the control section. The RISC I 
register bank has two independent 
buses (A and B) that are read-only 
and a bus C that is write-only. 

The register bank bus architecture 
was redesigned in RISC II. The modi- 
fication permits dual-port read ac- 
cesses with single-bus signal sensing; 
however, both buses are required for 
a write operation. Each cell is about 
2.5 times smaller than the three-bus 
RISC I register cell. 

By visually examining a RISC 



Tkble 1: 


Operating instructions for RISC I 


Tables in this article are based on 


information from the Berkeley RISC project. 






Instruction 


Definition 


Operands 


Comments 


ADD 


integer add 


Rs,S2,Rd 


Rd<-Rs + S2 


ADDC 


add with carry 


Rs,S2,Rd 


Rd<-Rs + S2 + carry 


SUB 


integer subtract 


Rs,S2,Rd 


Rd<-Rs-S2 


SUBC 


subtract with carry 


Rs,S2,Rd 


Rd«-Rs-S2- carry 


SUBR 


subtract with carry 


Rs,S2,Rd 


Rd<-S2-Rs 


SUBCR 


subtract with carry 


Rs,S2,Rd 


Rd<-S2-Rs- carry 


AND 


logical AND 


Rs,S2,Rd 


Rd<-Rs & S2 


OR 


logical OR 


Rs,S2,Rd 


Rd«-Rs | S2 


XOR 


logical EXCLUSIVE OR 


Rs,S2,Rd 


Rd<-Rs xor S2 


SLL 


shift left 


Rs,S2,Rd 


Rd<~Rs shifted by S2 


SRL 


shift right logical 


Rs,S2,Rd 


Rd<-Rs shifted by S2 


SRA 


shift right arithmetic 


Rs,S2,Rd 


Rd«-Rs shifted by S2 


LDL 


load long 


(Rx)S2,Rd 


Rd<-M[Rx + S2] 


LDSU 


load short unsigned 


(Rx)S2,Rd 


Rd<-M[Rx + S2] 


LDSS 


load short signed 


(Rx)S2,Rd 


Rd-M[Rx + S2] 


LDBU 


load byte unsigned 


(Rx)S2,Rd 


Rd<-M[Rx + S2] 


LDBS 


load byte signed 


(Rx)S2,Rd 


Rd<-M[Rx + S2] 


STL 


store long 


Rm,(Rx)S2 


M[Rx + S2]<-Rm 


STS 


store short 


Rm,(Rx)S2 


M[Rx + S2]<-Rm 


STB 


store byte 


Rm,(Rx)S2 


M[Rx + S2]-Rm 


MP 


conditional jump 


COND,S2(Rx) 


pc<-Rx + S2 


JMPR 


conditional relative 


CONDY 


pc-pc + Y 


CALL 


call and change window 


Rd,S2(Rx) 


Rd«-pc, next 
pc<-Rx + S2, 

CWP«-CWP-1 


CALLR 


call relative and change window 


Rd.Y 


Rd<-pc, next 
pc+-pc + Y, 
CWP-CWP-1 


RET 


return and change window 


Rm,S2 


pc<-Rm + S2, 
CWP<-CWP + 1 


CALLINT 


disable interrupts 


Rd 


RdHast pc; next 
CWP<-CWP-1 


RETINT 


enable interrupts 


Rm,S2 


pc*-Rm + S2; next 
CWP<-CWP+1 


LDHI 


load immediate high 


Rd.Y 


Rd<31:13>«-Y,Rd 
<12:0>«-0 


GTLPC 


to restart delayed jump 


Rd 


RdHast pc 


GETPSW 


load status word 


Rd 


Rd<-PSW 


PUTPSW 


set status word 


Rm 


PSW<-Rm 



microprocessor, you can see that, 
while the control section generally 
covers 50 to 60 percent of the total 
chip area in a commercial micropro- 
cessor like the Motorola 68000 or the 
Zilog Z8000, the control section 
covers only 6 to 10 percent of the 
RISC I or II chip area. Remarkably the 
RISC II op-code decoder (equivalent 
to the microprogram memory in mi- 
crocodable CPUs) occupies only 0.5 
percent of the chip area, has only 7 
percent of the transistors, and re- 
quires less than 2 percent of the 
design and layout time needed by 
CISCs. 

The Berkeley RISC uses the area 
freed by the absence of a large in- 
struction set for a bank of 3 2 -bit 
registers intended to minimize access 
of system memory. These registers are 
used in an innovative window-register 
scheme described below. The RISC 
philosophy also claims that it makes 
more sense to use silicon area to im- 
plement an instruction cache than the 
complex control circuitry necessary 
for a large microprogram ROM. How- 
ever, the instruction cache was dealt 
with as a separate device to keep the 
scale of the first experimental RISC 
chips small. 

RJSCs Instruction Set 

While initially it seems plausible that 
complex instruction sets offer better 
support for high-level languages, RISC 
advocates have conducted experi- 
ments indicating that simple instruc- 
tions are the most frequently ex- 
ecuted. This statistical evidence in 
favor of simple instructions, coupled 
with the facts that sequences of sim- 
ple instructions often run as fast or 
faster than corresponding complex in- 
structions and that microcoded con- 
trol can be slower than hard-wired 
control, makes it logical to consider 
supporting high-level languages by 
translating simple high-level language 
operations directly into machine in- 
structions and translating more com- 
plicated high-level functions into 
machine-language subroutines. 

Additional simplicity is gained by 
using only two addressing modes, in- 

{continued) 



196 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 





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RISC CHIPS 



dexed and PC-relative. More compli- 
cated addressing modes can be syn- 
thesized from these if desired. 

Most of the Berkeley RISC Us 39 in- 
structions are simple ALU and shift 
operations on registers. Instructions, 
data, addresses, and both RISC I and 
II registers are 32 bits wide. A fixed 
width simplifies instruction fetching 
and sequencing. Additionally, the in- 
struction format is simple, with fields 
in fixed locations to speed instruction 
decoding. As a consequence, register 
access can take place at the same 
time as op-code decoding. 

Pipeline 

Both RISC I and II have pipelined 
architectures. RISC I has a simple two- 
stage pipeline that overlaps the in- 
struction fetch and execution phases. 
RISC II introduces a third pipeline 
stage. In this version the process of 
writing to a destination register has 
been delayed until that stage. The ad- 
vantage of the fixed RISC instruction 
format is that register operands 
always appear in the same place in 
the 3 2 -bit word. Therefore, register ac- 
cess can take place simultaneously 



with op-code decoding, effectively 
shortening the pipeline (see figure 1). 

While pipelined architectures on 
commercial machines generally use 
complex schemes to avoid delays in- 
curred as a result of jump instructions, 
the RISC goal of simplicity has led to 
the choice of a "delayed branch" 
technique. Berkeley RISC redefines 
jumps so they do not take effect until 
after the following instructions. This 
insures that the RISC can always pre- 
fetch the next instruction while the 
current one is being executed. 

It is possible for a compiler to fur- 
ther optimize the branch by rearrang- 
ing instructions so the cycle after the 
delayed branch can be used more 
than 90 percent of the time. This 
avoids having to insert a NOP (no 
operation) instruction at this point. 

Register Windows 

Although the Berkeley researchers 
didn't focus on compiler technology 
to the same degree that the Stanford 
MIPS designers have, they developed 
a hardware design intended to keep 
operands in registers in order to 
significantly increase the speed of 



SEQUENTIAL 



IF 


ID 


OF 


OE 


OS 


































IF 


ID 


OF 


OE 


OS 


















IF 


ID 


OF 


OE 


OS 



PIPELINED 



IF ID 



I OF |oE 



OS 



IF ID OF OE OS 



IF ID OF OE OS 



Figure I: Sequential versus pipelined execution. Pipelined execution gives a peak 
performance of one instruction per step. The five steps here refer to the steps of 
instruction execution: instruction fetch (IF), instruction decode (ID), operand fetch (OF), 
operand execution (OE), and operand store (OS). 



microprocessor operations. A block 
of CPU registers is the fastest storage 
option because it is on the same chip 
with the CPU and because address- 
ing is done with a shorter address 
than for cache or memory. 

The Berkeley solution is to have a 
number of sets of registers (referred 
to as windows) to insure that local 
variables and parameters are always 
immediately available in registers. This 
solution avoids the time-consuming 
process of saving the state of a bank 
of registers to slower system memory 
on every procedure call and then 
restoring the original parameters on 
every return. 

Thus, when a procedure call takes 
place in both the RISC I and II archi- 
tectures, the processor is automat- 
ically switched to a new set of reg- 
isters. To further optimize this archi- 
tecture's performance, an overlapping 
window arrangement is employed 
(see figure 2). Because different win- 
dows overlap, operands are 
automatically passed, so it is not 
necessary for procedures to pass 
values between registers. 

The Berkeley register-window 
design has already achieved at least 
limited commercial acceptance. 
Pyramid Technology's 90x processor 
uses register-window design architec- 
ture. 

The window-based register design is 
vital to a RISC because procedure 
calls are time-consuming, and RISC 
designs create more procedure calls 
than CISCs do. This is because com- 
plex instructions are implemented as 
subroutines in RISC designs, rather 
than as single op codes as in CISCs. 

One potential problem faced by the 
register-window scheme is nesting of 
procedures. If the nesting depth is 
large enough, the RISC architecture 
handles the overflow condition by 
creating an additional stack in system 
memory. 

According to the Berkeley design- 
ers, the effectiveness of this idea 
depends on the relative frequency of 
register overflows and underflows. 
TWo students did a study on the proj- 
ect indicating that with eight register 

{continued) 



198 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



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RISC CHIPS 



windows, overflow occurs in less than 
1 percent of the calls (see reference 
3). This study, done early in the RISC 
project, involved the dynamic mea- 
surement of the number of arguments 
and local scalar variables for a given 
procedure and similar measurement 
of locality property of procedure- 
nesting-depth. The students mea- 
sured a C compiler, Pascal interpreter, 
UNIX troff typesetter, and six smaller 
nonnumeric programs written in C. 
In practice, not all the physical 
registers are visible to the machine- 
language programmer at any given 
time Instead, one window designated 
"the current window" is available. 
Within each window are two types of 
registers. Some registers belong only 
to a single window and are referred 



to as "locals." Other registers belong 
to two windows simultaneously and 
are called "overlap registers." These 
registers are divided into high and low 
sets. The high registers contain 
parameters passed from "above" the 
current procedure, while the low 
registers contain parameters that will 
be passed to procedures "below" the 
current procedure. Finally RISC I and 
II have a set of registers called 
"global" that are always visible 
regardless of which window is current. 
A register window in the RISC II 
design contains 6 overlapping regis- 
ters, 10 local registers, and 10 global 
registers. 

In the sample RISC register window 
in figure 3, registers 26 to 31 contain 
parameters that have been passed 



PHYSICAL REGISTERS LOGICAL REGISTERS 








PROCEDURE A 


PROCEDURE B PROCEDURE C 


137 


HIGH A 




R31 A 




132 
131 






R26 A 






R25 A 




LOCAL A 








122 
121 






R16 A 








LOW A /HIGHq 


R15 A 




R3l B 




116 
115 






R10 A 




R26 B 












R25 8 




LOCAL B 








106 
105 






R16 B 










R15 B 




R31 C 






LOW q /HIGH c 












100 
99 






R10 B 




R26 C 












R25 C 




LOCAL C 








90 
89 

84 






R16 C 




L0W C 


R15 C 
R10 C 




• 






• 




• 
















9 


GLOBAL 




R9 A 




*9 B 




R9 C 











R0 A 




R0 B 




R0 C 























from the calling procedure. The local 
registers are 16 through 2 5. These are 
used for local scalar storage. Low 
registers 10 through 15 are used for 
parameters passed to the called pro- 
cedure. By changing only the pointer 
to the current window, it is possible 
to immediately pass parameters be- 
tween procedures. Registers 
through 9 are always visible regard- 
less of which register window is 
current. 

Overflow and underflow conditions 
are handled by associated circuitry 
and with a trap to a software routine 
that adjusts the procedure stack in 
memory. 

The performance advantage of this 
design is impressive. Overlapped 

{continued) 











HIGH 


R31 

R26 
R25 

R16 
R15 

R10 
R9 

R0 


LOCAL 


LOW 


GLOBAL 









Figure 2: Three overlapped register windows in RISC 



Figure 3: RISC register windows. 



200 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



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RISC CHIPS 



register windows give the Berkeley 
RISC design a typical call time of 2 
microseconds versus the 20 microsec- 
onds typical of a call on the 
VAX- 1 1/780 (see reference 4). Addi- 
tionally register windows reduce the 
total accesses to system memory by 
a factor of two. 

It is interesting that one of the 
criticisms of the Berkeley RISC project 
has been that RISC performance ac- 
tually comes from the register- 
oriented basis of the RISC design 
rather than the RISC architecture 
itself. The Berkeley group has 
responded by agreeing that a signifi- 
cant portion of the speed is due to 
the overlapped register window. 
However, the group notes that critics 
have ignored a key point in the 
design— that a drop in the control 
logic area due to the reduced set of 
instructions (from 50 percent to 6 per- 
cent) created space for the expand- 
ed number of registers in the first 
place. 

Design Tools 

In many ways, the tools created to 
design the Berkeley RISC micropro- 
cessors are as significant as the new 
design philosophy inherent in RISC. 
These tools have enabled a small 
group of faculty and graduate 
students, using the Mead-Conway 
VLSI NMOS design rules and with ac- 
cess to corporate silicon foundries 
over the ARPAnet to construct work- 
ing microprocessors that rival com- 
mercial designs in performance Many 
of these tools are now available in the 
public domain, making VLSI design 
projects more readily accessible than 
most people realize. The Berkeley 
RISC project's decision to choose a 



simple and regular design has also led 
to shortened design cycles and chips 
that function in first silicon. 

The principal design tool available 
to the RISC project was a color 
graphical layout editor called Caesar, 
created by Berkeley professor John 
Ousterhout. Caesar runs on DEC VAX 
computers under the Berkeley 4.1 ver- 
sion of UNIX and is widely in use in 
university and corporate research 
centers. Caesar is not an intelligent 
system. It does not understand design 
rules, electrical properties, or connec- 
tivity. It functions primarily as a 
geometry editor that lets the designer 
create pictures of VLSI circuits and 
then integrate them into more com- 
plex circuits. 

A variety of tools (designed by a 
group that Ousterhout led) were used 
to check the layout after it was 
created, including Drc a program that 
checks for layout errors; SPICE, a low- 
level circuit-simulation language; and 
Crystal a high-level timing verifier that 
analyzes the performance of VLSI 
circuits. 

Future design work at Berkeley will 
be done with an advanced layout 
editor called Magic that Ousterhout's 
group is now designing. This tool will 
permit intelligent operations such as 
automatic routing of connections be- 
tween different devices and "plow- 
ing," or altering a portion of a design 
while maintaining layout rules and 
connectivity 

RISC Performance 

The bottom line on RISC architecture 
is actual performance, and this is dif- 
ficult to ascertain because the 
Berkeley RISCs have not yet been in- 
tegrated into complete microcom- 



Table 2: 


Execution time of four microprocessors on four programs. 




Machine 


Speed Language 




Time (milliseconds) 






MHz wait states 


search 


sieve puzzle 


acker 


8086 


5 Pascal 


73 


764 44000 


11100 


432 


8 4 Ada 


4.4 


978 45700 


47800 


68000 


8 2 C 


4.7 


740 37100 


7800 


Average 




5.5 


827 42300 


22200 


RISC 1 


1.5 C 


2.5 


698 23500 


16000 



puter systems. However, preliminary 
studies and projected benchmarks in- 
dicate that RISC designs yield perfor- 
mance benefits as well as cost/perfor- 
mance benefits. 
While the operating speed of RISC 

I was originally expected to be 7.5 
MHz, its actual speed was much 
slower: only 1.5 MHz. The Berkeley 
RISC designers attributed this to their 
inexperience as VLSI designers; they 
concentrated principally on logical 
correctness rather than circuit speed. 
Subsequent tests indicated that the 
design errors would have limited the 
performance of RISC I to 4 MHz and 
that problems with the implementa- 
tion of only a few instructions were 
limiting actual performance. 

A RISC I test board was assembled, 
including memory, I/O, and memory 
management. Comparative perfor- 
mance tests measuring the first ver- 
sion of RISC against commercial 
systems (see table 2) indicate that it 
can run a series of programs a little 
faster than a series of micropro- 
cessors can. 

RISC II results have been much 
more promising. Because of added 
experience and the use of more so- 
phisticated design tools, RISC II ran 
much closer to original predictions. 
The predicted cycle time execution of 
a register-to-register instruction had 
been 480 nanoseconds (8-MHz clock). 
Actual RISC II performance was 500 
nanoseconds per instruction. The 
RISC II submitted with smaller 
geometries runs at 330 nanoseconds 
per instruction (12-MHz clock). 

According to Patterson, "Bench- 
mark simulations show that even at 
500 nanoseconds, RISC II runs integer 
C programs faster than an 8-MHz 
iAPX 286, 10-MHz NS 16032, 12-MHz 
68000, or 18-MHz HP 9000." (See 
reference 5.) 

C-compiler benchmarks on both the 
RISC II (simulated) and the VAX- 
1 1/780 have determined that the RISC 

II compiles faster (see table 3). 

To date, the results of all the RISC 
experiments have been positive. Dur- 
ing the next few years, RISC architec- 
ture should have an opportunity to 

[continued) 



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RISC CHIPS 



Table 3: UNIX C compile 
Compiled Program 


-time benchmarks. 

NAX-11/780 C Compiler 


RISC C Compiler 


size 
name (lines) 


on VAX on RISC 
(sees) 8MHz 12MHz 


VAX 


on VAX 
(sees) 


on RISC 
8MHz 12MHz 


VAX 


RISC 
8 12 


RISC 
8 12 


ld.c 1587 
sortc 873 
puzziec 118 


27.9 21.0 13.9 

17.4 13.2 8.7 

5.2 3.6 2.4 


1.3 2.0 

1.3 2.0 

1.4 2.2 


35.2 

20.0 

7.3 


22.4 14.8 

13.2 8.7 

4.8 3.2 


1.6 2.4 
1.5 2.3 
1.5 2.3 


Total 2578 


50.5 37.8 25.0 


1.3 2.0 


62.5 


40.4 26.7 


1.5 2.3 



prove itself in the commercial 
marketplace 

SOAR 

Another criticism leveled at RISC 
architecture is that it is appropriate 
only for certain high-level languages. 
RISC I and II and Stanford MIPS have 
shown that RISC does provide 
superior performance in C and Pascal. 
In order to test the applicability of 
RISC to other language environments, 
the Berkeley RISC project has begun 
work on microprocessors tailored for 
those environments. 

SOAR is a 3 5,000-transistor 32-bit 
NMOS microprocessor designed to 
execute the Smalltalk-80 language at 
performance levels comparable to a 
Xerox Dorado, a powerful, single-user 
ECL (emitter coupled logic) minicom- 
puter that sells for more than 
$100,000. 



The SOAR design was scheduled for 
fabrication in September of 1984 and 
projected performance micro-bench- 
marks range from 41 percent to 580 
percent of the Dorado's performance. 

Conclusion 

RISC design principles fit well with the 
"small is beautiful" philosophy of the 
personal computer industry. In fact, 
RISC design at Berkeley and Stanford 
proves that successful VLSI micropro- 
cessor design work can be done on 
a shoestring, without the resources of 
the semiconductor industry. 

According to the Berkeley RISC 
designers (see reference 6): 

The bottom line of the RISC I effort 
is that students as part of the graduate 
curriculum designed and evaluated an 
architecture, learned Mead/Conway 
design, built new CAD tools, and 
tested their design. The end product, 



a 44,500-transistor integrated circuit, 
has one minor design error, worked on 
the first good silicon, and runs pro- 
grams faster than commercial 
microprocessors. ■ 

REFERENCES 

1. Patterson, Q, and D. Ditzel. "The Case 
for the Reduced Instruction Set Com- 
puter." Computer Architecture News, October 
15, 1980, pages 27 and 28. 

2. Bernhard, R. "More Hardware Means 
Less Software." IEEE Spectrum, December 
1981, volume 18, number 12. 

3. Halbert D, and P. Kessler. "Windows 
of Overlapping Registers." CS292R Final 
Reports, June 9, 1980. 

4. Patterson, D "A RISCy Approach to 
Computer Design." COMPCON Spring, 
February 1982, page 9. 

5. Patterson, D "RISC Watch." Computer 
Architecture News, March 1984, page 2. 

6. Foderaro, J. K., K. S. Van Dyke, and D. 
Patterson. "Running RISCs." VLSI Design, 
September/October 1982. 



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Visual Technology Incorporated 

540 Main Street, Tewksbury, MA 01876 

Telephone (617) 851 -5000. Telex 951-539 



Circle 416 on inquiry card. 







"Make Way for Haves* Please." 

An advanced, easy-to-use data management 
system for die IBM* PC and compatibles. 



Want to get your paperwork out of 
a clumsy file cabinet and onto your 
PC's screen, where you can manage 
it better? Frustrated with data base 
software that's either too limited or 
too difficult to use? Hayes offers you 
a simple word of kindness. 

Please? 1 A powerful, yet easy-to-use, 
system for organizing and managing 
your information. Please is flexible 
enough to store any data you enter, 
and it'll return data to you in exactly 
the form you need. Please does 
more. 
It does 
it all 
faster. 
And it's 
sure to 
please! 



'The menu, Please?" 

Menus list all your options 

and tell you exactly which 

keys to press for every 

Please feature. 



That's to be expected. As the 

telecomputing leader, Hayes built its 
reputation on quality design, relia- 



bility and customer support. 
Now these same standards have 
been applied to a new data 
management system that is go- 
ing to instandy change the way you 
do business! 

Say you're looking for an efficient 
way to maintain 
sales d * i Pi -*ase 
leads < rystep 
of the way in creat- 
ing a sales database 
that might include 
names, addresses, dates and figures. 
These categories are called "fields" in 
database lingo, and they're the very 
heart of your database structure. 

Wanr> tm< n Eotalinapax- 
ticular region? Press a few keys and 
it's yours! A few more keystrokes 
anayc t'Ukn vl prod- 

uct, and what's your biggest seller. 

Please will supply you with labels 
for a mailing to selected customers. It 
can send customer information to 
yourw oriona! 

letter. And it can receive data from 



"Make it snappy/Please!" 

Need a report fast? You and 

Please can put together a Quick 

List in a matter of seconds. 



your spread eel | rag* m Pi a$e 
will even look up a name and com- 
pany for you, your Hayes Smart- 
modem* will dial the phone number, 
and you're ready to talk! 

Taking this same sales database, 
you might also want to define special 
fields foi a custom 
Output Plan. 
With a defined 
, r "COM- 
MISSIONS DUEr 
Please- itomat- 
icafly o rrput [esmai com- 

missions, and print them out in a 
report of your own design , All this 
and more, just for saying "Please!' 

And if you ever change your mind 
and want to change the structure of 
your database, please feel free. Step- 
Dy-stej Instruct iow you how. 

You nave this same flexibility with 
any database you and Please design. 
You can store up to 16 million records t 
and 200 custom Output Plans for each 
database! More than you're likely 
ever to But tit nice 



f Dependent on key fieldlengdi and key field value. Please is a trademark©? Hayes Microcomputer Products, Inc. "Sraartmodem J00, Sinartmodem 1200 and Sroartraodem 120QB are trademarks of Hayes Miaocomputer Products. Inc 

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'Put it here, Please." 

Design a special screen 

format to position data 

in a particular place. 



knowteg 

all that 

storag 

power 

is there? 
Just in case you ever need it? 

Now you might think that a data 
management system that does all 
this must be difficult to use. Right? 
Rest assured. Please works hard so 
you don't have to. An easy-to-follow 
sample disk shows you 
you need to know to 
create your first data- 
base. Three Please 
menus show you 
which keys to press 
to access every fea- 
ture. And whenever you need it 
Please provides on-screen HELP 
messages, tailored to a specific task. 
So you needn't waste time reading 
through a list of unrelated instructions 
ori your screen. Or stop what you're 
doing to consult a manual. In no time 
at all, and with no assistance at all, 
you'll be a Please database pro! 

IBM is a registered trademark of Internationa! Business Machines Corp . ©1954 Hayes Microcomputer Products. Inc. 



"Merge these, Please:* 

Combine data from one 

database into another, with- 
out changing your original. 



Everything about Please is designed 
to save you time and effort, So what 
could make data management even 
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that's what! 

To help you get up-and-running 
immediately we've developed a 
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for business and personal use. 

Including Mailing 
List Membership, 
Appointments, 
Household 
Records, Contacts, 
Applicants, 
Employee Files, Inventory, Payroll, 
Ledger, Invoices, Cash Flow and 
Stocks. And look for several new 
templates, before you can say 
"More, please!' 

See your dealer right away for a 
demonstration oi Please (and its 
templates). You'll wonder how you 
ever managed information without it! 



"My free Item- 
plate. Please?" 

Which template 
would you like? 
Mail in your 
Mease Product 
Registration Card, 

3 Hayes will 
send it to you, 
absolutely free! 




Hayes Microcomputer Products, Inc. 

23 Peachtree Industrial Blvd. 
-rcross. Georgia 30092 404/441-1617 

Cirde !89 on inquiry card. 




olors. 



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Epson is a registered trademark, and JX-80 and FX-S0 are trademarks of Epson America. Inc. Lotus and Symphony are trademarks of Lotus Development Corporation. 



NEW CHIPS 



GALLIUM 

ARSENIDE 

CHIPS 



by Phillip Robinson 

A high-speed IC material 
gets ready to go 



VIRTUALLY ALL microelectronics 
chips are based on silicon. Ever since 
silicon trounced germanium in the 
transistor market, silicon has been the 
only practical material for devices 
ranging from SSI (small-scale integra- 
tion) to VLSI (very-large-scale integra- 
tion). 

However, silicon has a new rival- 
gallium arsenide (GaAs). GaAs has the 
physical properties to be a material 
that's faster and requires less power 
than silicon. While it has been the 
preferred material for a few devices, 
such as microwave transistors and 
LEDs (light-emitting diodes), it wasn't 
until the 1980s that GaAs became a 
practical foundation for ICs (inte- 
grated circuits). A recent series of 
events moved GaAs technology into 
the commercial sphere. 

First, the United States military 
decided that signal processing and 
complex design computation re- 
quired a leap in processing speed that 
silicon ICs would be hard-pressed to 
provide. When the engineers looked 
at GaAs and realized that it not only 
provided higher speed than silicon 
but also vastly improved radiation 



resistance higher operating temper- 
atures, and lower power dissipation, 
they knew they had to have it. 

The second factor that turned the 
spotlight on GaAs was the telecom- 
munications market's desire for 
higher-frequency devices. If GaAs was 
used for simple discrete devices, why 
couldn't complete circuits be fabri- 
cated upon it? The DBS (direct broad- 
cast satellite) dreams of entrepreneurs 
played a role here. Using silicon 
amplifiers, a home owner would need 
a huge antenna (larger than a house 
roof, by some estimates) to receive 
television signals directly from a 
satellite. GaAs IC amplifiers, on the 
other hand, hold out the promise of 
an antenna only a meter or so wide. 

Also, the telecommunications firms 
knew fiber optics would be invading 
more of their fiefdom. GaAs has been 
the major LED material for many 
years and has been the substance of 
choice for integrated semiconductor 
lasers. The idea of an integrated 

Phillip Robinson is a senior technical editor 
at BYTE. He can he contacted at 1000 
Elwell Court, Palo Alto, CA 94303. 



repeater— laser, amplifier, and digital 
processing circuitry all on the same 
chip— occurred to quite a few de- 
signers. Such a construction would be 
vital to a fiber-optics network: every 
link between fibers could use such a 
repeater. 

The final impetus for GaAs came 
from the world of commercial super- 
computers. GaAs offered chips that 
would be five to seven times faster 
than the best silicon devices while 
consuming equal or less power. 
Supercomputer manufacturers were 
all keeping an eye on the improve- 
ments in GaAs technology. And just 
when some of those firms made plans 
to include GaAs in a future system, 
the other shoe dropped. 

That shoe was the Josephson junc- 
tion. A superconducting device, the 
Josephson junction switches in pico- 
seconds (ps) and uses a minute 
amount of power. Unfortunately, 
Josephson junctions operate only at 
supercold temperatures (only a few 
degrees above absolute zero). That 
made them very difficult to manufac- 
ture. IBM was the largest Josephson 

{continued) 



<* — Circle J 58 on inquiry card. 



NOVEMBER 1984 -BYTE 211 



GALLIUM ARSENIDE 



investigator and Big Blue had open- 
ly predicted that supercomputers 
would be built with these devices. 
Then, in late 1983, IBM announced it 
was canceling its Josephson project. 
Interest in GaAs exploded. 

Physics and Processing 
of GaAs 

Silicon has dominated IC manufacture 
because it yields good performance 
devices and is easily refined and pro- 
cessed. An important example of that 
processing simplicity is the use of 
silicon dioxide for insulation. Many 
places on a chip require an insulating 
layer between or within devices. Sili- 
con dioxide an excellent insulator, 
grows on hot silicon without requir- 
ing intricate chemical processing. 
GaAs doesn't provide any simple in- 
sulating process and must rely on 
complicated depositions for insula- 
tion. 



But GaAs lab work in the past 
decade has made GaAs processing 
practical, if not as simple as silicon 
processing. In fact, the same equip- 
ment that IC manufacturers use for 
silicon needs only slight modification 
to be used for GaAs. And now that 
GaAs is practical designers don't have 
to live with silicon's disadvantages. 

The first major disadvantage of 
silicon, in comparison to GaAs, is its 
speed. Silicon microprocessors ac- 
complish their simplest tasks in micro- 
seconds. That corresponds to an 
operating frequency of as much as 10 
or 20 megahertz (MHz). If faster, 
though less space-efficient, technolo- 
gies are used to manufacture the tran- 
sistors on the chip— such as bipolar 
bit-slice chips— silicon can go as fast 
as 100 MHz with the simplest actions 
taking nanoseconds (ns). 

This isn't fast enough for all applica- 
tions. Solutions that require huge 



numbers of calculations (the most 
famous example is weather forecast- 
ing) cannot be accomplished with cur- 
rent computers because those com- 
puters just aren't fast enough. Also, 
some real-time computing problems, 
such as controlling complicated 
machines, require answers in such a 
hurry that silicon chips are hard- 
pressed to do the job. But because of 
its "energy-band" structure, GaAs is 
nearly ideal for ICs: electrons in it are 
very "light" and can move very quick- 
ly This is true of many of the com- 
pounds known as III-V materials (so 
called because of the position in the 
periodic table of the compounds' 
components). GaAs is the best known 
of the III-V semiconductors. Others, 
such as indium phosphide and indium 
antimonide, also hold great promise 
as foundations for microelectronic 
devices. 

{continued) 



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Circle 16 on inquiry card. 



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GALLIUM ARSENIDE 



In essence the effective mass of the 
GaAs electron is only 7 percent of 
what it is in silicon. That means GaAs 
can be up to five times faster than the 
fastest silicon chip. GaAs electron 
mobility ranges from 1.4 x 10 7 to 5 
x 10 7 centimeters per second (cm/s) 
while silicon electron mobility is ap- 
proximately 6 x 10 6 cm/s. In the end, 
silicon devices struggle to run at 200 
MHz, while GaAs just gets going at 2 
gigahertz (GHz). . 

Another major advantage of GaAs 
is that, when properly manufactured, 
it is a better insulator than silicon, 
which helps isolate devices on the 
chip from each other and reduces 
parasitic capacitance. (Parasitic 
capacitance limits how close trans- 
istors can be to one another; a large 
amount of parasitic capacitance slows 
the chip down.) 

Gallium arsenide is also very radia- 
tion-hard, and so it is good for mili- 
tary and space applications. It can 
withstand 10 7 to 10 8 rads; silicon takes 
only 10 3 to 10 4 rads. GaAs also has a 
wide working-temperature range 
(from -200 to +200 degrees Celsius) 
because of its wider energy band gap. 
Special processing techniques can be 
used to make GaAs chips that run as 
hot as 300 or 400 degrees Celsius. 

Standard microprocessors, such as 
the 8088 used in the IBM Personal 
Computer, are built out of silicon 
NMOS (negative-channel metal-oxide 



semiconductor) transistors. The fast- 
est silicon chips use ECL (emitter- 
coupled logic), a bipolar technology 
that consumes a lot of energy and is 
more expensive than NMOS. The heat 
generated by ECL chips becomes a 
major problem in computer design, 
requiring extensive cooling appara- 
tuses and packaging innovations. 
Silicon CMOS (complementary metal- 
oxide semiconductor) became popu- 
lar during the 1980s and offers much 
lower power dissipation than ECL. 
CMOS has been traditionally known 
as a "slow" technology, but when the 
devices are made very small and run 
at higher power, they can run faster, 
Still CMOS uses about 5 times more 
voltage and 2 5 times more dynamic 
power than GaAs. Figure 1 compares 
the delay and power dissipation of 
several types of semiconductors. 

Just as in silicon, there are quite a 
few ways to make a transistor on a 
GaAs wafer. The three most common 
GaAs devices are D-MESFETS (deple- 
tion-metal semiconductor field-effect 
transistors), E-MESFETfe (enhance- 
ment-MESFETS), and HEMTs (high 
electron-mobility transistors). GaAs 
won't grow a regular planar-oxide, so 
standard MOSFETfe (metal-oxide-semi- 
conductor FETfe) cannot be built on it. 

Currently, the most mature tech- 
nology is the D-MESFET. E-MESFETS 
and HEMTS are not yet ready for com- 
mercial markets. D-MESFETS have a 



103 



o 
o 



10 z 



10> 



Silicon 
CMOS 



Silicon 
NMOS 



Joseph son 
Junction 



c 



GaAs 
MESFET 



Silicon 
ECL 



Go As 
HEMT 



10 1 



10< 



1Q 3 



10' 



POWER DISSIPATION {MICROWATTS /GATE) 



Figure 1: A comparison of the delay and power dissipation 
of several semiconductor types. 



depletion region (depleted of elec- 
trons) and are normally on. Positive 
bias voltage on the gate reduces the 
size of the depletion region; negative 
gate voltages extend it. The negative 
voltage may increase to the point 
where the channel is pinched off. E- 
MESFETfe are doped to cut off the de- 
pletion region with no bias voltage; 
thus, they are normally off. That 
means they use less power than D- 
MESFETS. Positive bias voltage on the 
gate increases the size of the channel. 
D-MESFETfe require two power sup- 
plies while E-MESFETk require only 
one. 

If they consume less power than D- 
MESFETS and need only a single 
power supply, why aren't E-MESFETS 
used? For one thing, they draw ex- 
cessive gate current if gate voltage is 
above 0.7 volt, so the pinch-off volt- 
age must be controlled very exactly. 
Also, surface depletion regions that 
appear between the gate, source, and 
drain lower the efficiency of the tran- 
sistor. The gate area can be recessed, 
but that complicates manufacturing. 

HEMTS perform better than E- 
MESFETfe, particularly at low temper- 
atures. HEMTfe are superlattice hetero- 
junctions— multiple, extremely thin 
layers of GaAs and GaAlAs (gallium 
aluminum arsenide a solid solution of 
the three elements). The foundation 
of the device is an undoped GaAs 
channel with a GaAlAs doped layer 
between channel and gate. Electron 
mobility in the channel is higher 
because there are no dopant ions to 
scatter current carriers. HEMTfc turn 
on very quickly because they reach 
full transconductance with a gate-logic 
voltage only slightly above the thresh- 
old voltage. HEMTfe, however, are 
more difficult to fabricate than 
MESFETfe, and the required pro- 
cesses—such as MBE (molecular 
beam epitaxy)— don't adapt easily to 
mass production. 

TkE Supercomputer Chase 

It is no secret that supercomputer 
makers are depending on GaAs for 
some of their future speed improve- 
ments. Cray Research, the premier 

{continued) 



214 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



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IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines. CW BASIC is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. PC-DOS is a trademark of International Business Machines. 



Circle 397 on inquiry card. 



NOVEMBER 1984 -BYTE 215 



GALLIUM ARSENIDE 



supercomputer maker, plans to use 
GaAs for the central processing unit 
in a future computer. Fujitsu is also 
planning to use GaAs. Fujitsu, NEC, 
Hitachi, and Mitsubishi are making 
GaAs chips for the Japanese Ministry 
of International Trade and Industry 
supercomputer project. 
Fujitsu has announced it will use 



GaAs in its own supercomputers, and, 
because Fujitsu owns a portion of 
Amdahl, the chips may turn up in Am- 
dahl systems, too. 

Fujitsu has developed two HEMT 
GaAs chips. HEMT structures must be 
cooled to 77 degrees Kelvin for best 
results, not as cold as Josephson junc- 
tions. At such temperatures, and with 




a small (0.4 volt) logic swing, HEMT 
gate arrays should switch in 30 ps and 
use only about 1 50 microwatts. HEMT 
chips with 1 -micron gates and running 
at room temperature are about 2 5 
percent faster than MESFET chips. 
Fujitsu foresees an HEMT computer 
running with a 2-ns clock. Today's 
supercomputers have clocks that run 
at approximately 10 ns. Still, HEMT 
chips are in the labs only and are hard 
to fabricate. The thin layers, made by 
MBE, are difficult to control and slow 
to build. 

In February of 1983, Fujitsu an- 
nounced an experimental HEMT 1K- 
bit SRAM (static random-access read/ 
write memory), and then in February 
of 1984 it announced an experimental 
4K-bit SRAM. The former is one of the 
fastest HEMT chips announced, with 
0.9-ns access time at -196 degrees 
Celsius. The latter has been tested at 
3-ns access time— twice the speed of 
comparable silicon chips. Typical 1K- 
bit silicon ECL SRAM access times are 
1 5, 20, or 24 ns. The newest commer- 
cially available 4K-bit ECL SRAMs 
have about the same access times. 

The 4K-bit GaAs SRAM also uses 
only 700 milliwatts. That is only one- 
third the power needed by a com- 
parable silicon chip. In some cases 
the peripheral circuitry on these chips 
uses 85 percent of the power even 
though it takes up only 1 5 percent of 
the total device count. 

The Fujitsu chips have all been de- 
scribed in conferences and journals. 
They are not available for purchase. 
The only GaAs chips Fujitsu sells are 
its GaAs FETS. 

Cray indicates it will be using some 
GaAs in a supercomputer; however, it 
has published very little on this sub- 
ject. As is true of many of the super- 
computer designs, GaAs chips won't 
make up all or even a majority of the 
system. Instead, these expensive 
jewels will be used where they can 
give an economically justifiable boost 
to performance— namely, in the cen- 
tral processor as ALU (arithmetic and 
logic unit) chips, cache and microcode 
memories, clock components, and the 
like 

{continued) 



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GALLIUM ARSENIDE 



Cray is building a GaAs research 
and development facility and is invest- 
ing nearly $100 million in the next 
three years to build the Cray-3 super- 
computer (which industry observers 
expect will use eight GaAs pro- 
cessors). Cray is even making its own 
GaAs chips to lessen its dependence 
on Japanese suppliers. 

Military Applications 

Military applications demand many of 
the physical advantages of GaAs. The 
speed is vital for everything from 
complex weather forecasting to real- 
time signal processing. The radiation 
resistance is crucial for satellites and 
for hardening electronic equipment 
against the threat of an electro- 
magnetic pulse from a nuclear blast. 
The ability of GaAs to run at much 
higher temperatures than silicon is 
useful for many of the extreme en- 
vironments military equipment must 
perform in. 

For those reasons, the United States 
Department of Defense (DOD) has 



long been interested in GaAs and has 
contracted with firms such as Rock- 
well to develop GaAs chips. DARPA, 
the Department of Advanced Re- 
search Projects Agency is also pursu- 
ing GaAs work for applications such 
as long-term space missions. 

The military wants to use GaAs in 
satellites. "Just about all surveillance 
satellites gather tremendous amounts 
of data," explains Richard Reynolds, 
the deputy director of the Defense 
Science Office, ,l but the sensors are 
so good that there's no way to relay 
all the data to Earth. We'd like to have 
on-board selection of what's relevant." 
A very fast, radiation-resistant, low- 
power (able to work from solar cells) 
satellite computer would be just what 
the DOD doctor ordered. Raytheon is 
the prime contractor for the proto- 
type of such a computer, expected in 
1987. Rockwell and Honeywell are 
making production lines for GaAs 
digital circuits and will deliver logic 
and memory chips. McDonnell and 
Tfexas Instruments are working on new 



Safety Concerns 



The tag "arsenide" in GaAs worries 
quite a few people who know that 
arsenic is dangerous. It is important to 
remember that once GaAs chips are 
packaged, they are no more dangerous 
than any other chips. 

However, processing GaAs wafers- 
forming the circuits on them— involves 
toxic gases, solvents, high tempera- 
tures and voltages, radio-frequency 
fields, acids, and just about every 
dangerous condition found in the field 
of materials science. But those same 
conditions are found in the processing 
of silicon wafers. While the semicon- 
ductor industry may be comparative- 
ly "clean" when seen from the outside, 
it can be anything but clean for those 
who work on the processing line. Com- 
panies need to carefully isolate workers 
from fumes, splashes, and particulates. 
At this stage, GaAs and silicon work 
pose the same fundamental dangers. 
(In fact, silicon processing sometimes 
involves arsine gases.) 

In the first step of making a GaAs 



chip— growing, cutting, and polishing 
the GaAs wafer—solid arsenic, called 
the charge, is used. This stage of chip 
preparation is the most dangerous. 

The people at Harris Microwave 
Semiconductor, one of the companies 
that grows its own crystals, take efforts 
to keep things as safe as possible Their 
position, as they explained it to me, is 
that the need for safety applies main- 
ly to the growing and processing of the 
crystals. Once the gallium and arsenic 
are locked into a crystal, processed, 
and sealed in a hermetic package, they 
are completely nontoxic. But in the 
growing process, keeping in mind that 
arsenic is a carcinogen, the people 
making the charges must be protected. 
Proper clothing and a clean process- 
ing environment help insulate workers 
from the materials. In addition, the 
arsenic is stored in jars in inert gas. 
Tests of both the area and the workers' 
blood help monitor toxic elements. Ac- 
cording to Harris, no dangerous levels 
have been detected. 



circuit designs. Both Rockwell and 
Honeywell are working on 64K-bit 
RAMs that will have access times of 
10 to 15 ns. 

According to Allen Firstenberg, of 
Rockwell's Microelectronics Research 
and Development Center, Rockwell 
has been active in GaAs for quite a 
few years. The low-power, radiation- 
hard GaAs RAM LSI and VLSI chips 
that Rockwell is developing are ex- 
emplified by a lK-bit SRAM that uses 
only 100 milliwatts to achieve a 6-ns 
access time. Operating the same chip 
at higher power can yield access 
times approaching 1 ns. 

Rockwell is also working on optronic 
GaAs chips: it has used ion implanta- 
tion to make the FETfe and multilayer 
epitaxy to make the GaAs-GaAlAs 
structure for integrating semiconduc- 
tor lasers onto a chip. Rockwell ap- 
parently believes it can get 500 to 
1000 gates on a chip within the next 
two or three years. 

At the 1984 International Solid- 
State Circuits Conference, Rockwell 
representatives described a 4.5-GHz 
frequency-divider chip that used 
GaAs/GaAlAs heteroj unction bipolar 
transistors (HBTfe) in an ECL circuit 
configuration. This is a very high- 
speed configuration that has higher 
current drive capability, higher trans- 
conductance, and lower sensitivity to 
process parameters than simple GaAs 
FETfe. 

Rockwell grows its own 3-inch-dia- 
meter, low dislocation density GaAs 
crystals using the LEC (liquid encap- 
sulated Czochralski) technique. Each 
crystal provides between 75 and 150 
wafers, and each wafer can yield 880 
2 56-bit SRAMs. 

Do It Yourself 

According to Al Patz, general mana- 
ger of Tektronix Gallium Arsenide In- 
tegrated Technologies, "Our involve- 
ment in gallium arsenide began in 
1978, from our people trying to guess 
what the future needs of our cus- 
tomers would be." Looking for high- 
speed parts to improve their own in- 
strumentation performance, the 
Tektronix designers decided to use 

{continued) 



218 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 




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NOVEMBER 1984 -BYTE 219 



GALLIUM ARSENIDE 



GaAs. By 1985, GaAs chips will be 
part of many of the company's instru- 
ments. Tektronix, however, has de- 
cided to use its knowledge to also 
build circuits for others because, Patz 
said, "We recognized we had a tech- 
nology with applications beyond our 
product line." 
Tkktronix's current chips are only 



medium-scale integration (around 100 
to 500 gates). Patz sees GaAs as 
"about seven years behind silicon in 
terms of the level of integration, which 
means that GaAs LSI devices are still 
a year or more away from produc- 
tion." Tektronix is working on an LSI 
process that will use combined en- 
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cuits to keep dissipation to 2 50 micro- 
watts per gate Those chips will run at 
twice the rate of ECL while using only 
one-tenth to one-fifteenth the power. 
Tfektronix is making depletion-mode 
MESFEB with l -micron gates, gate 
delays of 65 ps, and power dissipation 
of 15 milliwatts per gate The com- 
pany's line and processes aren't 
limited to digital chips; Tektronix also 
makes GaAs analog chips with tran- 
sistors that run at 12 GHz. 

Other GaAs Producers 

Harris Microwave Semiconductor was 
the first to bring GaAs digital ICs to 
the commercial market. In February of 
this year, Harris introduced its first 
two GaAs chips: a shift register and 
a binary counter. Harris says both of 
these chips can operate five times 
faster than the fastest silicon equiva- 
lent and are completely ECL compat- 
ible. 

Bruce Hoffman, Harris's manager of 
product marketing, admits that GaAs 
is "not cheap." In fact, the shift register 
and the binary counter now cost $393 
apiece in quantities of 100. ECL chips, 
which are gallium arsenide's main 
competition, cost far less. For in- 
stance, an off-the-shelf ECL binary 
counter costs approximately $6 in the 
same quantities (100 pieces) as the 
Harris GaAs HMD-1 1016-1 binary 
counter. But it muddles along at a 
mere 1 50 MHz, or an even slower 125 
MHz when the temperature reaches 
+85 degrees Celsius. Harris's GaAs 
binary counter cruises at 2.0 GHz. So, 
although the Harris binary counter 
costs more than 60 times as much as 
an ECL binary counter, it runs more 
than 1 3 times faster. While the price 
is sure to come down for GaAs, the 
chip is even now worth the price if 
speed is critical and beyond the capa- 
bility of ECL. 

Similarly, a standard ECL universal 
shift register costs about $7 and runs 
at 250 MHz; the Harris GaAs HMD- 
11141-1 equivalent costs $393 and 
runs at 1.4 GHz. 

Harris says that testing these new 
high-speed ICs is not as easy as test- 
ing simple silicon TTL ICs. It disputes, 

{continued) 



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NOVEMBER 1984 -BYTE 221 



GALLIUM ARSENIDE 



however, that the testing problem is 
unique. Testing can be done, Harris 
says, with other digital circuits that are 
that fast. In fact, testing GaAs digital 
ICs may mean building GaAs ICs into 
the test instruments. 

Other GaAs products planned at 
Harris are SSI logic elements such as 
D flip-flops, divide-by-two prescalers, 
five-input NAND/AND gates, five-input 
NOR/OR gates, exclusive NOR/OR 
gates, differential amplifiers, and 
variable-modulus dividers. Harris says 
all of these parts will run at 3 to 4 GHz 
and will be available by the end of this 
year. In addition, the firm is working 
on cell arrays and on GaAs FETk. 

Gigabit Logic, a Rockwell spin-off 
started in 1982, makes only GaAs ICs. 
The firm offers a series of 12 chips 
and an evaluation board to simplify 
the task of designing with the chips. 

According to Tony Livingston, mar- 
keting vice-president of Gigabit, 



"There is a learning curve on parts 
complexity that builds with time and 
the maturity of the technology. We 
could physically make at least 16K-bit 
SRAMs, but we don't have the yield 
experience to do it economically" Liv- 
ingston adds, "We'll be pushing up the 
level of integration very rapidly, but 
we are purposefully starting out with 
things that are easy". 

"Everything we're making is 1- 
micron design rule," according to 
Richard Eden, Gigabit's vice-president 
of research and development. Gigabit 
sees GaAs as "a tool to a system 
designer for high performance" just as 
CMOS is used for low power and 
bipolar for speed. Having GaAs digital 
chips on the commercial market lets 
people "use it where it makes the 
most sense." Furthermore, Gigabit 
says that all of its parts are ECL com- 
patible and can also be easily inter- 
faced to TTL and CMOS. 



Gigabit's 12 products fall into three 
categories: diode arrays and FET ar- 
rays, high-speed counter/prescalers, 
and logic devices. 

The dual-gate and single-gate FETS 
and diodes are useful in analog work 
and in testing the characteristics of 
the fundamental components of GaAs 
technology. The four high-speed 
counter/prescalers are useful in clocks 
and high-frequency systems running 
up to 3 GHz. 

The four logic devices include a 
quad three-input NOR chip, a dual 
high-speed comparator, a dual-pre- 
cision D flip-flop, and a dual fan-out 
buffer. The NOR gate has a mere 
7 5-ps/gate delay in the die form. That 
is 10 times faster than ECL at the 
same power. It would run even faster 
and use less power if it didn't have to 
drive a 50-ohm line. Most of the 
power is used in the buffering. The 

[continued) 



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NOVEMBER 1984 • BYT I 



223 



GALLIUM ARSENIDE 



dual high-speed comparator and the 
dual-precision D flip-flop run at 
3 GHz. 

Livingston explains that Gigabit ex- 
pects GaAs digital chips to be strate- 
gically used to gain system perfor- 
mance. For instance, in clock distribu- 
tion, GaAs might be used as a com- 
parator and a fan-out buffer to elimi- 
nate the skew time that forces other 
system parts to wait for the clock 
signal to become steady. In such a 
position, Livingston sees GaAs mak- 
ing a 20 to 2 5 percent improvement 
in system performance. GaAs memory 
products will be used for microcode, 
fast registers, and cache. 

Livingston says, "In the next few 
years we will see complete GaAs com- 
puters. Within a year to 18 months the 
Japanese will have something. By 
1988 we will see complete GaAs sys- 
tems." 

Gigabit's chips have up to 80 gates 
now. But according to Livingston, 
you'll see "16- and 32-bit micropro- 
cessors running a couple of hundred 
megahertz by 1990 or sooner. Im- 
agine a 68000 microprocessor at 200 
MHz on your desk and you get an 
idea "of the promise this holds." 

When asked about the economics 
of digital GaAs, Livingston points out 
that Gigabit is using fewer masking 
steps than are required in most CMOS 
processes. Initial material for the 
GaAs chips is more expensive (wafers 
cost approximately $175, 20 times the 
cost of a similar silicon wafer), but 
Gigabit apparently believes that after 
all costs (testing, packaging, and so 
on) are considered, the price of those 
chips can be very competitive when 
their performance is taken into ac- 
count. Eden says that wafer costs add 
only 15 to 30 cents to the price of 
each chip. He further asserts that on 
the basis of cost, GaAs will compete 
head to head with silicon. 'And in the 
long run," Eden says, "we hope to 
match high-performance silicon on an 
absolute-cost basis." 

Gigabit's chips cost from $59 for the 
NOR gate to $399 for the 4-GHz 
seven-stage ripple counter. Those 
prices are for 100-piece lots. If you 
want to buy single chips, you'll shell 



out from two to three times that 
much; however, if you think you can 
work with the naked dice, you can cut 
those prices by as much as a third. 
These prices are between 10 and 100 
times those of ECL chips, but the 



For More 
Information 



Books 



Goodge, Malcolm. Semiconductor Device 
Technology. Indianapolis, IN: Howard W. 
Sams & Co., 1983 (first published in 
London by Macmillan Press). 
Dilorenzo, James V. and Deen D. 
Khandelwal. GaAs FET Principles and 
Technology. Dedham, MA: Artech House 
Inc., 1982. 

Soares, Robert, lacques Graffeuii, and 
Juan Obregon. Applications of GaAs 
MESFETs. Dedham, MA: Artech House 
Inc., 1983. 

Journals 

GaAs IC Symposium Technical Digest 

IEEE Electron Device Letters 

IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 

Proceedings of the IEEE 

IEEE ]ournal of Solid State Circuits 

Conferences 

International Solid-State Circuits 

Conference 

Device Research Conference 

High-Speed Digital Technologies 

Conference 

International Symposium on GaAs and 

Related Compounds 

III-V Conference 

Articles 

MacMillan, David, and Tushar 

Gheewala. "Learn gallium-arsenide 

basics before applying high-speed ICs." 

EDN, March 22, 1984. 

MacMillan, David, and Tushar 

Gheewala. "High-speed GaAs logic 

systems require special packaging." 

EDN, May 17, 1984. 

Haight, Jeff. 'GaAs logic characteristics 

result in integration problems." EDN. 

lune 28, 1984. 

Donlan, Thomas. 'Goodbye, Josephson 

Junction and Hello, Gallium Arsenide." 

Barron's, January, 1984. 



GaAs chip performance is also signif- 
icantly higher. 

According to Livingston, "Gallium 
arsenide is fundamentally attacking 
emitter-coupled logic, which cannot 
make the jump into the gigabit speed 
range. Only gallium arsenide can do 
that." 

How Big the Market? 

Yves Blanchard of Strategic Inc., a 
market-research firm, thinks GaAs will 
cost three to five times what ECL 
costs but will fit in special applications 
where high speed, low power, or 
radiation resistance is important. 
Strategic indicated it also believes that 
GaAs will remain at 3 percent of the 
semiconductor market; that is, even 
though it will grow enormously over 
the next decade, the entire semicon- 
ductor market will grow just as fast. 
Strategic Inc. estimates that the 

1983 market for GaAs was $48 
million. It further subdivides the GaAs 
chips into types and estimates that, 
of the chips sold in 1983, 75 percent 
were analog and 14 percent were 
digital, with optoelectronic represent- 
ing the rest. By 1992, it sees a market 
where 47 percent of the GaAs chips 
will be digital, 28 percent analog, and 
2 5 percent optoelectronic. 

According to Strategic, chips used 
in supercomputers and voice-recog- 
nition systems will represent $6 
million of business in 1985, $56 
million in 1987, and $865 million in 
1992. 

Unfortunately, all of these estimates, 
including the general estimate that 
many people working in GaAs will 
quote— that the market will be $5.6 
billion in 1992— are from a study that 
has become dated. No one is really 
sure where the market will be. 

Companies should be able to sell to 
DOD and communications firms and 
thus have a source of cash while mov- 
ing down the learning curve. "We are 
still at the top of the learning curve," 
according to Blanchard. He sees the 
industry moving from a level of 200 
devices per chip in 1980 to 16,000 in 

1984 and 600,000 in 1990. 

A study by Mackintosh International 

{continued) 



224 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



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wizardry of Olivetti. 

"feu 11 find it in the Olivetti Personal Computer. It's a 
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Like a high resolution screen for clarity and superb 
graphics. Plus expandability to grow with your needs. It 
has optional storage capacity. You can choose either single 
or dual floppy disk drives. Even get a 10 megabyte disk 
drive for really large storage needs. 
All with a choice of transportable or desktop models. 
To please the hardcore computer buff, it has the flex- 
ibility to accept compatible expansion boards, plus the 
necessary printer and modem ports. And for computer 
beginners, you can get the PC Tutor program and a "Get- 
ting Started" booklet. So you don't have to be a wizard 
to use it. 

In fact, the Olivetti Personal Computer is so complete, 
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And the Olivetti Personal Computer offers all this for 
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How do we do it? Wizardry Sheer electronic 
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He's a wizard. 




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In Alaska and Hawaii call 1-800-447-0890. 



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Olivetti Typewriters and Personal Computers are marketed in the USA by Docutel/ Olivetti Corporation, Dallas, Texas. 

i Lotus Development 2 Asbton~Tate ^MicroPro * IBM Corporation 
Circle 133 on inquiry card. NOVEMBER 1984 'BYTE 225 



GALLIUM ARSENIDE 



Don't expect to see 
GaAs chips in your 
micro for quite a while. 

(a technology consulting company in 
London), directed by Tbny Pyne, in- 
dicated that 2 percent was a more 
realistic figure for the portion of the 
IC market that GaAs would capture. 
That means a market one-third 
smaller than Strategic expects (at least 
on the basis of the first Strategic 
report). There are several reasons the 
GaAs market may not take off. For 
one thing, it is a high-capital start-up 
business terribly short of experienced 
people. One major reason Mackin- 
tosh sees a smaller market for GaAs 
is that it is hard to get a high process- 
ing yield using the GaAs material. Ac- 
cording to Pyne, the processing prob- 
lems "are so severe that yields can be 
a fraction of 1 percent, requiring the 
processing of many wafers to obtain 
one good die site." So with high yields 
and complex new VLSI architectures, 
silicon technology is presenting a 
moving target to GaAs makers. 

Final Note 

Don't expect to see GaAs chips in 
your microcomputer for quite a while. 
They will first turn up in advanced 
telecommunications systems, super- 
computers, and on-board aerospace 
processors. 

GaAs won't be the final winner of 
the high-speed race. Many other 
materials are waiting out there. Some 
are just wild shots in the dark. But 
there is at least one material that has 
even greater mobility than GaAs and 
could surpass it for all the same 
reasons GaAs surpasses silicon. In- 
dium phosphide is another III-V com- 
pound semiconductor that is still 
found only in labs. It is harder to pro- 
cess than GaAs, but it is already the 
material of choice for some very 
special applications such as millimeter 
wave devices. GaAs holds everyone's 
attention now; but remember, just 
four years ago, Josephson junctions 
were the odds-on favorites over GaAs 
and GaAs was in second place ■ 

«— Circle 237 on Inquiry card. 





:! 



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C86 was the compiler that our staff 

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months after we conducted the tests." 

J. Houston, BYTE MAGAZINE - February 1984 



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NOVEMBER 1984 •BYTE 




MICROPROCESSOR COMPONENTS 



Part No 
SN7400U 

SN7401N 
SN7402N 
SN7403N 

5N7404N 
SM7405M 
SN7406N 
SN7407N 
SN7408N 
SN7409M 
SN7410N 
SM7411M 
SN7412N 
SN7413N 
SN7414N 
SN7416N 
SN7417N 
SN7420N 
SN7421N 
SN7422N 
SN7423N 
SN7425N 
SN7426N 
SN7427N 
SM7428N 
SM7430H 
SN7432N 
SN7437N 
SN7438N 
SN7439N 
SN7440N 
SN7441N 
SN7442N 
SN7443N 
SN74^4N 
SN7445N 
SN7446N 
SN7447N 
SN744SN 
SN7450N 
SN74&1N 
SN7453N 
SN74S4N 
SN7459N 
SN7460N 
SN747GN 



74LS00 
74LS01 
74LS02 
74LS03 
74LS04 
74LS05 
74LS0B 
74LS09 
74LS10 
74LS11 
74LS12 
74LS13 
74LS14 
74LS15 
74LS20 
74LS21 
74LS2Z 
74LS26 
74LS27 
74LS28 
74LS3Q 
74LS32 
74LS33 
74LS37 
74LS38 
74LS40 
74LS42 
74LS47 
74LS48 
74LS49 
74LS51 
74LS54 
74LS55 
74LS73 
74LS74 
74LS75 
74LS76 
74LS78 
74LS83 
74LS85 
74LS86 
74LS90 



74S00 

74S02 
74S03 
74S04 
74S05 
74S08 
74S09 
74S10 
74S11 
74S15 
74S20 
74S22 
74S30 
74S32 
74S38 
74S40 
74S51 
74S64 
74S65 
74S74 
74S85 
74S86 
74S112 
74S113 



CA3010H 
CA3039H 
CA3046N 

CA3059N 
CA3060N 
CA3065E 
CA30S0E 



CD4000 
CD4001 
CD4002 
CD4006 
CD4007 
CD40Q9 
CD4010 
CD4011 
CD4012 
CD4013 
CD4014 
CD401S 
CD4016 
CD4017 
CD4018 
CD4019 
C04020 
CD4021 
CO4022 
C04023 
CD4024 
CD4025 
CD4026 
CD4027 
CD4028 
CD4029 
CD4030 
CD4G34 
CD4035 
k (Mora in 



SN7472N 

SN7473N 
SN7474N 
SN7475N 
SN7476N 
SN7479N 
SN7480N 
SN7482N 
SN7483N 
SN7485N 
SN7486N 
SN7489N 
SN749QN 
SN7491N 
SN7492N 
SN7493N 
SN7494N 
SN7495N 
SN7496N 
SN7497N 
SN74100N 
3N74104N 
SN74T05N 
SN74107N 
SN74109N 
SN74116N 
SN74121N 
SN74122N 
SN74123N 
SM74125M 
SN74126N 
SM74132N 
SN74136N 
SN74141N 
SPJ74142N 
SN74143N 
SN74144N 
SN74145N 
SN74147N 
SN74148N 
SN74150N 
SN74151N 
SN74152N 



16 3.95 
24 3.95 
24 3.95 



S.\i/4'36N 16 .59 

SN74157N 16 .49 

SN74160N 16 .59 

SW74161N 16 .59 

SN74162N 16 59 

SH74163N 16 .59 

SM74164M 14 .69 

SN74165N 16 .69 

SN74166N 16 .69 

SN74167N 16 2.95 

SN74170N 16 159 

SN74172N 24 4.95 

SN74173N 16 85 

SN74174N IB .59 

SN74175N 16 .59 

SN/4176N 14 .79 

SN74177N 14 .79 

SN74179N 16 1.49 

SN 741 SON 14 .69 

SN74181N 24 1.95 

SN74182N 16 1.05 

SN74184N 16 2.29 

SN74185N 16 2.29 

SN7419QN 16 .69 

SN74191N 16 .69 

SN74192N 16 .69 

SN74193N 16 .69 

SN74194N 16 .69 

SN74195N 16 .49 

SN74196M 14 .75 

SM74197N 14 .75 

SN74198N 24 1.19 

SN74199N 24 1.19 

SN74221N 16 1.19 

SN74251N 16 .79 

SN74276N 20 2.49 

SN74279N 16 .79 

SN74283N 16 1.39 

SN74284N 16 2.95 

SN74285N 16 2.95 

SN7436SN 16 .55 

S\743iiBN 16 .55 

SN74367N 16 .55 

SM74368N 16 .55 

\ 1'<3N 16 1.49 

SN74393N 14 1.49 



.35 


74LS92 


.29 


74LS93 


.39 


74LS95 


.35 


74LS96 


.35 


74LS107 


.35 


74LS109 


.35 


74LS112 


.35 


74LS113 


.35 


74LS114 


.39 


74LS122 


.59 


74LS123 


.35 


74LS125 


.29 


74LS126 


.35 


74LS132 


.19 


74LS133 


V':> 


74LS136 


.35 


74LS138 


.39 


74LS139 


m 


74LS151 


.39 


74LS153 


49 


74LS154 


35 


74LS155 


.39 


74LS156 


.29 


74LS157 


.49 


74LS158 


.W 


74LS160 


75 


74LS161 


.75 


74LS162 


.29 


74LS163 


.29 


74LS164 


.2.9 


74LS165 


.39 


74LS168 


.49 


74LS169 


.45 


74LS170 


.39 


74LS1 73 


.45 


74LS174 


.59 


74LS175 


.89 


74LS181 



74LS190 16 
74LS191 16 



74LS192 
74LS193 
74I.S194 
74LS195 
74LS197 
74LS221 
74LS240 
74LS241 

74;.s?-i; 

,- - .i 

7-..33H 
741 - '■'.' 
74.524/ 
?■'■[ SP-18 
74.S249 
74LS251 
7 . 
74LS257 
7'V^t: 
7: hi i 
74 .s; hi.. 
■•■■■ ■■:■:: 
74LS279 
7-:i528o 
71, •, m 
74LS293 
, ; -,:■->:-: 
r._ ,:v 
74LS353 
/: :rh. 

/4L.S36 7 
74LS368 
■■■--..S-;,-;i 

74LS374 

7-il s:?/^ 

,.; ■-.■'&■ 

74 1 S3 43 
7i.534<) 
73 L S3 73 
81LS95 
81LS97 



16 



.79 



■2UJJ; I . I . I ,U1 



74S114 
74S133 
74S134 

74S135 
74S136 
74S138 
74S139 
74S140 
74S151 
74S153 
74S157 
74S158 
74S160 
74S174 
74S175 
74S188* 
74S194 
74S195 
74S196 
74S240 
74S241 
74S242 



74S243 
74S244 
74S251 
74S253 
74S257 
74S258 
74S260 
74S280 
74S287* 
74S288* 
74S373 
74S374 
74S387- 
74S471* 
74S472* 
74S473" 
74S474* 
74S475" 
74S570* 
74S571" 
74S572* 
74S573" 
74S940 
74S941 



CA3081N 
CA3082N 
CA3083N 
CA3086N 14 
CA3089N 16 
CA3096N 16 



CA3130E 
CA3140E 
CA3160H 
CA3161E 

CA3162E 
CA3189E 
CA3401W 



CD4040 
CO404 1 
CD4042 
CD4043 
C04044 
C04046 
CD4047 
C04048 
CD4049 
C04050 
C04051 
C04052 
CD4053 
CD4056 
CD4059 
CD4Q60 
CD4066 
CD4068 
CD4069 
CD4Q70 
CD4071 
CD4072 
CD4073 
CD4075 
CD4076 
CD4078 
C04081 
CD4082 
CD4093 



CO4098 16 

CD4506 16 

CD4507 14 

CD4508 24 

CD4510 16 

C04511 16 

CD4512 16 

G04514 24 

CD4515 24 

C04516 16 

CD4518 16 

C04519 16 

CD4520 16 

C04526 16 

C04528 16 

C04529 16 

CD4543 16 

CD4562 14 

CD4566 16 

CD4583 16 

CD4584 14 

CD4723 16 

CD4724 16 

MC14409 16 

MC14410 16 

111 24 



MC'i 



12 16 



MC14419 16 

MC14433 24 

MC14538 16 

MC14541 14 



Digitalker 



-MICROPROCESSOR CHIPS- 



0765AC 
2650 

TMS5501 
MCS6502 
MCS6502A 
MCS65028 



8031 

U .h.y.M 

INS8039N 
',:--n. M, 
'.',"H7 ', 

INS8073N 



40 Floppy Disk Controller 

40 MPU (2MHz) 

40 Synchronous Data Interface (SiRC) 

40 MPU w/Clock (1 MHz) 

40 MPU with Clock and RAM |2Mlvi. . . 

40 MPU w/Clock at 3MHz 

40 CPU-8-Wt (Internal Clock) 1 MHz . . 

40 CPU— 8-tjit (Lxtema- Ciooki 1MB;. 

40 Control Oriented CPU w/RAM & I/O. . 

40 MPU- 



CPU-Sgl.chipS-biSdJBriti Rani 

4U Ml, i 

40 CPU (64 bytes RAM) 

' " CPU w/Basic Micro Interpreter . . 



40 CPU ... 4.91 



CPU 1 6-bit 5MHz.. 

8088 40 CPU 8/16-bit .. .. 

8155 40 HMOS RAM I/O Port-Timer 

8237 40 High Performance Prog. DMA Cent.. . 

8237-5 40 High Pert. Prog. DMA Cent. (5MHz}. . 

8748 40 HMOS EPHOM MPU 

Z80, ZBOA, Z80B, Z8000 SERIES - 

Z80 40 CPU i W :or, i OC 'MHz 

Z80-CTC 28 !;;:■■. i4e' Imtr C rcyit 

Z80-DART 40 Dual Asynchra nous Rec./ Trans 

Z80-DMA 40 Direct Memory Access Circuit 

Z80-P10 40 Parallel I/O Interface Controller .... 

Z80-S10/0 40 S,:-?:;,h ! \i ;i xl. B and RxCB Bonded) . 

Z80-S10/1 40 Serial I/O (Lacks 0TR8) 

Z80-S10/2 40 S^,; , , , „ .,/fjCB) 

Z80-S10/9 40 Serial I/O 

Z80A 40 CPU { M K3880N -4K 780C- 1 ) 4MHz . . 

Z80A-CTC 28 Cour.lf T -isr Crcuil 

Z80A-DAAT 40 Dual Asyhchronous Rec. /Trans 

Z80A-DMA 40 Direct Memory Access Circuit 

Z80A-P10 40 P , , H . ii e Controller 

Z80A-S10/0 40 Serial I/O (TxCB and RxCB bonded) . 

ZS0A-S1, 1 40 Serial I I di-sDTRB} 



Z80A-S10/2 40 Senai i :\mx SYNCB) 

Z80A-S10/9 40 Serial I/O 

Z80B 40 CPU(MK3880\-6)6MHz 

Z80B-CTC 28 Vw.y.i \-.r.m t.vcuil 

Z80B-DART 40 DuaiAsvnch Receiver/ T'a'isrntte- 

Z80B-P10 40 Parallel I/O Interface Controller . . 

Z8001 48 CPU Segmented 

6500/6800/68000 SERIES — 

MC6502A 40 MPU with clock and RAM (2MHz) . 

MC6520 40 Peripheral Inter. Adapter 

MC6800 40 MPU 

MC6802CP 40 VP : .- 1", : ■':, l- and RAM 

MC6809E 40 i I 1MH/) hxlenai if ickmQi 

MC6821 40 I" 1 - , -i , ' ,1,., i L l'pt,r.' >■- ' , 

MC6828 24 Priority interrupt Controller . . 

MC6830L8 24 1Q24x8-t)it ROM IMC68A30-8) . . 

MC6850 24 , , i , mm Adapter 

MC6852 24 Syn, h n I't-'-' i - 

MC6860 24 •} i",. f '. ''I 

MC68000L8 64 MPU 16-Bit (8MHz) 

MC68488P 40 , , i " ni Adapter 

MC68652P2 40 Mulli. Protocol Comm. Controller 

MC68661PB 28 Enhanced Prog Comm. Inf. . . 

M CM 68764 24 64K EPROM (450ns) 

SY6522 40 Prn.;f,ei t r ntei Adapter 

8000 SERIES 



19.95 
' 10.95 

44 95 



I'. -. i 

8156 

DP8212 



40 CPU . 
40 " 



DP8228 

:.F8?38 
! l »S8243 
INS8245 
IWS8246 

^Sti24/ 
INS8248 

•; >•: .-, 

DP8251 
OP«?K 
I 'P821, 
OP8257 
DP8259 
OP8275 
3279 



8284 



2d Byte RAM 16-Bit I/O 

40 RAM with I/O Port and Timer . .. . 

24 8-M Input/Output (74S412) 

24 Priority Interrupt Control 

16 Bi-Oirectional Bus Driver 

16 Clock Generator/ Driver 

16 Bus Driver 

28 System Con: /Hus IJnvei i74vl?8' 

28 System Controller (74S438) 

24 I/O Expander lor 46 Series 

18 16-Key Ke t tto r t icuue ,74.'-" 

20 Tj^tdMi:hi*!f, J', 1 ', 

28 Display Controller (74C911) .. 

28 Display Controller (74C91 2) .. . . 

40 Asyn Comm. Element 

28 Prog. Comm. I/O (USART) 

24 Prog Interval Timer 

40 Pioq Peripheral i/O (PPI) 

40 Prog. DMA Control 

28 Prog. InterruDl Control 

40 Prog CRT Controller . 

40 Prog. Keyboard /Display Interlace . . 

IB Clock Generator/Onvei 

20 Bus Controller 

20 8-Bit Tri-State Bi-Oirectional Trans ... 

20 8-M Bi-Directional Receiver 

20 8 bit Bi Directional Receiver 

20 8-bit Bi-Directional Receiver 

20 Dual i atoned Peripheral Driver 

40 8-bit Univ Periptieral Interlace 

- DISK CONTROLLERS 

40 Single Density 

40 Single/Oual Density (Inv.) 

40 Single/ Double Density (True) . . . 

40 Dual Density/ Side Select [Inv.) . . 

40 Dual Density/Side Select True 

- SPECIAL FUNCTION 

8 Dual MOS Clock Driver (5MZ) . . 

28 Communication Chip 

18 Floppy Disk Read Amp System . . . 

24 Asyiiui.rf.!CL"j Iram-iii' liter 'Receiver. . . 

MM58167AN 24 Microprocessor Real Time Clock 

MM58174AN 16 Micro. mjaBWe Tm Clock 

40 Microcontroller w/64-digit RAM 

and Direct LED Drive 

40 Microprocessor w/64-digit RAM . . . 

& Direct LED Drive w/N Buss Ini. 

20 32-segVAC Fluor. Drvr. (20-pin pkg.) . 

8 Prog. Oscillator/Dividet (60Hz) 

8 Prog. Oscillator/Divider (100Hz) . ... 



INS1 771-1 

F01791 
FD1793 
r D170'> 
FD1797 



'' ■ i 

N£2h ' 
MC3470P 
MM-47'.tiiN 



COP402M 
COP402MN 

COP470N 

MM „ <.U !, 



DYNAMIC RA MS Price 

1103 18 1024x1 1300ns) .99 

4027 16 4096x1 (250ns) 1.49 

4116N-2 16 16,384x1 (150ns) 1.39-8/10.95 

4116N-3 16 !6. 384x1 :200ns] 1.15-8/8.95 

4116N-4 16 16.384x1 (250ns) 89-8/6.95 

4 1 64N - 1 SO 16 G b . 536x 1 i 1 50ns ) 519-8/40.95 

4164N-200 16 65.536x1 (200ns) 4.95-8/3895 

MM52S1 18 1024x1 (300ns) 35-8/1.95 

MM5262 Z2 2048x1 (365ns) 10 

MM5270 16 4096x1 (250ns) MK4096 4.95 

MM5280 22 409Bxl (200ns) 2107 395 



NEW 256K DYNAMIC RAM 
41256 16 262.144xU200nsL.31.95 



2114L 

2114-2 

2114L-2 

2147 

2148 

TMS4G45 

TMS40L47-45 

5101 

MM5257 

HM6116P-3 

HM6116P-4 

HM6116LP-4 

HM6264P-15 

HM6264LP-15 

27LS00 

7489 

74C920 

74C921 

74C929 

74C930 

74S189 

74S200 

74S206 

74S289 

82S10 

82S25 

1702 A 

2708 

2708-5 

TMS2516 

TMS2532 

TMS2564 

TMS2716 

2716 

27C16 

2716-1 

2716Q-5 

2732 

2732A-3 

2732A-4 

27320-4 

27580-A 

2764-4 

2764-3 

27C64 

MCM68764 

27128 

74S188 

74S287 

74S288 

74S387 

74S471 

74S472 

74S473 

74S474 

74S475 

74S476 

74S478 

74S570 

74S571 

74S572 

74S573 

82SZ3 

82S115 

82S123 

82S126 

82S129 

82S130 

82S185 

82S191 

'V ,-i K 

iJMa/s'b'fv 

[:M(:,'MIJ 
0M87S185N 
DM87S190N 
DM87S191N 



DC10 

MC3470P 

MU408I7 

MC1408L8 

ADC0803LCN 

ADC0804 

DAC0806 

ADC0809 

ADC0817 

DAC10O0 

DAC1O08 

DAC1020 

OAC1022 

DAC1222 

LM334Z 

LM335Z 

LM399H 

AY-5-1013A 



LOW PROFILE 
(TIN) SOCKETS 

1-9 10-99 100-up 



16 pin LP 
18 pin LP 
20 pin LP 
22 pin LP 
24 [tin LP 
28 pin LP 
36 pin LP 
40 pin LP 



SOLDERTAIL (GOLD) 
STANDARD 

1-9 10-99 100-up 



40 pin SO 



T.i a 



AMP 

TTTTnT 



ST 



WW 



STATIC RAMS 

16 256x1 (650ns) 1.49 

22 256x4 (450ns) 8101 1.95 

16 1024x1 (350ns) .89 

16 1024x1 (450ns) L.P 1.49 

18 256x4 (450ns) 81 11 2.49 

16 256x4 (450ns) MOS 2.49 

18 :0?4x4 1450-is, 129-b/y.a^ 

18 1024x4 (450ns) L.P 1.95 - 8/13.95 

16 1024x4 (200ns) 1.39 - B.-"0.y5 

18 1024x4 (200ns) LP., 1 .69 S'13 4y 

18 4096x1 (70ns) 4.49 

18 1024x4 (70ns) 4.95 

18 1024x4 (450ns) . . .' 3.95 

20 1024x4 (45Dns) 1,95 

22 256x4 (450ns) CMOS .... 3,95 

18 !<:-,>.,■ i4 c .ihe,)4044 , . 4.95 

24 2048x8 (150ns) CMOS . 4.95 

Z4 2048x8 (200ns) CMOS . 4.75 

24 2048x8 (200ns) LP. CMOS 5.49 

- 1 r,iCM0S 34.95 

28 8192x8 (150ns) LP CMOS 3795 

16 256x1 (80ns)L.P. ... . 3.95 

16 16x4 (50ns) 3101 . . 225 

22 256x4 (250ns) 595 

18 256x4 (250ns) CMOS . . 5.95 

16 1024x1 !2:;,iJns!CM0SfbLij1j .. 3.95 

18 1024x1 (250ns) CMOS f 651 8) . ... 595 

16 16x4 (35ns) 93405 . 2.95 

16 256x1 (80ns) 93410 3.95 

16 256x1 (60ns) 93411 3,95 

16 16x4 (35ns) 3101 ... . 2,95 

16 1024x1 iiOns.'O C i934'5) . .. 3,95 

IE 16x4 i.&;)ri.,0 C ,?«7 ! S9). ., 2.25 

— PROMS/EPROMS 

24 2L»i3x8 (lus) 3.95 

24 1024x8 (450ns) 3.95 

24 1024x8 5=",r. -Mn, . 1- 3.49 

24 >U'.6*S :453ns) 2716 4.95 

24 11 -,,. J.,'", , i .r. 1 ' ., 5.49 

28 0-^2x8 1450ns) . . .10.95 

24 2048x8 (450ns) 3 voltage . 7.95 

24 2048x8 (450ns) . 3.95 

24 2048x8 CMOS 14.95 

Z4 2048x8 (350ns) ... . . 5.49 

24 2048x8 (550ns) 3.75 

24 4095x3 (4 50ns) .... , 4.95 

24 4096x8 (300ns) .... .7.95 

24 4095x8 (450ns) 21V 6.49 

24 4096x8 (560ns) 21V. 5.95 

24 1024x8 (450ns) . . 2.95 

28 8192x6 (450ns) . . . 6.49 

28 8192x8 (300ns) 7.19 

zB B1Sex8 CMOS 22-95 

24 8192xB I450ns) , 24.95 

25 16.384x8 :4Wns; 12!!*t -ROM 21.95 
16 32x8 PROMO C ■6330 ', '75 
16 256*4 PROW f S (630 M) 1.79 
16 3?x8 PROM T.S, (6331-1) . 1.79 
16 256x4 PROM O.C. (6300-1) . -1.95 
20 256x8 PROMT S '6303- ', i% 
20 512x8 PROM ' 3 IS349-1) . .. 4.95 

20 512x8 PROM O.C. (6348) 4,95 

24 512x8 PROM T.S. (DM87S296N) 495 

24 M?x3 PPOMO ■:; ir.34; ;.'.).■- 

18 1024x4 PROM T.S. . . 6.95 

24 1024x8 PROM T.S . 9.95 

16 512x4 PROMO C (5305) 2.95 

16 '.1, '.J PH.M '■ ■:■ , -i' :".■'; 

18 in.'.- r l-i, Mu , , 4 ' 

18 1024x4 PROM T.S (82St37) 4.95 

16 32x8 PROMO C (27S18) . . 295 

24 -3<d "POM ' S ,.'..-, ., M.9:: 

16 32x8 PROM T 3 !2'3'9i 3 0= 

16 236x4 PROMO C (2/3231 2.95 

16 256x4 PROMT 3 ,2/331; 293 

16 I'.! I -i H,'! < 

(S 2i.i4;ixJ PROM : 3 ,13324381) 995 

24 2048x8 (80ns) 14.95 

24 1024x8 PROM O.C. (82S 180) 9.95 

24 Ii 4.3 1SLIM1 -,,' 111) 9.95 

18 '1 • ,-,<■! P3,-.' 32' 134) 9.95 

18 2048x4 PROMT S.C82S 185) 9.95 

24 2048x4 PROM C. (82S190) 14,95 

24 - i - ■' ' V nil 14.95 

— DATA ACQUISITION 

f ',, ' ► 1 .ni +5Vto-9V 2.95 

18 Floppy Disk Re;i3 AMP Systeir . 4.95 

16 7 bit D/A Converter (DAC0807LCN) .. 1.49 
15- Lit fi ■■■■:. ,-:v..,:rln,;DAC0808LCN) 2.25 

2G8-3il A-nCanverlHr i ± 1-71 SB) 4.95 

20 8- ■bit A/ D Converter (1LSB) . . 3-49 

16 S-oi! DM Converter (0.78% Lin ) 1,95 

28 L ' ni A/O 1 1. ' , ' '.'; • ■M;i 

40 K uitA'-OCo'iveile' .■ifj-C'i Mu,n ) . .9.49 

24 '-0-bil 0,'A Conv. Micro Comp (0 05'.-.;. 7.95 

20 10-bit D/A Cc-i:v. M:CD Ccrp :(J30 3; 695 

16 10 bit OM Conv (0 0514 Lin 1 . .7.95 

16 10 -bit D/A Conv. (0.20% Lin } . . . . 5.95 

18 3 bitO/ACcnv 1 3 AiSL'i ,1 6.95 

Constant Current Source 1.19 

femperaiure Transducer. . 1.29 

Temp Comp Prec Ref i Soom/C) 5.95 

40 30KBaudUart(TR1602| 3.85 

SOLDERTAIL 
STANDARD (TIN) 

1JI 10-99 100-up 



29 



.27 



25 



20 pin : 
24 pin I 
28 pin : 



WIRE WRAP SOCKETS 
(GOLD) LEVEL #3 

1J) 10-99 100-up 



8 pin WW 
10 pin WW 
14 pin WW 
16 pin WW 
13 pin WW 
20 pin WW 
22 pin WW 
24 pin WW 
28 pin WW 



40 p 



n WW 
WW 



$10.00 Minimum Order — U.S. Funds Only 
California Residents Add 614% Sales Tax 
Shipping — Add 5% plus $1.50 Insurance 
Send S.A.S.E. for Monthly Sales Flyer! 



Spec Sheets — 30c each 
Send $1.00 Postage for your 
FREE 1984 JAMECO CATALOG 
Prices Subject to Change 




VZS4® 



DT1050 — Applications: Teaching aids, 
appliances, clocks, automotive, telecommunica- 
tions, language translations, etc. 

The OT1O50 is a standard DIGITALKER kit encoded with 137 separate 
and useful words, 2 tones, and 5 different silence durations. The 
words and tones have been assigned discrete addresses, making it 
possible to output single words or words concatenated into phrases 
or even sentences. The "voice" output of the DT1050 is a highly in- 
telligible male voice. Female and children's voices can be synthesiz- 
ed. The vocabulary is chosen so that it is applicable to many pro- 
ducts and markets. 

The DT1O50 consists of a Speech Processor Chip, MM54104 (40-pin> 
and two (2) Speech ROMs MM52164SSR1 and MM52164SSR2 (24-pin) 
along with a Master Word list and a recommended schematic 
diagram on the application sheet. 

DT1050 Digitalker™ $34.95 ea. 

MM54104 Processor Chip $14.95 ea. 

DT1 057 -Expands the DT1050 vocabulary from 137 to over 260 

words. Includes 2 ROMs and specs. 

Part No. DT1057 .$24.95 ea. 

* Evaluation ■ 1 1 fx flTlFoT^^f 1 1 1 H flrfTTTTr 

Kits Mun,vims^n^c/ji|ir^ ft 1 1 ft if 

Part No, "Pins Function Price 

70451P1 28 CMOS Precision Timer 14.95 

7045EvVKit* 28 Stopwatch Chip, XTL 19.95 

7106CPL 40 3V2 Digit A/D (LCD Drive}. ... 10.49 

FE0203D 3 V; Digit LCD Display for 7106 & 7116 14.95 

7106EV/Kit" 40 IC, Circuit Board. Display 46,95 

71Q7CPL 40 3Vj Digit A/D (LEO Drive) 10.95 

7107EV/Kit* 40 IC, Circuit Board, Display 46.95 

71 16CPL 40 m Digit A/D LCD Dis. HLD 10.95 

7201IUS Low Battery Volt Indicator 2.25 

72051PG 24 CMOS LED Stopwatch /Timer 14.95 

7205EV/Kit* 24 Stopwatch Chip, XTL 16.95 

7206CJPE IS Tone Generator 4.95 

7206CEV/Kit* 16 Tone Generator Chip, XTL 7.95 

7207A1PD 14 Oscillator Controller 5.95 

7207AEV/Kil* 14 Freq. Counter Chip, XTL 8.49 

72151PG 24 4 Func. CMOS Stopwatch CKT 16.95 

?2l5Ev7Kit* 24 4 Func, Stopwatch Chip, XTL 19.49 

7216AUI 28 8 Digit Univ. Counter C A 31.49 

7216DIPI 28 8 Digit Freq Counter CC 21.49 

7217IJI 28 4 Digit LED Up/Down Counter C.A 10,95 

7217A1P1 28 4 Digit LED Up/ Down Counter CC 9.95 

7224JPL 40 LCD 4ft Digit Up Counter DRI 10.95 

7226AEV7K1P 40 5 Function Counter Chip. XTL 99.95 

130009 1963 INTERSIL Data Book(i356p.) $9.951 



74HC High Speed CMOS 



1355 SHOREWAY ROAD, BELMONT, CA 94002 
11/84 PHONEORDERS WELCOME — (415) 592-8097 Telex: 176043 



74HCO0 
74HC02 

74HC03 
34HC04 
74HCU04 
74HC08 
74HC10 
74HC1 1 
74HC14 
74HC20 
74HC27 
74HC30 
74HC32 
74HC42 
74HC51 
74HC58 
74HC73 
74HC74 
74HC75 
74HC76 
74HC85 
74HC86 
74HC10? 
74HC109 
74HC112 
74HC113 
74HC125 
74HC132 
74HC137 
74HCt38 



74C00 
74C02 
74C04 
74C08 
74C10 
74C14 
74C20 
74C30 
74C32 
74C42 
74C48 
74C73 
74C74 
74C85 
74C86 
74C89 
74C90 
74C93 



TL071CP 
TL072CP 

TL074CN 

1L081CP 

TL082CP 

TLG84CN 

LM301CN 

LM302H 

LM304H 

LM305H 

LM307CN 

LM308CN 

LM309K 

LM310CN 

LM311CN 

LM312H 

LM317T ' 

LM317K 

LM318CN 

LM319N 

LM330K-3 

3M32UK-13 

LM320K-15 

LM320K-24 

LM320T-5 

LM320T-12 

LM320T-15 

LM320T-24 

LM322N 

LM323K 

LM324N 

LM329DZ 

LM331N 

LM334Z 

LM335Z 

LM336Z 

LM337MP 

LM337T 

LM338K 

LM339N 

LM340K-5 

LM340K-12 

LM340K-15 

LM340K-24 

LM340T-5 

LM340T-12 

LM340T-15 

LM340I-24 

LM341P-5 

LM341P-12 

LM341P-15 



74HC139 1§ 


1.05 


74HC253 56 


1.09 


74HC147 16 


1,29 


74HC257 IS 


.99 


74HC151 t6 


.99 


74HC259 16 




74HC153 t6 


1.09 


74HC266 14 


.89 


74HC154 24 


2,65 


74HC273 2D 


2.79 


74HC157 16 


.99 


74HC280 14 


4.59 


74HC158 16 


.99 


74HC299 20 


5.59 


74HC16Q 16 


139 


74HC3i>b 16 


2.59 


74HC161 16 


1.39 


74HC367 IE 


2.59 


74HC162 16 


1.39 


74HC373 20 


2.69 


74HC163 16 


1.39 


74HC374 20 


2.69 


74HC164 14 


1.35 


74HC390 16 


1.59 


74HC165 16 


2.15 


74HC393 14 


1.59 


74HC.166 16 


2.49 


74HC533 20 


269 


74HC173 16 


129 


74HC534 20 


2.69 


74HC174 16 


339 


74HC595 18 


3.19 


74HC175 16 


1.09 


74HC688 20 


3.59 


74HC192 16 


1.49 


74HC4002 14 


59 


74HC193 16 


1.49 


74HC4017 16 




74HC194 16 


1.19 


74HC4020 16 


149 


74HC195 16 


1.19 


74HC4024 14 


1.75 


74HC237 16 


1.49 


74HC4040 16 


1.49 


74HC240 20 


2.29 


74HC4060 16 


1.49 


74BC241 28 


2.29 


74HC4Q75 14 


.59 


74HC242 14 


2.15 


TW&m 14 


,59 


74HC243 14 


2.15 


74HC4511 16 


1.95 


74HC244 20 


2.29 


74HC4514 24 


4.19 


74HC245 Zfl 


2.59 


74HC4538 16 


2.59 


74HC251 16 


.99 


74HC4543 16 


375 


74HCU04 i5 


unbuffered All others are buffered 


WTlT^TT 


11 


74C240 20 


1.75 
1.95 


74C95 14 


1.19 


74C244 20 


195 


74C107 14 


,79 


74C373 20 


2.29 


74C151 16 


2,19 


74C374 20 


2.29 


74C154 24 


3.25 


74C901 14 


.59 


74C157 16 


1,75 


74C903 14 


.59 


74C160 16 


1.19 


74C906 14 


.59 


74C161 16 


1,19 


74C911 28 


8.95 


74C162 16 


1.19 


74C912 28 


8,95 


74C163 16 


1.19 


74C915 18 


1.19 


74C164 14 


1.29 


74C917 28 


8.95 


74C173 16 


.89 


74C922 IB 


4.49 


74C174 16 


1,19 


74C923 20 


4.95 


74C175 16 


1.19 


74C925 16 


5.95 


74C192 16 


1.39 


74C926 18 


595 


74C193 16 


1.39 


80C95 16 


.69 


74C195 16 


1.29 


80C97 16 


.69 ' 


MflW 


9 


LM741CN 8 


.39 






LM747N M 


.69 






LM748N 8 


59 


LM342P-5 


,65 


LM1310N 14 


1.49 


LM342P-12 


.65 


MC1330AI 8 


1.69 


LM342P-15 


.65 


MC1349 B 


1.69 


LF347N 14 


1.49 


MC1350 8 


1.19 


LM348N M 


.89 


MC1358 14 


1.49 


LM350K 


4,79 


LM1456V 8 


1.95 


LF351N 8 


.59 


LM1458CN 8 


.59 


LF353K B 


.89 


LM1488N 14 




LF355N B 


1.09 


LM1489N 14 


.69 


LF356^ B 


109 


LM1496N 14 


.99 


LM358K S 


.59 


LH1605CK 


9.95 


LM359N (4 


1.79 


LM1800N 16 


2.49 


LM370N 14 


4.95 


LM1871N 18 


2.95 


LM373N H 


4.95 


LM1872N IB 


3.25 


LM377N 14 


1.95 


LM1877N-9 14 


2.95 


LM380CN 8 


1.09 


LM1889N IB 


1.95 


LM380N M 


.89 


LM1896N 14 


1,59 


LM381N 14 


1.79 


LM2002T 


1.95 


LM382N 14 


1.49 


ULN20O3A 16 


1.49 


LM384^ 14 


1.95 


XR2206 16 


3.95 


LM386N-3 B 


,89 


XR2207 14 


2.49 


LM387N B 


1.39 


XR2208 16 


1,79 


LM389N IB 


1.19 


XR2211 14 


2.95 


LM391N-80 IB 


1.19 


LM2877P 


1.95 


LM392N 8 


.59 


LM2B78P 


295 


LM398N 8 


3.95 


LM2901N 14 


.79 


LM399H 


5.95 


LM2902N 14 


.89 


TL494CN 16 


2.79 


LM2907N 14 


2.49 


U496CP 8 


1.59 


LM3900N 14 


.59 


NE531V 8 


1.79 


LM3905CN 8 


1.19 


NE544N 14 


1.95 


LM3909N B 


.89 


NE550A 14 


1.95 


LM3914N 18 


2.39 


mm b 


.35 


LM3915N IB 


2.39 


XF1-L555 B 


.69 


LM3916N IB 


2.39 


LM556N 14 


.79 


RC4136N 14 


1.25 


NE564N 16 


1.95 


RC4151NB B 


1.95 


LM565N 14. 


.99 


RC4194TK 


4.49 


LM566CN B 


1.49 


RC4195TK 


5.95 


LM567V B 


.99 


LM4250CN 8 


1.49 


NE570N 16 


2.95 


LM4500A IB 


2,95 


NE571N IB 


2.49 


NE5532 B 


1.69 


LM703CN 8 


1.49 


NE5534 B 


1.39 


LM709N M 


.59 


79M05AH 


1.29 


LM710N 14 


,69 


ICL8038B 14 


3.95 


LM711N 14 


,79 


LM13080N 8 


1.19 


LM723N 14 


.49 


LM13600N 16 


1.19 


LM733N M 


.89 


76477 28 


3.95 


LM739N 14 


1.95 


MORE AVAILABLE 



30003 1982 Nat. Linear Data Book (t952 pgs) $11 



95^/ 



228 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



Commodore 



RS232 ADAPTER FOR 
VIC-20 AND COMMODORE 64 



^g) 



The JE232CM allows connection of standard serial RS232 
printers, modems, etc. to your VIC-20 and C-64. A 4-pole 
switch allows the inversion of the 4 control lines. Com- 
plete installation and operation instructions included. 

• Plugs into User Port • Provides Standard RS232 signal 
levels • Uses 6 signals (Transmit, Receive, Clear to Send, 
Request to Send, Data Terminal Ready Data Set Ready). 

JE232CM $39.95 



ProModem 1200 




PROMETHEUS 



Intelligent 300/1200 Baud 

Telephone Modem with 
Real Time Clock/Calendar 

The ProModem™ is a Bell 21 2A (300/1 200 baud) intelli- 
gent stand-alone modem • Full featured expandable 
modem • Standard features include Auto Answer and 
Auto Dial, Help Commands, Programmable Intelligent 
Dialing, Touch Tone™ and Pulse Dialing & More * Hayes 
command set compatible plus an additional extended 
command set ■ Shown w/alphanumeric display option. 

PM1200 $374.95 



KEYBOARDS 



VOICE SYNTHESIZER 
FOR APPLE AND COMMODORE 




JE520AP 



JE520CM 

• Over 250 word vocabulary -affixes allow the formation of more 
than 500 words • Built-in amplifier, speaker, volume control, and 
audio jack • Recreates a clear, natural male voice • Plug-in user 
ready with documentation and sample software • Case size: 
Vk"l x 3V4"W x 1-3/8"H 

APPLICATIONS: • Security Warning • Telecommunication 

• Teaching • Handicap Aid 

• Instrumentation * Games 

The JE520 VOICE SYNTHESIZER will plug right into your 
computer and allow you to enhance almost any applica- 
tion. Utilizing National Semiconductor's DIGITALKER'* 
Speech Processor IC (with four custom memory chips), 
the JE520 compresses natural speech into digital mem- 
ory, including the original inflections and emphases. The 
result is an extremely clear, natural vocalization. 

Part No. Description Price 

JE520CM For Commodore 64 & VIC-20 $114.95 

JE520AP For Apple II. II+, and lie $149.95 

i - — ..„..„ \§^£ 



13 1 /b"Lx4%"Wx 3 V'H 



New! 




16-9/16"Lx6%"Wx1%"H 



Nationally Known 
Manufacturer! 




21 VLx9.B"Wx3 , /a ,, H 



flew! 



14''2"Lx5',2 , 'Wx1 
T.'HtTT-T. 



£ 



w\ 



Mitsumi 54-Key Unencoded 
All-Purpose Keyboard 

■ SPST keyswitches ■ 20 pin ribbon cable connec- 
tion • Low profile keys ■ Features: cursor controls, 
control, caps (lock), function, enter and shift keys 
•Color (keycaps): grey • WL: 1 lb. ■ Pinout included 

KB54 .....$14.95 



76-Key Serial ASCII Keyboard 

■ Simple serial interface ■ SPST mechanical switch- 
ing ■ Operates in upper and lower case ■ Five user 
function keys: F1-F5 • Six finger edge card connec- 
tion ■ Color (keys): tan • Weight: 2 lbs. • Data incl. 

KB76 $29.95 



106-Key Serial ASCII Keyboard 

• 8-bit serial ASCII (12-bit data structure -requires 
3 instruction bits and 1 sync bit) • The terminals 
were designed to be daisy chained around a central 
host computer and used as individual work stations 

• Hall effect switching • Numeric and cursor keypad 

• 10 user definable keys • 50" interface cable with 
9-pin sub-miniature connector ■ 7 LED function 
displays • Security lock - N-key rollover * Automatic 
key repeat function ■ Color (case): white with black 
panel — (key caps): grey and blue Weight: 6"s lbs. 
■ Data included 

KB139 $49.95 



68-Key Keyboard with Numeric 
Keypad for Apple II and II+ 

• Plugs directly into Apple II or II+ motherboard with 
16-pin ribbon cable connect. ■ 26 spec. tunc. ■ Color 
(keys) : white/grey • Wt. 2 lbs. ■ Enclosures available 

KB-A68 $79.95 



JE664 EPROM PROGRAMMER 

8K to 64K EPROMS - 24 & 28 Pin Packages 

Completely Sell-Contained - Requires No Additional Systems lor Operation 

■ Programs and validates EPROMs ■ Checks for property erased EPROMs 

■ Emulates PROMs or EPROMs • RS232C Computer Interface for editing and 
program loading ■ Loads data into RAM by keyboard • Changes data in RAM 
by keyboard • Loads RAM from an EPROM ■ Compares EPROMs for content 
differences ■ Copies EPROMs ■ Power Input: 1 15V AC, 60Hz, less than 10W 
power consumption • Enclosure: Color-coordinated, light tan panels with 
molded end pieces in mocha brown ■ Size: 15VL x8 3 i"D x3Vi "H -Weight: 
5*t lbs. 



The JE664 EPROM Programme! emulates and programs various 8-Bit Word EPROMs from 8K to 
64K-Bit memory capacity. Data can be entered into the JE664's internal SK x 8-Bit RAM in Ssm 
ways: (1) Irom a ROM or EPROM; (?) from an external computer via 8te opfeoai JE66 ■ RS& :2>. 
BUS; (3) from its panel keyboard. The JE664's RAMs may be accessed for emulation purposes 
from ttie panel's test socket to an external microprocessor In programming and emuiat.on, me 
JE664 allows for examination, change and validation of program content. The JE664's RAMs 
can be p rog ram med qu i c kl y to al r ■ !" s ( or an y value ) , allowing!. isedaddressesintheEPROM 
to be programmed later without necessity of "UV" era.siny l he JL66^ displays DATA and 
ADDRESS in convenient hexadecimal (alphanumeric) format. A "DISPLAY EPROM DATA" 
button changes the DATA readout from RAM word to EPROM word and is displayed in both 
hexadeei mal and bi n ary code. T h e tron t pd m i tM ■ onvaiient operating guide. The JE664 

Programmer includes one JM16A Jumper Module (as listed below!. 

JE664-A EPBOM Programmer $995.00 

Assembled & Tested (Includes JM16A Module) 

JE66S - BS23ZC INTERFACE OPTION - The RS232C Interlace Option implements 

computer access to the JE664's RAM. This allows the computer to manipulate, store and 
transfer EPROM data to and from the JE664. A sample program listing is supplied in MBASIC tor 
CP/M computers. Documentation is provided to adapt the software to other computers with ar, 
RS232 port. 9600 Baud, 8-bit word, odd parity and 2 stop bits. 

FOR A LIMITED TIME A SAMPLE OF SOFTWARE WRITTEN IN BASIC FOR 
THE TRS-80" MODEL I. LEVEL II COMPUTER WILL ALSO BE PROVIDED 

JE664-ARS EPROM Prog. W/JE665 Option $1195.00 

Assembled & Tested (Includes JM16A Module) 




POWER SUPPLIES 



TRANSACTION TECHNOLOGY, INC. 
5VDC @ 1 AMP Regulated Power Supply 

• Output: +5VDC @ 1 .0 amp (also +30VDC regulated) ■ Input: 1 1 5 VAC, 60 Hz 
■ Two-tone (black/beige) self-enclosed case ■ 6 toot, 3-conductor black 
power cord ■ Size: 6V L x 7" W x 2V H ■ Weight: 3 lbs. 

PS51194 $14.95 





EPROM JUMPER MODULES - I he JE664s JUMPER MODULE (Personality Module) is a 
plug-in Module that pre-sets the JE664 for the proper programming pulses to the EPROM and 
configures the EPROM socket cunrei lims 'm r it particular EPROM. 


JEW EPMM 


MM 


UllUft 


EPROM MMUFKTIIREH 


PWCE 


JM08A 


2708 


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.wn Motorola. Nat.. Intel. Tl 


. . . $14.95 


JM16A 


J?16,TMS2516m) 


25V 


r e, Mcwi.m Nat NEC, TL 

ftsMt 


. . . $14.95 


JM16B 


TMS2716 (3-Vs) 


W.Hv Hf» 


Motorola, Tl 


I14.M 


M l?.n 


TMSX32 


25V 


Motorola. Tl Mtaclu. OKI 


. . . S14.95 


JM32B 


2732 


25V 


AM h,j,:su N H M h 1 m 


. , . $14.96 


JM32C 


2732A 


21V 


Fujitsu, Intel. . . . 


. $14.95 


JMfrtA 


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MCM68L764 


21V 


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2754 


21V 


IrtW, FtfOlDd, OKI 


514.95 



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POWER SUPPLY +5VDC @ 7.6 AMP, 12VDC @ 1 .5 AMP SWITCHING 

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power cord ■ Size: 1 1 VL x 13VW x 3 3 i"H ■ Weight: 6 lbs. 

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4-CHANNEL SWITCHING POWER SUPPLY 

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Switching Power Supply for APPLE II, 11+ & //e™ 

• Can drive four floppy disk drives and up to eight expansion cards 
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Send S.A.S.E. for Monthly Sales Flyer! 



Spec Sheets — 30c each 
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FREE 1984 JAMECO CATALOG 
Prices Subject to Change 




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1355 SHOREWAY ROAD, BELMONT, CA 94002 
11/84PHO/VE ORDERS WELCOME — (415) 592-8097 Telex: 176043 





Fiberoptics 



J The EDU-LINK Learning Kit 

The EDU-LINK fiber optic system 
is a low-cost, TTL compatible data 
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ELK-1 ONLY S 19.95 



APPLE ACCESSORIES 



m* APPLE™ 

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The ADD-514 Disk Drive uses 
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Also Available... 

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gj iADt-sFA/zs Protect Yourself... 
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Model 100. $69.95 

protect DATASHIELD 

Yourself... Back-Up 

Power Source 

; ■ Provides up to 30 minutes of continuous 1 20 

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H H (load dependent) when you have a black out 

Nft or voltage sag ■ Output rating: 200 watts ■ Six 

~ month warranty ■ Weight: 24 lbs. 

PC200 (Model 200). $299.95 

For more demanding systems (e.g. with hard disks) 
• Output rating: 300 watts 

XT300 $399.95 



IBM MEMORY EXPANSION KIT 
COMPAQ COMPATIBILITY 



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IBM64K (Nine 200ns 64K RAMs) $43.95 



TRS-80 MEMORY EXPANSION KIT 



TRS-80to 16K, 32K, or 48K 

"Model 1 = From 4K to 16K Requires (1) One Kit 
Model 3 = From 4K to 48K Requires (3) Three Kits 
Color = From 4K to 16K Requires (1) One Kit 

"Model 1 equipped with Expansion Board up to 48 K Two Kits Required 
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TRS-80 Color 32K or 64K Conversion Kit 



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UV-EPROM Eraser 



I 8 Chips — 51 Minutes 




1 Chip — 37 MinuteT] 



Erases 2706, 2716, 2732, 2764, 2516, 2532, 2564. Erases up to 8 chips 
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DE-4 UV EPROM Eraser $ 79.95 
UVS-11EL Replacement Bulb ..$16.95^ 



Circle 225 on inquiry card. 



NOVEMBER I984 -BYTE 229 



You don't need a computer 
to talk to another computer. 



DISPLAY (VP3012D). High 
performance, 1 2" diagonal 
non-glare, green phosphor 
screen, 



RESIDENT MENUS. User-friendly 

terminal set-up and 

phone directory maintenance 



DIRECT CONNECT MODEM. 

Built-in, 300 baud, 
originate/answer/auto answer. 



AUTO DIAL Tone or pulse dialing 
of up to 26 stored phone numbers 
voice or data base calls. 



AUTO-LOG-ON. Enters information 
automatically after auto dialing. 




VIDEO OUTPUT. Selectable 80 
or 40 characters x 24 lines 
on standard monitor. 



TV OUTPUT. Displays 

40 characters x 24 lines 

on Ch. 3/Ch. 4 of standard TV set. 



MEMORY BACKUP. Minimum 
48-hour storage of directory, log- 
on and other parameters without 
plug-in power. No batteries 
required. 



FUNCTION KEYS. User 
programmable or 
downloadable 
from host computer. 



APTVP4801 



The new RCA APT (All Purpose Terminal) 
expands your data communications capabilities 

for a lot less money. 



For business, professional and personal data 
communications, you'll find more user-friendly fea- 
tures and greater communications capabilities in 
the RCA APT than in other terminals selling for up 
to three times the price. 

The new APT terminals are ideally suited to 
multi-data base time sharing and dedicated, direct 
computer-connected applications. They feature 
menu-controlled operation and a programmable 
"personality" to match specific communications 
requirements for your data bases. 

A single keypress can dial a stored number, 
send the log-on sequence on the host computer, 
and return terminal control to the user. Password 
protection prevents unauthorized access to desig- 
nated numbers. APT can also be used as an auto- 
dialer for voice communications. 



OTHER FEATURES 
RS232C port for direct computer connections at data rates 
to 9600 baud, or for connecting high speed modems and 
other accessories. Parallel printer port for hard copy. 
Numeric keypad, can dial phone numbers not in terminal 
directory. Built-in speaker with adjustable volume control for 
audio monitoring of phone line. Smooth scroll display. Auto- 
matic screen blanking to reduce possibility of burn. Brief- 
case size: 17" x 7" x 2". Weight: under 4 lbs. 



Quite simply, matching features with price, 
there is no other professional quality terminal avail- 
able today that can do as much at such low cost. 

APT terminals list for $498, in your choice of full 
stroke or membrane keyboard versions. Either style 
is also available with a display monitor for $697 list. 
The data display monitor alone, VP3012D, $199 list. 

For more information— or to order— call 800- 
722-0094. In Penna., call 717-295-6922. Or write for 
fully descriptive brochure to RCA Data Communica- 
tions Products, New Holland Avenue, Lancaster, PA 
17604. OEM and dealer pricing available. The new 
RCA APT. Expansive. Not expensive. 



APTVP3801. 

Flexible membrane 
keyboard version 
designed for travel 
and hostile 
environments. 




230 BYTE ■ NOVEMBER 1984 



RC/1 



Circle 356 on inquiry card. 



NEW CHIPS 



THE 80286 
MICROPROCESSOR 



by Paul Wells 



A close look at Intel's 
32-fe iAPX 286 chip 



DURING THE PLANNING phase for a 
processor to follow the 8086, we at 
Intel realized that two distinct markets 
had emerged. One market required 
the power of the 8086 but was 
primarily driven by the customers' 
need for cost-sensitive solutions. To 
satisfy this market, we defined a pro- 
cessor with a significant performance 
increase over the 8086 that also in- 
cluded such common peripheral func- 
tions as software-controlled wait state 
and chip select logic, three timers, 
priority interrupt controller, and two 
channels of DMA (direct memory ac- 
cess). This processor, the 80186, 
could replace up to 22 separate VLSI 
(very large scale integration) and TTL 
(transistor-transistor logic) packages 
and sell for less than the cost of the 
parts it replaced. 

80286 Fundamentals 

For the second market, driven by per- 
formance, address space, and com- 
plex system-level requirements such 
as sophisticated OS (operating sys- 
tem) support and protection, Intel 
developed the 16-/1 6-bit 80286 micro- 
processor. 

lb allow designers committed to the 
8086 to take advantage of the next- 



generation technology the 80286 
design uses the 8086/88 instruction 
set and is capable of executing binary- 
level 8086 code. Like the 8086, the 
80286 operates at TTL levels and sup- 
ports the use of coprocessors. Among 
these coprocessors are the 80287, 
the iAPX 286 version of the 8087, the 
802 586 Ethernet coprocessor, and 
the 802730 text and graphics copro- 
cessor (iAPX 286 refers to the family 
of chips that includes the 80286 
microprocessor; iAPX 186 refers to 
the 80186 family and so on). The 
8086 instruction set has been ex- 
tended on the 286, and a new design 
employing a high degree of paral- 
lelism and pipelining to improve pro- 
cessor performance has been imple- 
mented. 

Finally the 80286 was designed to 
be more "aware" of the complex 
problems it has to solve. For example 
multitasking is a software-intensive 

Paul Wefts has been employed by Mel Cor- 
poration (3065 Bowers Ave., Santa Clara, 
CA 95051) for the past 11 years. He has 
spent five years in engineering, two years in 
sales, and four years in marketing. He is cur- 
rently the Marketing Manager of Special Pro- 
grams within the microprocessor operation. 



solution to many types of problems 
but represents significant overhead to 
a CPU (central processing unit) that 
has no knowledge of what a task is 
and no way to support it. The 80286 
provides an implementation in hard- 
ware of task switching and a protec- 
tion model that recognizes attempts 
to violate protection criteria and 
monitors the transfer of control within 
the system. Virtual, memory support 
was also fully integrated within the 
80286 to avoid reliance on external 
devices. 

To provide additional flexibility, the 
80286 operates in two modes. Follow- 
ing power-up or a system reset, the 
80286 is in real address mode, sup- 
porting a 1 -megabyte real address 
space. The real mode operates as an 
8086 except that it is up to six times 
faster, based on internal improve- 
ments and increased clock frequency 
When you run the processors at the 
same clock speed and do not take ad- 
vantage of any 80286 capabilities, the 
80286 achieves 2 50 percent of the 
8086's performance. {Editor's Note: For 
one example of how the 80286 performed in 
a system environment, see "The IBM PC AT" 
October 1984 BYTE, page 108.] The pro- 

icontinued) 

NOVEMBER 1984 -BYTE 231 



THE 80286 



cessor can continue to execute in the 
real mode or it can be switched to 
protected mode by setting a bit in a 
status register. In protected mode, the 
80286 supports a I6-megabyte real 
address space (24-bit address) and a 
virtual address space (32-bit address) 
of up to 1 gigabyte (one billion bytes). 

80286 Memory Management 
Memory management makes pro- 
grams and data independent of physi- 
cal memory location. 



In the 80286 protected mode, ap- 
plication programs deal exclusively 
with virtual address and have no ac- 
cess to the actual physical addresses 
that the processor generates. A pro- 
gram specifies an address in terms of 
two components: an effective address 
offset that determines the displace- 
ment in bytes of a location within a 
segment, and a 16-bit segment selec- 
tor that uniquely references a par- 
ticular segment. Jointly, these two 
components constitute a complete 





LOGICAL ADDRESS 


1 

REAL 
y^N ADDRESS 


f TARGET 
SEGMENT 










SELECTOR 


OFFSET 










IN 


DATA 


MX I 






i 


J 

SEGMENT 
BASE 


DESCRIPTOR 
, TABLE 






, * 


SEGMENT 
DESCRIPTOR 


r 1 








j 


J 







Figure 1: 80286 address translation model 



7 



RESERVED FOR IAPX 386 
(MUST BE ZERO) 



DPL TYPE ED W 
ACCESS BYTE 



BASE- 



23-16 



BASE 15 _ 



15-0 



SEGMENT SIZE 



+ 6 



+ 4 



+ 2 



Figure 2: Descriptor data type. The meanings of the access byte abbreviations 
are P^present bit: DPL=privilege level: TYPE^type of descriptor: ED=expand 
down {stack): W-wn'te protect bit: A=access bit [segment has been read/written). 



3 2 -bit virtual address pointer data 
type. 

Programs manipulate these 32-bit 
virtual addresses in exactly the same 
way as the two-component addresses 
of real address mode After a program 
loads the segment selector compo- 
nent of an address into a segment 
register, each subsequent reference to 
locations within the selected segment 
requires only specification of an off- 
set; this improves speed. 

The important difference between 
real address mode and protected 
mode is the format and information 
content of segment selectors. The 
protected mode alters the interpreta- 
tion of the value in a segment register 
from a 16-bit real address to a table 
index (figure 1). In addition, protected 
mode extends the 16-bit segment 
registers by 48 bits to hold the ad- 
dressing protection, access write, ac- 
cess bit, and privilege information. 

Selector loading in protected mode 
parallels the loading of a segment 
base in real address mode. By retain- 
ing the basic addressing procedures 
of real address mode in protected 
mode, the 80286 eliminates rewriting 
application programs to use virtual 
memory, 

80286 Address Translation 

The 48-bit segment register cache 
contains a segment descriptor that 
defines the properties of the segment 
being addressed, such as the base ad- 
dress in physical memory, segment 
size (from 1 byte to 64K bytes), and 
protection parameters for a single 
segment of memory (see figure 2). All 
the descriptors needed to define a 
program space are collected in a 
descriptor table. 

The 80286 uses this cache descrip- 
tor information in a segment register 
to translate a program's virtual ad- 
dresses to real addresses. As long as 
a program remains within the bound- 
aries of a single segment, the pro- 
cessor obtains all address-translation 
information from the descriptor field 
in the segment register. This normally 
takes one processor clock cycle 
(which is 125 nanoseconds at 8 MHz). 

(continued) 



232 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



Introducing the Most Powerful 
Business Software Ever! 

TRS-80" (Model I, II, III, or 16) • APPLE™ • IBM™ • OSBORNE™ • CP/M™ • XEROX™ 



^ ,'.<r 







The VersaBusiness™ Series 

Each VERSABUSINESS module can be purchased and used independently , 
or can be linked in any combination to form a complete, coordinated business system. 



VERSARECEIVABLES" $99.95 

VER$ARECEiVABLES t " is a complete menu-driven accounts receivable , invoicing, and 
monthly statement-generating system, -ft keeps track of all information related to who 
owes you or your company money, and can provide automatic billing for past due ac- 
counts/ VERSA RECBVABLES™ prints all necessary statements, invoices, and summary 
reports and can be linked with VERSALEDGER IF" and Versa INVENTORY™. 

VERSAPAYABLES TW $99.95 

VERSA PAYABLES™ is designed to keep track of current and aged payables, keeping you 
in touch with all information regarding how much money your company owes, and to 
whom. VERSA PAYABLES™ maintains a complete record on each vendor, prints checks, 
check registers, vouchers, transaction reports, aged payables reports, vendor reports, 
and more. With VERSA PAYABLES™, you can even let your computer automatically select 
which vouchers are to be patd. 

VERSAPAYROLL tm $9995 

VERSA PAYROLL™ is a powerful and sophisticated, but easy to use payroll system that 
keeps track of all government-required payroll information. Complete employee records 
are maintained, and all necessary payroll calculations are performed automatically, with 
totals displayed on screen for operator approval: A payroll can be run totally, automati- 
cally, or the operator can intervene to prevent a check from being printed, or to alter 
information on it. If desired, totals may be posted to the Versa LEDGER IT" system. 

VERSAlNVENTORY™ $99.95 

Versa INVENTORY™ is a complete inventory control system that gives you instant access 
to data on any item. VERSA INVENTOR Y™ keeps track of ail information related to what 
items are in stock, out of stock, on backorder, etc., stores sales and pricing data, alerts 
you when an item falls below a preset reorder point, and allows you to enter and print 
invoices directly or to link with the VERSA RECEIVABLES™ system. VERSA INVENTORY™ prints 
all needed inventory listings, reports of items below reorder point, inventory value re- 
ports, period and year-to-date sales reports, price lists, inventory checklists, etc. 



50 N PASCACK ROAD, SPRING VALLEY, NY. 10977 



VersaLedger ir $14995 

VERSA LEDGER IP is a complete accounting system that grows as your business 
grows. VersaLedger II™ can be used as a simple personal checkbook register, 
expanded to a small business bookkeeping system or developed into a large 
corporate genera! ledger system without any additional software. 

• VersaLedger IT" gives you almost unlimited storage capacity 

(300 to 10,000 entries per month, depending on the system), 

• stores all check and general ledger information forever, 

• prints tractor-feed checks, 

• handles multiple checkbooks and general ledgers, 

• prints 17 customized accounting reports including check registers, 
balance sheets, income statements, transaction reports, account 
listings, etc. 

VersaLedger IT* comes with a professionally-written 160 page manual de- 
signed for first-time users. The VersaLedger IF" manual will help you become 
quickly familiar with VersaLedger IP, using complete sample data files 
supplied on diskette and more than 50 pages of sample printouts. 



SATISFACTION GUARANTEED! 



Every VERSABUSINESS™ module is guaranteed to outperform all other competitive systems, 
and at a fraction of their cost. If you are not satisfied with any VERSABUSINESS"' module, you 
may return it within 30 days for a refund. Manuals for any VERSABUSINESS"" module may be 
purchased for $25 each, credited toward a later purchase of that module. 



To Order: 



Write or call Toll-free (800) 43 1-28 18 

(N.Y.S. residents call 914-425-1535) 



* add $3 for shipping in UPS areas 

* add $4 for C.O.D, or non-UPS areas 



» add $5 to CANADA or MEXICO 
* add proper postage elsewhere 



DEALER INQUIRIES WELCOME P 1 " 1 * 

All prices and specifications subject to change / Delivery subject to availability. 



* TRS-80 is a trademark of the Radio Shack Division of Tandy Corp, - * APPLE is a trademark of Apple Corp. • *IBM is a trademark of IBM Corp. - "OSBORNE is a trademark of Osborne Corp. 

*CP/M is a trademark of Digital Research - *XEROX is a trademark of Xerox Corp. 



THE 80286 



Whenever a program loads a new 
selector into a segment register, the 
CPU automatically copies the descrip- 
tor from main memory into an on- 
board cache within the 80286 (figure 
3). Once the hardware has copied the 
segment-addressing information from 
memory to the cache, the CPU does 
not refer to a descriptor table again 
until the program requires access to 
another segment. 

Descriptor Tables 

At any one time, a user's address 
space is defined by three descriptor 



tables: a global descriptor table (GDT) 
for code and data common to all 
tasks, an interrupt descriptor table 
(IDT), and a local descriptor table 
(LDT) that defines the code and data 
private to each task. There are as 
many LDTs as tasks in the system. 

These tables form the interface be- 
tween the OS software and the 80286 
virtual addressing hardware. The ad- 
dress of each table is automatically 
maintained by the 80286 through 
three on-chip registers: GDTR. IDTR, 
and LDTR. Switching from one user's 
local address space to another's only 



requires changing the LDT register in 
the CPU. 

Protection 

The hardware-enforced protection of 
the 80286 improves the reliability of 
an entire system (by confining soft- 
ware errors) and keeps the system 
running even when a user program at- 
tempts an invalid or prohibited opera- 
tion. The 80286's protection mecha- 
nism can locate and isolate a large 
number of program errors during de- 
velopment and prevent the propaga- 

{continued) 



CPU 
VIRTUAL ADDRESS POINTER 



SELECTOR 



SELECTOR 



S~> 



EXPLICIT CACHE 




CPU 

MRTUAL ADDRESS POINTER 



SELECTOR 


OFFSET 



EXPLICIT CACHE 




DESCRIPTOR 



DESCRIPTOR TABLE REGISTER 

1. THE PROGRAM PLACES A SELECTOR IN THE SEGMENT REGISTER. THE TABLE REGISTER 
INDICATES THE LOCATION AND LENGTH OF THE DESCRIPTOR TABLE. 



CPU 
VIRTUAL ADDRESS POINTER 



SELECTOR 


OFFSET 



EXPLICIT CACHE 



DESCRIPTOR < 



LIMIT 


BASE 

ADDRESS 



DESCRIPTOR TABLE REGISTER 




DESCRIPTOR TABLE REGISTER 

. THE PROCESSOR ADOS THE SELECTOR INDEX TO THE BASE AD0RESS OF THE DESCRIPTOR 
TABLE TO SELECT A DESCRIPTOR. 



CPU 
VIRTUAL ADDRESS POINTER 




LIMIT 


BASE 
ADDRESS 



DESCRIPTOR TABLE REGISTER 



Figure 3: Virtual memory addressing procedure on the 80286. 



234 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 




COMPUTERS 



MPC 4210 (128K. 2 Drives) SCall 

MPC 4610 (10 MB Hard Disk) SCall 

VP 2110 (Portable) SCall 

MPC 4220 (256K, 2 Drives) SCall 

MPC 4620 (256K, 10 MB Hard Disk) .... SCall 

VP 2220 (Portable w/256K) $2195 




CORONA 

PC-22 (256K, 2 Drives) SCall 

Portable PC-22 (256K r MS-DOS 2.0) .... SCall 

Portable PC-XT (256K, 10 MB Disk) SCall 

FUJITSU MICRO 16s (8066/Z80A) .... $1995 
NEC 

PC-8201A (w/ 16K RAM) $479 

PC-8801A (Z80A, 64K, 2 Drives, 12" Monitor, 

WordStar, MailMerge, Multiplan, NBASIC) $1199 

PC-8801A W/8086, DOS $1499 

APC-H02 (8088, 128K, 2 8" Drives) .... $2649 

SANYO 

MBC 550-2 (8088, 128K, 1 DSDD Drive (320K), 

WordStar, CalcStar, EasyWriter) SCall 

MBC 555-2 (550-2 Plus 1 Add. Drive, 

Mailmerge, Spellstar & Infostar) SCall 

SEEQUA Chameleon/Plus (8068, Z80) . . . SCall 
SWP Micro Computer Products 
Co-Power-88 Board (8088 w/ 256K, 1 MB) 

For KAYPRO 2, 4, 10 & MORROW SCall 

** Lotus Patch Now Available ** 

TAVA IBM Look -Alike (128K, 2 Drives) . . . SCall 

TELEVIDEO 

1605 (8088, 128K, 2 Drives, DOS 2.0) .... SCall 

TPC-II (Portable Version of Above) SCall 

Personal Mini (Multi-User System) SCall 



FOR IBM -PC & COMPAQ 



AST RESEARCH INC. 

MEGA PLUS II (64K, Ser & Cik) $285 

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QUAOCOLOR I (Video Board) $199 

QUADLINK (6502 w/ 64K) $479 

AMDEK MAI Board (12BK. 640 x 400) . . . $389 

CCS Supervision (132 Column) $489 

HERCULES Graphics Board (72Q x 364) . . $338 

Color Card (RGB, Composite, Parallel) . . . $169 

INTEL 8087 Math Co-Processor $249 

KEYTRONIC Deluxe IBM Keyboard (5151). . $209 
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DT-114 Digitizer (4-Button Cursor) $779 

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ANCHOR 

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Smartmodem 300/1200 S219/S509 

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DIGITAL RESEARCH CP/M Gold Card w/ 64K $349 

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Apple Cat II (300 Baud) $225 

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103/212 Smart Cat {1200 Baud) $399 

ORANGE MICRO Grapples . $109 

Buffered Grappler* (16K) $169 

PCPI Applicard 6 MHZ $249 

RANA Elite ll/lll $349/3429 

TRANSEND ASIO $125 

Modemcardw/ Source $239 



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Maxell $23 Verbatim $23 

DOUBLE-SIDED DISKETTES 

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Maxell $32 Verbatim $31 



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OUADRAM Microfazer 

Parallel/ Parallel 

16K. . $139 64K . $185 128K . $239 

Serial/Serial, Serial/Part, Parl/Serial 

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NETWORX Wire Tree/Wire Tree Plus . $59/$75 
ULTIMA SF-600 $39 

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Circle 93 on inquiry card. 





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THE 80286 



tion of errors in other tasks or pro- 
grams once the system is installed. 
Protection in the 80286 has three 
basic aspects: data-type checking, sys- 
tem software isolation, and task isola- 
tion. 

Data-Type Checking 

The foundation of the 80286 protec- 
tion mechanism is the segment, the 
smallest region of memory that has 
unique protection attributes. Modular 
programming automatically produces 
separate segments whose contents 
reflect the natural construction of a 
program, e.g., code for module A, 
data for module A, stack for the task, 
etc. The 80286 was designed to op- 
timally execute code for software 
composed of independent modules. 
The attributes of each segment are 
contained in the memory-resident de- 
scriptors I discussed earlier. During 
address translation, the 80286 protec- 
tion mechanism compares the seg- 
ment's attributes against the opera- 
tion requested. Thus, with no software 
intervention, it is possible to guard 



against executing data or writing into 
a write-protected area. All checks are 
made for each instruction the CPU ex- 
ecutes and take one-half of a pro- 
cessor clock cycle. Since the checks 
are performed concurrently with ad- 
dress formation, there is no perfor- 
mance penalty. 

The hardware performs several 
checks while loading a segment reg- 
ister. These checks enforce the protec- 
tion rules before any memory refer- 
ence is generated. The hardware 
verifies that the selected segment is 
valid (is in memory and is accessible 
from the privilege level in which the 
program is executing) and that the 
type is consistent with the target 
usage (code, data, stack). For exam- 
ple a code segment or read-only data 
segment cannot be written. 

All these checks are made before 
the memory cycle starts; any violation 
prevents that cycle from starting and 
causes an exception to occur. This 
prevents the machine state from be- 
ing partially changed due to an excep- 
tion detected halfway through an 




TASK 

ISOLATION 
PROVIDED BY 

SEPARATE 

DESCRIPTOR 

TABLES 



PRIVILEGE LEVEL 
ISOLATION 



Figure 4: The four-ring protection model showing tasking. 



236 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



THE 80286 



Four privilege 
levels provide the 
isolation necessary. 

operation and streamlines exception 
handlers. 

Isolating System Software 

The 80286 provides a four-level ring- 
type protection mechanism to isolate 
application software from various 
layers of system software (figure 4). 
Software modules at the operating- 
system level are protected from 
modules in the application level. 
Within the OS, the kernel can be 
isolated from the more dynamic oper- 
ating extensions such as device 
drivers, standard libraries, and other 
services. This is especially important 
in an environment that supports 
multiple, concurrent instruction 
streams. 

The four privilege levels provide the 
isolation necessary for the system's 
various layers. Privilege on the 80286 
is hierarchical with the levels num- 
bered from to 3, where is the most 
trusted level and 3 the least. Programs 
at a given privilege level can access 
data and code at the same or a nu- 
merically higher privilege level. 

The 80286 controls access in the 
opposite direction through a mecha- 
nism called a gate. A gate is a 48-bit 
data type residing in a user's descrip- 
tor table that points to (contains the 
address of) the procedures in a more 
privileged ring accessible to the call- 
ing procedure. The referencing proce- 
dure uses a standard CALL instruction 
with the operand containing the gate's 
address. The 80286 recognizes that a 
level transition is in progress and per- 
forms the necessary access checks 
automatically. If the checks are 
passed, access is allowed to the target 
procedure (figure 5). 

The gate for a more privileged pro- 
cedure must reside at the calling pro- 
cedure's privilege level. If the privilege 
levels do not agree, the processor will 
fault the operation. It is impossible for 
a procedure to access a procedure at 

{continued) 



WAREHOUSE 



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PRODUCTS 



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FOR PC DOS 

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Prokey V3.0 .$79 

Harvard Project Manager $225 

Microsoft Flight Simulator. $32 

HARDWARE 

Hayes 1200 Modem $485 

Hayes 1200b Modem for IBM PC . . $415 
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Anchor Signalman 1200 baud Modem $240 

CDC 360K Disk Drives $199 

1/2 Height Panasonic Drives D/S D/D $165 
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NOVEMBER 1984 -BYTE 237 



Circle 52 on inquiry card. 




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THE 80286 



another level unless it has access to 
the gate. It is also impossible for a 
user to manufacture a gate or manip- 
ulate its descriptor table. Operations 
on descriptor table contents are al- 
lowed only at level 0. 

The multiringed mechanism of the 
80286 has simplified the view that ap- 
plication programs have of the oper- 
ating system. Each request for system 
resources passes directly to the OS 
via the gate structure. The application 
has access to the OS through as many 
different paths (gates) as the system 
designer allows. Since no operating 
system intervention is necessary to 
pass into a "supervisor" state the 
80286 also provides a performance 
enhancement over the software- 
based user/supervisor approach. 

The most important aspect of the 
ring model and gate mechanism is 
that it is transparent to the applica- 
tion programmer. For the user, a 
CALL instruction acts as if a system 
service were locally defined. 

Four Privilege Levels 

Four privilege levels allow the devel- 
opment of more reliable, flexible sys- 
tem software. For example, an oper- 
ating system is normally composed of 
two parts: a kernel and system ser- 
vices. The system kernel is responsi- 
ble for supporting key system-level 



mechanisms such as memory alloca- 
tion, task scheduling, and dispatching. 
The kernel represents the most static 
code in the system. The services por- 
tion supports more dynamic aspects 
such as file access scheduling, data 
communication, and device control. 
Normally, these two parts are phys- 
ically placed together in a supervisor 
space. A major problem arises when 
the operating system is updated with 
a new device driver or data commu- 
nication protocol. Changes com- 
promise overall system integrity. 

The 80286 lets an operating system 
be physically separated with con- 
trolled access, monitored by the hard- 
ware, between the two parts. The 
kernel could be placed at level 0, 
isolated and unaffected by any 
changes to the system services at 
level l. The kernel's integrity is main- 
tained and the kernel can be smaller 
due to the hardware assistance sup- 
plied for task and memory manage- 
ment. 

Privilege level 2 could contain the 
custom operating-system extensions. 
Such customizing can be kept isolated 
from errors in application programs 
and cannot affect the basic integrity 
of the system software. Examples of 
customized software are the database 
manager and logical file access 
services. 





PROGRAM 


\ 










v : 5 , a L £ 


OFFSET 


OS ENTRY 
POINT 








CALL 
GATE 


t 




1 

I 
I 

I 
I 

-■_ J — 




SELECTOR 












DESCRIPTOR 


^r— - , ^J^ 


.^BASE ADORES 


S 













Figure 5: 80286 operating system CALL model Because the offsets are taken 
only from the OS table, applications can only access elements at the prescribed 
point. 



238 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



Circle 37 on inquiry card. 



THE 80286 



Tasks are dynamic 
and execute one 
or more programs. 

This is just one example of protec- 
tion mechanism usage. The four pro- 
tection levels can be used in many dif- 
ferent ways or, in the case of some im- 
plementations, not at all. The usage 
(or nonusage) is up to the system 
designer. 

Task Isolation 

An important distinction exists be- 
tween tasks and programs. Programs 
(instruction in code segments) are 
static and consist of fixed sets of code 
and data, each with an associated 
privilege level. The privilege assigned 
to a program determines what the 
program may do when a task ex- 
ecutes it. Privilege is assigned to a 
program when the system is built or 
when the program is loaded. 

On the other hand, tasks are 
dynamic and execute one or more 
programs. T&sk privilege changes with 
time according to the privilege level 
of the program being executed. Each 
task has a unique set of attributes that 
define it, such as address space, 
register values, stack, and data. A task 
may execute a program if that pro- 
gram appears in the task's address 
space. 

Multitasking partitions a problem 
into separate instruction streams that 
the central processor executes in 
rapid succession. To an observer, the 
tasks appear to be operating in 
parallel. From a physical standpoint, 
multitasking provides an efficient way 
to share a scarce resource— the CPU; 
while one task is waiting for I/O (in- 
put/output), another task can be ex- 
ecuting. Logically multitasking affords 
a system designer a natural partition- 
ing of large problems into smaller, 
more manageable functions or the 
ability to support multiple users/tasks 
at one time 

An example of an implementation 
is a workstation on a network support- 
ing an advanced word processor. At 

{continued) 




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Phone credit card orders to (213) 306-7412 j/httHmm 



Circle 238 on inquiry card. 



NOVEMBER 1984 • BYTE 239 



THE 80286 



least one task would handle data 
shipped over the local-area network. 
At the same time, the word processor 
would be using multiple tasks to per- 
form user I/O, formatting, spelling 
checks, and disk access. 

The 80286 provides a high-per- 
formance task-switch operation with 
complete isolation between tasks. A 
full task-switch operation takes 21 
microseconds at 8 MHz. 

Performance and system design ad- 
vantages arise from the 80286 task 
switch. First, a task switch performed 
by hardware is faster. A task switch is 
a single instruction performed by 
hardware. Such a scheme is more 
than five times faster than an explicit 
task-switch code sequence. 

Second, a task switch performed by 
hardware creates more reliable, flexi- 
ble systems. The high-speed task 
switch lets interrupts be handled by 
separate tasks rather than within the 



currently interrupted task. This isola- 
tion of interrupt handling code from 
normal programs prevents undesir- 
able interactions. The interrupt system 
can be more flexible since adding an 
interrupt handler is as safe and easy 
as adding a new task. 

Third, every task is protected from 
all others via the separation of ad- 
dress spaces, unless explicit sharing 
is planned in advance. If the address 
spaces of two tasks include no shared 
data, one task cannot affect the data 
of another (figure 4). 

A data type called a task state seg- 
ment (TSS) defines tasks in the 80286. 
The definition of a task includes its ad- 
dress space and execution state. A 
task is invoked (made active) by inter- 
segment JMP or CALL instructions 
whose destination address refers to 
a TSS. Such TSS has a unique selec- 
tor value that provides an unambigu- 
ous identifier for each task. This lets 



an operating system manipulate tasks 
through a single pointer. 

A TSS contains 44 bytes that define 
the contents of all registers and flags, 
the initial stacks for privilege levels 
through 2, the LDT selector, and a link 
to the TSS of the previously executing 
task. The descriptor used for task 
state segments must be accessible at 
all times; therefore, it can appear only 
in the global descriptor table. 

A task switch can occur in one of 
four ways. The destination selector of 
a long JMP or CALL instruction can 
refer to a TSS descriptor. An IRET 
(return from interrupt) instruction can 
be executed when the NT (nested 
task) bit in the flag word is set. The 
destination selector of a long IMP or 
CALL instruction can refer to a task 
gate. Or an interrupt can occur whose 
vector refers to a task gate in the in- 
terrupt descriptor table. 

{continued) 



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408-734-8283 {Sales Manager) 
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IBM is a trademark of International Business Machines, Inc. PGS is a trademark of Princeton Graphic systems, Inc. 
* See our warranty policy for details. 



Ask your local dealer for a demo. 



240 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



Circle 354 on inquiry card. 




The no-compromise 
voice/data remote 
information station. 

Introducing the Freedom™ 212 
Remote Information Station. 

The only system anywhere today 
that combines all the advantages of 
remote ASCII terminal capabilities 
and the convenience of full telephone 
communications. With no 
compromise to either. 

The Freedom 212 is ideal for 
corporate computer or public database 
access, telecommuting, time-sharing 
or electronic mail. And for personal 
services like home banking and stock 
quotations. 

The 212's full size, economically 
designed 12-inch display and 
sculptured, low-profile keyboard 
combine to deliver uncompromised 
data input and output. 

Its integral Bell 212A compatible 
modem delivers uncompromised data 
communications. With a complete 
directory and dialing capability for 
both voice and data calls, you 
get uncompromised telephone 
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The Freedom 212's modem 
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or complicated special hook-ups 
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Freedom 212 and the Freedom 212 into 
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Another good thing is that you 
don't have to work at a snail's pace. 
Because you get 1200 baud. Standard. 
To minimize your wait for information. 

You also get a "HELP" mode for 
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With the Freedom 212 you get it 
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© 1984 Liberty Electronics. 
Circle 243 on inquiry card. 



THE 80286 



No new instructions are required for 
a task-switch operation. The standard 
8086/80286 IMP, CALL, IRET, or inter- 
rupt operations perform this function. 
The processor makes the distinction 
between the standard instruction and 
a task switch through the type of 
descriptor referenced. The choice of 
task-switching technique depends 



on the system designer. 

I want to consider the steps neces- 
sary for an operating system to dis- 
patch a task. 

Task Invocation 

After the operating system makes the 
policy decisions as to which task is to 
run, the task is dispatched with a stan- 




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dard IMP instruction whose effective 
address is a task gate. From this point 
on, hardware handles the task switch. 

The CPU checks the task gate 
against the protection rules. If the re- 
quest is valid, access to the TSS is 
allowed. Once access to the TSS has 
been granted, the task-switch opera- 
tion involves six steps in the CPU that 
were formerly required of the oper- 
ating system. The processor then ap- 
plies data access privilege rules and 
the current task becomes the out- 
going task. If the new task is present 
(in memory), the new task becomes 
the incoming task. 

Then the state of the outgoing task 
is saved by the processor. The 
dynamic portion of the outgoing TSS 
is written with the corresponding CPU 
register values (e.g., AX, BX. CX, DX, 
SI, DI, BP, SP, ES, DS, SS, CS. IP, and 
flag register). The IP (instruction 
pointer) value points at the instruction 
following the one that caused the task 
switch. All errors up to this point are 
handled in the context of the outgo- 
ing task. The errors are restartable 
and error handling is transparent to 
the application program. (A restart- 
able error occurs when an executable 
line of code cannot be executed at 
this time. For example, a virtual 
memory fetch to disk might not have 
the data available when the line of 
code requires it.) The task register is 
then loaded with the incoming task 
selector, and the incoming task's 
descriptor is marked "busy." Finally, 
the incoming task state is loaded and 
execution resumes. The following 
registers are loaded: LOT. AX, BX, CX, 
DX, SI, DI. BP, SP, ES, DS, SS, CS, IP, 
and flag register. Any errors detected 
in this step are handled in the context 
of the incoming task. The operat- 
ing-system software is not involved 
with the task-switch mechanism, but 
is only concerned with identifying 
which task runs next. 

Note that the state of the outgoing 
task is always saved. If execution of 
that task is resumed, it will start the 
instruction that caused the task 
switch. The value of the registers will 
be the same as when the task 
stopped running. ■ 

* — Circle 406 on inquiry card. 




Meet 

promal: 

The First Fast 

Structured 

Language 

That Lets You 

Program The 

Way You 

Always 

Wanted To. 

And For 

Only $49.95. 



A New Age Dawns for 
Microcomputer Programming 



PROMAL™ is innovative. 

PROMAL (PROgrammer's Micro 
Application Language) was 
designed to achieve maximum 
performance from small comput- 
ers-performance previously 
impossible except with machine 
language. And it was developed, 
specifically to meet the need for 
a development system for limited 
memory environments. 
PROMAL is complete. 
It's a fast, structured programming 
language. It's also a true develop- 
ment system, complete with its 
own command-oriented 
operating system executive; fast 
one-pass compiler; and full- 
screen cursor-driven editor. In 
short, PROMAL is the complete 
set of tools that microcomputer 
programmers have been 
waiting for. 
PROMAL is fast. 



with saves to memory and com- 
pilation from memory workspace 
PROMAL is elegant. 

PROAAAL overcomes the perfor- 
mance limitations inherent in all 
small systems. It gives you access 
to the power of the machi ne. But 
it doesn't require the complexity 
of machine language program- 
ming. With PROMAL, you can 
have performance the easy way... 
since it was developed from the 
very beginning to work on small 
systems...elegantly 
PROMAL may be the answer 
to your programming needs. 
Finally there's an answer to the 
need for a complete environ- 
ment for simple and rapid 
program development. Finally, a 
new age has begun for micro- 
computer programmers. Finally 
there's PROMAL. 



Commodore 64 Benchmark y^^/Cc /$* / 

(Sieve of Eratosthenes) rfdrX^S<^/<£ 


w 


Execution Time (sees.) 


30 


630 


490 


51 


55 




Object Code Size (fciytes) 


128 


255 


329 


181 


415 




Program Load Time (sees.) 


m 


3.8 


: . 63 '■■ 


11.2 


235 




Compile Time (sees.) 


85 


■■■■■■_ : 


; : ;_»- ' 


3.9 


108 





As the benchmark results in the 
table show, PROMAL is much 
faster than any language tested. 
From 70% to 2000% faster! And 
it generates the most com pact 
object code. The PROMAL 
compiler is so fast that it can 
com pi le a 1 00-I i ne source 
program in 10 seconds or less. 
And, not only is it fast in compile 
and run time, it also reduces 
programming development time. 

PROMAL is easy. 

It's easier to learn than Pascal or C 
or FORTH. It makes use of power- 
ful structured statements, like IF- 
ELSE, WHILE, REPEAT, FOR, and 
CHOOSE. Indentation of state- 
ments is part of the language's 
syntax, so all programs are neatly 
and logically written. There are no 
line numbers to com plicate your 
programming. And comments 
don't take up memory space, so 
you can document programs 
completely And with the full- 
screen editor, you can speed 
through program development 



PROMAL is available for the 
Commodore 64 now. 

PROMAL is scheduled for 
release on the Apple lie in 
December, 1984 and on the 
IBM PC in 1st Quarter, 1985. 



PROMAL FEATURES 

COMPILED LANGUAGE 

Structured procedural language 
with indentation 

Fast, 1-pass compiler 

Simplified syntax requirements 

No line numbering required 

Long variable names 

Global, Local, & Arg variables 

Byte, Word, Integer & Real types 

Dec or Hex number types 

Functions w/ passed arguments 

Procedures w/ passed arguments 

Built in I/O library 

/Vrays, strings, pointers 

Control Statements: IF-ELSE, IF, WHILE, 
FOR, CHOOSE, BREAK, REPEAT, 
INCLUDE, NEXT, ESCAPE, REFUGE 

Com pi ler I/O from/to disk or memory 

EXECUTIVE 

Command oriented, w/line editing 

Memory resident 

Allows multiple user programs In 
memory at once 

Function key definitions 

Program abort and pause 

22 Resident system commands, 
8 user-defined resident commands, 
no limit on disk commands 

Prior command recall 

I/O Re-direction to disk or printer 

Batch jobs 

EDITOR 

Full-screen, cursor driven 

Function key controlled 

Line insert, delete, search 

String search and replace 

Block copy, move, delete & write to/ 

read from file 
Auto indent, undent support 

LIBRARY 

43 Machine-language commands 
Memory resident 
Cal I by name with arguments 
I/O, Edit, String, Cursor control 
and much more 

PROMAL runs on 

Commodore 64s with disk drive. 



HOW TO ORDER 

□ Please send me my copy of PROMAL for the Commodore 64 at $4995 plus $5.00 for 
shipping and handling at a total cost of $54.95. Satisfaction guaranteed. 

□ Please send me a PROMAL demo diskette for the Commodore 64 at $10 for the diskette 
plus $2.50 for postage and handling for a total cost of $12.50. ( Non-refundable. ) 

□ My check is enclosed. □ Please charge my purchase to my... □ Visa D MasterCard 



Card Number 



Expiration Date 



Signature 



Address 



Oty, State, Zip ""'" ' North Garolina residents add 4V%% sales tax. 
For quicker response on credit card orders, call... 
Toll Free 1-800-762-7874 (in North Carolina 919-787-7703) 
Our Guarantee 



ty your copy of PROMAL for 15 days. If you are not completer/ satisfied, return it to us 
undamaged and we'll refund your money. No questions asked. Dealer inquiries invited. 



OTMfMr 



Circle 388 on inquiry card. 



SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATES 

3700 Computer Drive, Dept PB-1 
Raleigh, North Carolina 27609 

NOVEMBER 1984 •BYTE 243 



FOR 15 YEARS, 









'S 









Introducing the Maxwell Modem™ from 
Racal-Vadic. 

It's not your fault you didn't buy one 
sooner. You couldn't. Unless you happen- 
ed to be a major corporation. They're 
the ones who buy the most modems. And 
the modems they buy most are ours. 

Now we've taken everything we 
know about modems and made one you 
can buy. 

The Maxwell Modem. 

It's designed expressly for personal 
computers. And the people who use them. 
It's rugged. Reliable. And it even operates 
over low-quality phone lines that other 
modems can't handle. 

But best of all, it's uncomplicated. So 
you don't have to know how one works 
to work one. There's no control panel to 
control. No switches to switch. 



A\W*& 



The Maxwell Modem and George are trademarks of Racai-Vadlc. IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corp. ©1984, Racaf-Vadic. 
244 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



Instead, every feature makes sense. 
Auto-dialing. Auto-answer. And complete 
unattended operation. 

Our communications software is just 
as accommodating. It's called George." 
And we've made George so simple to use 
you may never have to open your manual. 

The Maxwell Modem comes in two 
different versions and two different speeds: 
Internal modems for the IBM PC and com- 
patibles, and desktop models for virtually 
every personal computer. Both are avail- 
able with speeds of 300- or 1200-bps. 



And every Maxwell Modem has diag- 
nostic features built in. So we can test your 
modem right over the phone from our 
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for the call. 

So where can you get your hands on 
a Maxwell Modem? To find our dealer near- 
est you, just do what modems do. 

Call 800-4-VADICS. 

Racal-Vadic, 1525 McCarthy Blvd., 
Milpitas, CA 95035. 




NOVEMBER 1984 • B Y T E 245 



THINKING FORTH 

by Brodie $16 



THE FORTH SOURCE 



TM 



MVP-FORTH 

Stable - Transportable - Public Domain - Tools 
You need two primary features in a software development package , a 
stable operating system and the ability to move programs easily and 
quickly to a variety of computers. MVP-FORTH gives you both these 
features and many extras. This public domain product includes an editor, 
FORTH assembler, tools, utilities and the vocabulary for the best selling 
book "Starting FORTH". The Programmer's Kit provides a complete 
FORTH for a number of computers. Other MVP-FORTH products will 
simplify the development of your applications. 
MVP Books - A Series 

D Volume 1, All about FORTH by Haydon. MVP-FORTH 

glossary with cross references to fig-FORTH, Starting FORTH 
and FORTH-79 Standard. 2 nd Ed. $25 

□ Volume 2, MVP-FORTH Assembly Source Code. Includes 
CP/M® , IBM-PC® , and APPLE® listing for kernel $20 

□ Volume 3, Floating Point Glossary by Springer $1 
D Volume 4, Expert System with source code by Park $25 

□ Volume 5, File Management System with interrupt security by 
Moreton $25 

MVP-FORTH Software - A Transportable FORTH 

□ MVP-FORTH Programmer's Kit including disk, documen- 
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□ IBM PC, □ MS-DOS, □ Osborne, □ Kaypro, □ H89/Z89, 

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a D Compupro, □ Cromenco, □ DEC Rainbow, D NEC 8201, 
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FORTH DISKS 

FORTH with editor, assembler, and manual. ^ 

ijliGl APPLE by MM, 83 $100 □ Z80 by LM, 83 # ^ $100 

* D ATARI® valFORTH $60 □ 8086/88 by LM, 83 $100 
jta CP/M by MM, 83 $1 00 □ 68000 by LM, 83 & $250 

* □ HP-85 by Lange $90 D VIC FORTH by HES, 
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^□.BM-PC byLM,83 $100 R #^»™** 



□ NOVA by CCI 8" 



$175 



$40 
□ Timex by HW $25 

Enhanced FORTH with: F-Floating Point, G-Graphics, T-Tutorial, 
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W F, G, & 83 $1 80 □ Extensions for LM Specify 

□ ATARI by PNS, F.G. & X $90 IBM, Z80, or 8086 
^D CP/M by MM. F & 83 $1 40 D Software Floating 

* □ Multi-Tasking FORTH n ^ 7Qlinnnr( $1 °° 

bySL,OP/M,X & 79 $395 U g$5Sm S100 

□ TRS-80/1 or III by MMS q 951 1 Support 

F, X, &79 $130 (Z80or8086) $100 

□ Tlmex by FD, tape G,X, D Color Graphics 

&79 $45 (IBM-PC) $100 

jgf* □ C64 by ParSec. MVP, F, □ Data Base 

79 , G & X $96 Management $200 

D Victor 9000 by DE.G.X $150 

□ fig-FORTH Programming Aids for decompiling, callfinding, 
debugging and translating. CP/M, IBM-PC, Z80 

or Apple. $200 

FORTH MANUALS, GUIDES & DOCUMENTS 

□ ALL ABOUT FORTH by □ 1980 FORML Proc. $25 

Haydon. See above. $25 □ 1981 FORML Proc 2 Vol $40 

□ FORTH Encyclopedia by □ 1982 FORML Proc. $25 
Derick & Baker $25 n 1981 Rochester FORTH 

^ □ The Complete FORTH by Proc. $25 

^ Winfield $16 P 1 982 Rochester FORTH 

□ Understanding FORTH by Pnc - ^„™ S25 

Reymann $3 LJ 1983 Rochester FORTH 

UF ^^^^ ]M ' $16 DA tonography of FORTH ' 

Vol. I by McCabe $16 Refe rences, 1st Ed. $15 

□ FORTH Fundamentals, The Journa | of F0RTH 
Vol. II by McCabe $13 Application & Research 

^ □ FORTH Tools, Vol.1 by a Vol. 1 , No. 1 $15 

Anderson & Tracy $20 g vol. 1, No. 2 $15 

□ Beginning FORTH by g METAFORTH by 

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° f^ESE*** t7 □ Threaded Interpretive 
Pocket Guide $7 LanfluaflW $ 23 

□ And So FORTH by Huang. A m ~ * , 

college level text. $25 □ Systems Guide to fig- 

D FORTH Programming by „ f0 *™ ^„ u J? 

Scanlon $17° Invitation to FORTH $20 

□ FORTH on the ATARI by E. ° PDP-11 User Man. $20 
Floegel $8 □ FORTH-83 Standard $15 

□ Starting FORTH by Brodie. □ FORTH-79 Standard $15 
Best instructional manual q FORTH-79 Standard 
available, (soft cover) $1 8 Conversion $1 

□ Starting FORTH (hard Q Tiny Pascal fig-FORTH $10 

« S2J22 . r « i* $23 a N0VA 'Ig-FORTH by CCI 

D 68000 fig-Forth with Source Listing $25 

D SSSTScE Manual by ° ^VA by CCI User's 

Vickers $15 Manual $25 

D Installation Manual for fig-FORTH, $1 5 

Source Listings of fig-FORTH, for specific CPU's and computers. 

The Installation Manual is required for implementation . Each $1 5 

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MOUNTAIN VIEW PRESS, INC. 



PO BOX 4656 



MOUNTAIN VIEW, CA 94040 



(415)961-4103 



*••♦ 



246 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1 984 



Circle 292 on Inquiry card. 



NEW CHIPS 



THE 
PF474 



by Steve Rosenthal 



A coprocessor 
for string comparison 



FINDING THE CLOSEST match for a 
string of symbols is important in data- 
base searches, speech recognition, ar- 
tificial intelligence, and computer vi- 
sion. Yet, even with the fastest 16- and 
32-bit processor chips, computing a 
closest-match function is relatively 
slow and complex. However, there is 
no reason why this operation must be 
left entirely to the central processing 
unit. Just as a numeric coprocessor 
can greatly accelerate complex calcu- 
lations, a string-search chip can make 
fast work of finding the closest string 
value. 

Proximity Technology Inc. makes 
the PF474, a VLSI (very-large-scale 
integration) string comparator and 
ranker, which is the first chip of this 
type to become generally available. 
This chip is available in single quan- 
tities for $2 50. Running at up to 
several thousand string comparisons 
per second, this chip compiles a 
ranked list of the 16 best matches for 
a test string from a selection of pos- 
sible candidates. 

The rankings, as I'll explain at length 
later, are based strictly on a mathe- 
matical function of symbol counts. 
This means the chip can be used for 
much more than checking English 



text. The PF474 will rank any informa- 
tion that can be expressed in strings 
of 8-bit characters up to 127 bytes 
long. 

On the negative side, however, the 
PF474 is only a symbol comparator, 
not a linguistic processor. Each sym- 
bol is treated as entirely uncon- 
strained by the preceding and follow- 
ing symbols, a situation quite unlike 
the workings of English and all other 
natural languages. (See the text box 
"Different Conceptions of Order" on 
page 248 for more information.) As a 
result, unless supplemented by com- 
plex processing done by the host, in 
some circumstances the PF474 can 
produce closeness rankings of words 
and phrases that are far different than 
most native speakers would produce. 

The PF474 is logically composed of 
two semi-independent subsections: a 
proximity (closeness) computer and a 
ranker (see figure 1). Additional sup- 
porting circuits include a DMA (direct, 

Steve Rosenthal (POB 9291, Berkeley, CA 
94709) is a writer and lexicographer. He 
writes seven regular columns for computer 
publications and is working on two computer- 
related dictionaries to be published by Prentice- 
Hall 



memory access) controller to rapidly 
load the strings, parameter storage for 
saving selected characteristics for 
each symbol, and a number of con- 
trol and status registers. 

The proximity computer finds the 
closeness of two strings and com- 
putes a 32-bit fraction that expresses 
their closeness. A value of all zeros 
indicates two entirely different strings, 
all ones indicate two identical strings. 
In between, higher values indicate 
closer matches. 

The algorithm used to compute 
closeness is basically a counting func- 
tion. (See the text box "PF474 Math 
Deciphered" on page 2 52 for the ac- 
tual formulas.) Searching forward, the 
chip counts the number of matched 
symbols in the strings, considering in 
sequence the first symbol of each, 
then the first two, then the first three, 
etc. The chip then does the same 
computation going backward from 
the end of the strings. 

Although conceptually simple, this 
method accords with many of our in- 
tuitive measures of closeness. Trans- 
positions (where two letters are in 
reversed order) detract less from the 
proximity value than omissions. 

{continued) 



NOVEMBER 1984 • BYTE 247 



THE PF474 



Single-letter deletions or additions do 
not completely negate matches in let- 
ters that follow. Matches at the begin- 
ning and end are more significant 
than those in the middle. 

The basic algorithm is fixed in 
silicon, but you can customize the 
operation of the proximity-matching 
function by choosing the appropriate 
value for the three parameters 
(weight, compensation, and bias) that 
you must supply for each of the 2 56 
possible 8-bit symbols. 

The weight (a number from to 7) 
specifies the relative importance of 
the symbol during the matching pro- 
cess. A match of a symbol with weight 
does not count toward the proximi- 
ty value, while a match of a symbol 
with weight 6 counts three times as 
much as one with weight 2. 



The compensation only enters into 
the result for symbols that are not 
matched. This parameter also ranges 
from to 7. A high compensation 
value lessens the effect of a symbol 
that occurs in only one of the two 
strings. Compensation is a sort of 
"consolation prize" that the strings get 
for having those symbols individual- 
ly even though the symbols don't 
match between the strings. 

The last symbol parameter, the bias, 
alters the relative importance of find- 
ing a match during a forward-compar- 
ison or a reverse-comparison scan. If 
the bias is 0, each direction is equally 
important. The bias is added to the 
weight during the reverse compari- 
son, so a positive bias increases the 
importance of a reverse match, a 
negative bias decreases it. The bias 



Different Conceptions 
of Order 



Determining how similar two strings 
of symbols are to each other in- 
volves philosophical as well as practical 
questions. A brief diversion into types 
of ordering seems appropriate here. 

Mathematicians and metrologists 
(measurements specialists} generally 
group measurements into four different 
categories: nominal, ordinal, integral, 
and ratio. 

With nominal measurements values 
can be classified, but you can't specify 
a mathematical relationship about the 
relations between classes. For example, 
you might divide computer programs 
into those written in BASIC, COBOL, 
Pascal, and C. 

Ordinal measurements have a se- 
quence but no specified magnitude. For 
example, you might argue that you could 
rank three popular operating systems for 
user friendliness, with UNIX being the 
least user friendly, CP/M being the next 
to least, and MS-DOS being the most. 
But we would not have any mathematical 
way of expressing how different CP/M is 
from UNIX, or whether that was more 
or less than the difference between CP/M 
and MS-DOS. 

Integral measures let you make that 
judgment. In an integral scale, you can 



specify both direction (sequence) and 
distance between items, but you don't 
necessarily know what the true zero 
point is on the scale. For example, you 
can measure the increase in the in- 
cidence of cancer due to radiation ex- 
posure, but you won't have a good fix 
on what the baseline value would be 
with no exposure at all (including natural 
exposure). 

Ratio measurements are the most 
specific. A ratio measurement lets you 
specify both amount and proportion. For 
example, you can say that one computer 
has 128K bytes of memory, which is 
twice as much memory as another 
machine has. 

The question is: what kind of measure 
can you hope to apply to symbol strings? 
If you're comparing the closeness of 
characters, are you going to say that 
vowels are closer to each other than con- 
sonants? Are Ks more like Cs than Os? 
One difference between the way people 
operate and the way the PF474 does is 
that people can make those judgments 
(often unconsciously). The PF474, how- 
ever, treats all symbols as equally distant, 
or as integral measurements located in 
a 2 56-dimensional space with a 1-unit 
separation between any two members. 



for each character can be set to -2, 
-1, 1, or 2. 

In theory, you could use just the 
proximity section of the chip because 
it is possible to read out from the chip 
the proximity value obtained during 
each comparison. Similarly, you could 
compute the proximity indexes for 
pairs of independent strings rather 
than comparing one constant string to 
a series of possible matches. How- 
ever, in most applications you'll want 
to use the proximity section to com- 
pute an index for the closeness of a 
number of strings to a single refer- 
ence string and then send the result- 
ing values to the ranker to find out 
which ones are the closest. 

TVie Ranker 

After the proximity section has 
evaluated the closeness of two strings, 
it passes the value on to the PF474's 
ranker section. The ranker tests the 
new value against its current 16 best 
values and throws the result away if 
the new value is less than any of the 
16. 

If the new value does rank more 
highly, the ranker section adjusts the 
list by eliminating the bottom value 
and inserting the new one in the ap- 
propriate position. Along with each 
proximity value, the ranker stores a 
32-bit record number showing which 
proximity comparison produced that 
value. Note that the PF474 does not 
store the 16 best strings themselves 
but saves the pointer values instead. 

If you want a list of more than the 
16 best matches, you can set the 
ranker to next-best mode. During next- 
best mode, the ranker saves the 15 
proximity values (and their pointers) 
that are less than or equal to the prox- 
imity value in the highest ranking slot. 
If you make the highest ranking slot 
equal to the lowest value from a first 
normal ranking and do a next-best 
match, you will extend your rank to 
the top 31 values. 

The proximity computer section 
and the ranker operate independent- 
ly, but in a pipelined arrangement. 
That means that while the ranker is 
figuring out where a new proximity 

{continued) 



248 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 






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THE PF474 



value fits it, the proximity section can 
be busy loading another string and 
computing a new closeness value. 

ThE DMA 

With string comparison and ranking 
working at speeds of thousands of 
strings per second, the PF474 has a 
voracious appetite for input data. To 
speed up the transfer process, the 
chip includes its own DMA controller 
to regulate the flow of data from 
memory to chip. 

In DMA mode, the main processor 
writes the required control words to 
set up the PF.474, plus a starting ad- 
dress for data transfer. The main 
processor then halts, relinquishing 
control of the bus to the PF474. 

When the PF474's DMA section re- 
ceives both bytes of the starting ad- 
dress, it takes control of the bus, step- 
ping through 16-bit addresses and 
reading data from memory into the 
chip. The PF474 continues reading 
data until it finds a 00 byte or reaches 
the maximum 127 characters. 



For systems that don't provide for 
DMA control, or where the data to be 
compared doesn't exist in memory 
but is computed during processing, 
the PF474 can also accept data in 
non-DMA mode. With a little bit of ex- 
ternal logic, such as on Proximity's PF- 
PC board for the IBM PC, the PF474 
can also accept data from an existing 
system DMA controller. 

DMA loading on the PF474 pro- 
vides one other capability. Prior to a 
DMA transfer, the PF474 can be set 
to use the upper 128 of the 2 56 pos- 
sible I -byte symbol codes as special 
editing symbols. According to the set- 
tings loaded from the host into the 
PF474's command registers, the DMA 
transfer will then drop all of certain 
specified special symbols or sequen- 
tial duplicates, or add codes to em- 
phasize transitions from one symbol 
to another. 

Using the Chip 

Producing a ranking with the PF474 
requires four steps: initial parameter 



loading, search initialization, a trans- 
fer operation, and a final reading of 
the results. 

The first initialization step sets 
values that are indeterminate when 
the PF474 is powered up but must be 
specified before the chip is used. The 
main task here is to set initial values 
for the symbol parameters. For ranker 
control, the size of the comparison list 
must be set to 16 or some smaller 
value (using smaller values slightly 
speeds processing when 16 closest 
matches aren't required). The ranker 
must also be set to start with the nor- 
mal, rather than the next-best mode, 
so it will find the 16 highest proxim- 
ity values. 

For each search, the reference string 
must be loaded into the proximity 
portion of the PF474, normally into 
slot A (the two comparison slots are 
symmetric, but the software and ex- 
amples that Proximity Technology 
provides assume this arrangement). 
To get the ranker section ready, the 

[continued) 



CVCl 
























bib i cm 
BUS 




PARAMETER 
TABLES 






■ 


















V 






SLOT A 




PROXIMITY 
COMPUTER 


















DMA 
CONTROLLER 


*1 






* 






SLOT B 








1 










CONTROL 


1 
1 












1 * 








1 
1 










BUS 
INTERFACE 






1 _, ' 














▼ i 


r 








*™« ED | RANKED 

































Figure 1: A block diagram of the Proximity Devices PF474 string-proximity computer chip. 



250 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 




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THE PF474 



PF474 Math Deciphered 



I've translated the algorithm used to 
compute the proximity (string close- 
ness value) in the PF474. First I'll present 
the formula Proximity Technology pre- 
sents in its manual then my translation. 

Wf{a) - W[a) 

Wr(a) - W(a) + B(a) 

where Wf is the forward weight, W is the weight 
function, Wr is the reverse weight. B is the bias 
function, and a is a symbol 

For each symbol, assign a weight value 
saying how important a match of this 
symbol is. When comparing forward 
matches, use this weight. When match- 
ing the strings going backward, however, 
use a reverse weight, composed of the 
sum of the forward weight and a factor 
called the bias. Because the bias varies 
from -2 to +1, it can increase or 
decrease the weight for the reverse scan 
compared to the forward scan. 

Qa) < - min{Wf{a).Wr(a)) for all a in A. 

where C is the compensation function, and A is 
the set of all symbols that a can be. 

Assign each symbol a compensation 
value, to be taken into account as a sort 
of consolation value if the symbol occurs 
in one string but not in the other. The 
compensation value for each symbol 
can't be larger than the forward weight 
or reverse weight for that symbol. 

MfiSTl = ESo X«ea 2 x Wf(a) x 
min (CNT(a,suf(S',n)), 
CNTia.sufiV.n))) 

where Mf(S,T) is the forward matching value of 
strings S and T, CNT is the number of occur- 
rences of a in suf(S',n) or a in suf(T',n): suf is 
the string obtained by removing the first n 
elements from S 1 or V. S' and V are the reversed 
original string and the searched string. 

The first item you have to compute is 
the forward matching value. Conceptual- 
ly this is the weighted sum of the 
number of symbols shared by both 
strings, considering just the first symbol 
of each string, then the first two, the first 
three, and so on through the complete 
length of the strings. 

Because of the way the chip works, it 
can handle parts of the string running 
from somewhere in the middle to the 
end better than from the beginning to 
the middle. So you turn the strings 
around (making S f and V from S and 7). 



Then look at the resulting string if you 
remove in turn none, one, two, three etc., 
characters, leaving the rest of the string 
from there to the end. That the order 
within the fragment is backward from 
normal doesn't matter, nor does it mat- 
ter that you're starting from the full string 
and working down rather than from a 
null string and working up. So the result 
of working with the string fragments 
counted from the end of the reversed 
string is the same as working on a por- 
tion of the string counting from the 
beginning. 

For each set of string subsets, look at 
each symbol (a) that belongs to the total 
symbol set {A) in turn. Count how many 
times the symbol appears in each string 
and take the minimum of the two counts, 
which is the same as checking how many 
times the symbol is shared by the two 
substrings. 

lake that minimum count for each sym- 
bol, multiply it by the forward weight 
(which is the symbol weight itself), and 
multiply the result by two. This gives you 
the weighted value of that particular 
symbol for that size string fragment. Sum 
the product for each symbol in turn for 
the current string fragment size. Then 
add together the sums for all the frag- 
ment sizes, giving us the matching value 
for the two strings. Note that the sym- 
bols at the start of the string (tested as 
the end of the reversed strings) are 
checked for match during each possible 
string fragment. Those that would be at 
the end of the string in their normal 
order are checked only once. Therefore, 
matches at the beginning have an im- 
plicitly greater weight, one that grows 
proportionately with the length of the 
strings being compared. 

Mr{ST) - LZo L*ea 2 x Wr(z) x 
min {CNT(a,suf{S,n)). 
CNT{a,suf{T,n))) 

where Mr(ST) is the reverse matching value of 
S and T. 

The reverse matching value works 
much like the forward match. This time, 
you don't have to turn the strings around 
to work from the back end. And this 
time, instead of using the forward weight 
as you count matches in each string frag- 
ment and multiplying by the weight, use 
the reverse weight (made up of the for- 
ward weight combined with the bias). 



COMP(XY] - ||X|+I| x Z aEA \C(a) x 
max {CNT(a,X)~ 
CNT{a,Y),0)] 

where COMP(XY) is the comparison compen- 
sation value for strings X and Y, and \X\ is the 
length of string X. 

For symbols that are not matched, you 
can also compute a comparison com- 
pensation value for the comparison of 
two strings. As shown below, you do this 
as two partial sums, one finding the com- 
parison compensation of X compared 
with Y and the other finding the com- 
pensation of Y compared to X. 

Compute each sum by looking at each 
symbol that belongs to the symbol set. 
For each symbol, count how many times 
it appears in the first string and subtract 
from that how many times it appears in 
the second. This gives you the number 
of times the symbol has appeared but 
not been matched. If it is a negative 
number, ignore the counts for now by 
using a instead of the counts. 

Then multiply the resulting count by 
the symbol compensation value for that 
symbol. Repeating this procedure for 
each symbol in the symbol set and sum- 
ming the results gives you a raw com- 
pensation value, which you then have to 
multiply by the length of the first string 
plus one (to make up for the fact that all 
the other values in the overall proximity 
function have the length factored in). 

The result of this process is the com- 
parison compensation value of the two 
strings. When you compute this function 
as the second string compared to the 
first, however, you may get a different 
value. The length of the strings may dif- 
fer or there may be a difference between 
the weighted value of how many sym- 
bols are in the first string but not in the 
second, and how many are in the second 
but not in the first. 

TOTM(X) = EZo Lm Wr(X\i\) + 

wftx'm) 

where TXJTM(X) is the self-similarity matching 
function on X. andX\i\ is the ith character in X. 
The last two elements in the proximity 
equation are the self-similarity scores of 
the two strings in the comparison (that 
is, each string's similarity with itself). You 
could compute this with the matching 
function, but since you know that each 
symbol in a string will also be matched 



252 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



THE PF474 



by that symbol in a comparison with 
itself, you can use this simpler formula. 
You can compute the forward and 
reverse self-similarity matching values at 
the same time. Again, reverse the string 
to compute the forward matching value 
and look at the values for a series of sub- 
strings starting from within the string and 
running to the end. Take in turn a series 
of substrings, starting with the first 
character through the last, then the sec- 
ond through the last, the third through 
the last, etc. For each substring, look at 
each symbol position in the substring. 
For each position, add the reverse sym- 
bol weight for the character you find in 
the string at that position plus the for- 
ward weight you find in the reversed 
string at that position (that's the same 
as adding the forward weights and the 
reverse weights for all symbols in the 
substring). Summing the weights for each 
substring gives you a total matching 
weight for the comparison of a string 
with itself. 

M(ST) = Mr(SJ] + Mf[S.T) + 

COMP(S,T) + COMPfST) 

where M(S,T) is the adjusted matching value for 
S and T. 

From all of the above equations, you're 
now ready to compute the adjusted 
matching value for these two strings. 
Add the reverse matching value of the 
strings plus the forward matching value, 
plus the compensation for first string 
compared to the second string, plus the 
compensation of second string com- 
pared to first. Since this is a sum of 
positive values, increasing any of these 
factors increases the resulting adjusted 
matching value. 

d(ST) - M(S,T) 
TOTM(S) + TOTM(T) 

Finally, the proximity value is equal to 
the adjusted matching value of the first 
string compared to the second, divided 
by the sum of the matching value of the 
first string with itself, plus the matching 
value of the second string with itself. Put 
another way the proximity value is the 
actual adjusted matching value com- 
pared to the maximum possible match- 
ing value. The result is a single unsigned 
number ranging from }6 through 
Ullllll l6 . 



[The following is reprinted from the PF474 manual Copyright 1984 by Proximity Technology 
Inc., 3511 NE 22nd Ave., Fort Lauderdale, FL 33308. Used with permission] 

An Intuitive Description of the Promixity Function 

The following is an intuitive method for manually calculating proximity values that 
is mathematically simple, yet completely accurate. For the first few examples, all 
characters have a weight of one, and bias and compensation are set to zero. 

The proximity value that appears in the ranker after a comparison of word A 
with Word B is the result of: 

2 x (A compared with B) 



PROXIMITY VALUE 



(A compared with A) + (B compared with S) 



The comparison of word A with word B is calculated as follows: 
Let word A be TOO and word B be TWO. 



Write the words above one another: 

Look at the first column: 

Comparing the letters in the first word, first 

column, and second word, first column: 

how many pairs of matching letters are there? 

Look at the first 2 columns: 

How many matching pairs are there? 
Look at all 3 columns: 

How many matching pairs are there? 
(there is only one pair of Os) 

Now look at the two words with the order of 
the letters in each word reversed: 

First column: 
First 2 columns: 
All 3 columns: 

Now, add up the matches found: 

This is the comparison value for TOO with 
TWO. 

Now, calculate the value for TOO with itself: 



First column: 
First two columns: 
All three columns: 

For the reverse words, the same results 
will be found: 1+2 + 3 = 6 
for a total of: 

Comparing TWO with itself also totals 12 
Proximity Value = 2x8 



T 
T 

T 
T 



O O 
W O 



matches 



T 
T W 






matches - 1 


TOO 
TWO 






matches ■» 2 




forward total = 4 


O T 

O W T 

* 


matches = 1 


* * 


matches - 1 


* * * 


matches = 2 
reverse total = 4 



total - 8 



TOO 
TOO 



matches * 1 
matches = 2 
matches « 3 

reverse total = 6 
total matches = 12 



12 + 12 



16 
24 



.666666666 



NOVEMBER 1984 • BYTE 253 



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THE PF474 



The first thing you 
notice about pBASE 
is how fast it searches. 

main processor must load all zeros 
into the ranker's list space. The ranker 
IRN (internal record number which is 
the pointer used to keep track of 
which comparison produced which 
proximity value) must also be set to 
an initial value, normally 0. If DMA will 
be used, the main processor must 
also load the PF474 with the correct 
DMA command word. 

Now the chip is ready to start 
searching. Each string to be com- 
pared is loaded into slot B in the prox- 
imity section either by using the main 
processor to write data into the PF474 
in programmed mode or by direct 
loading by DMA. In DMA mode, load- 
ing a complete string can automatical- 
ly start the proximity calculation. In 
programmed mode, the host must 
send a GO command to the PF474. 

When this process has been re- 
peated for all the match candidates 
in the data set, it's time to read out 
the results. Using the processor to 
read the ranker section like a section 
of memory, the program can find a 
ranked list of the top proximity values 
and pointers for those records. Using 
the pointers, the application program 
can then find the actual strings them- 
selves. 

The PF-PC Card and pBASE 

The PF474 manual gives you com- 
plete information about how to hook 
up the chip as a component and pro- 
gram its operation. But to make it 
easier to explore the workings of the 
chip without designing a whole circuit 
board around it, Proximity is also 
offering potential OEM (original 
equipment manufacturer) customers 
complete hardware implementations 
on IBM PC and Apple II cards ($1295 
and $695, respectively). I borrowed 
one of the PF-PC (IBM PC-style) cards 
for this article. 

The board comes with a manual 
(complete with schematic), program- 
ming information, and a 514-inch disk 



containing test programs, a monitor/ 
debug program, and a simple exam- 
ple database program (pBASE) with 
data files. 

Working with pBASE, the database 
program, is a good way to explore the 
strengths and weaknesses of the 
PF474 approach. Essentially the data- 
base loads a set of strings up to 67 
characters long from disk to memory 
and lets you search for any string 
using the PF474. The two sample data 
files Proximity supplies on the disk 
are a list of government officials by 
name, title, and phone, and a list of 
cities along with their state and area 
codes. 

The first thing you notice about 
pBASE is how fast it searches. As you 
type each letter of the search string, 
the PF474 searches for the best 16 
matches considering the information 
you've entered thus far. For a search 
of the 800 or so records in the data- 
base, the response is less than the in- 
terval between keystrokes. Then, as 
you provide the next letter, the pro- 
gram updates the list if necessary. 

For example, using the government 
database, if you start with the letter 
P, you'll get a list headed with PAT 
SCHROEDER, but when you add an 
E, the head item on the list becomes 
PETER RODINO. Further letters may 
result in additional changes in the list, 
until the effect of added letters 
becomes too small to affect the result. 

On the other hand, when you've 
only provided a small part of the ref- 
erence string, the rankings the chip 
makes are often quite different from 
the rankings you and I might make. 
For example, using the pBASE pro- 
gram on the sample file of govern- 
ment officials with the input string 
PAT, THOMAS P O'NEILL, JR. and 
THOMAS E. PETRI were both judged 
more similar than PETER H. 
KOSTMAYER. That's because the 
PF474 spots the A in THOMAS as a 
match for the A in PAT before it spots 
the A in KOSTMAYER. 

pBASE also lets you alter the 
weight, bias, and compensation for 
any or all of the ASCII (American Stan- 
dard Code for Information Inter- 

[continued] 



254 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 






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THE PF474 



change) codes. You can try, for exam- 
ple, to give greater weight to con- 
sonants than vowels, or vice versa. For 
matches closer to the ones people 
would make, you can emphasize the 
start of each string with a negative 
bias. 

When you've explored pBASE suf- 
ficiently to get a feel for the chip, you 
can move on to DEX, the "Diagnostic 
Executive." Besides checking the 
operating of the PF-PC board and 
PF474, this program allows you to set 
each register on the chip, load and 
change memory directly, and operate 
the chip at the single-byte level. 

Applications 

Proximity Technology claims that the 
potential applications for the PF474 
are vast, but it has not been out long 
enough to start showing up in any 
products you can examine. 
The earliest customers for Proxim- 



ity's string-search chip are reluctant to 
say anything about their application- 
military buyers were among the first 
to spot the potential of the chip. 
Other commercial users are similarly 
closemouthed; the companies are 
waiting until their products using the 
chip hit the market. However, I was 
able to learn that one of the larger 
computer companies has been one of 
Proximity's best customers for the 
evaluation units. 

Database searching is the most ob- 
vious direct use of the PF474. If multi- 
ple PF474s were used in parallel, it 
would be possible to search very 
large databases for a matching pat- 
tern quickly. Proximity points out that 
the speed and successive-approxima- 
tion nature of the matching process 
would let users get immediate feed- 
back on their search strategy, allow- 
ing the searchers to refine their 
strategy as they go. 



The PF474 should start appearing 
soon in dedicated spelling-checking 
systems or subsystems for word pro- 
cessors. Proximity is already a major 
OEM software supplier of these rou- 
tines, with its spelling-checker code 
used as an OEM product by several 
major software houses and computer 
companies. 

Speech recognition and robot vi- 
sion are two other areas targeted for 
the chip. Using the PF474 to search 
for template matches would speed 
processing and allow wider latitude, 
because the chip could more quickly 
look through larger sets of possible 
matches. 

As with all chips, however, the most 
imaginative uses often appear after 
the chip has been on the market a 
long time. And often it is the reader 
of an article like this, rather than the 
chip's designers, who ultimately shape 
the destiny of the product. ■ 



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Circle 1 80 on inquiry card. 



NOVEMBER 1984 -BYTE 257 



BYTE 



Reviews 



Reviewers Notebook 

by Rich Malloy 261 

The HP 150 Computer 

by Mark Haas 262 

The Columbia Multipersonal 
Computer-VP 

by Peter V. Callamaras 276 

Leading Edge and MultiMate 

by C J Puotinen 287 

polyFORTH and PC/FORTH 

by Ernie Tfciio 303 

Samna Word HI 

by Rubin Rabinovitz 319 

The Mannesmann Tally 
Spirit 80 Printer 

by Mark I. WelcA . . '. 335 

The Brother HR-1 5 
Letter-Quality Printer 

by Peter V. Callamaras 341 

Review Feedback 348 



IN JULY OF LAST YEAR we met with Columbia Data Products and learned 
about the VR its new IBM PC-compatible transportable computer. At that time 
we asked to borrow an evaluation unit for review in the magazine And we 
asked again. And we asked again. Finally, as frequently happens, one of our 
veteran reviewers— Peter Callamaras— bought one for personal use and agreed 
to review it. Halfway through the review, Columbia sent us one of our own 
for a month. This helped enormously with our benchmark tests and 
photographs. Was the Columbia Portable worth the wait? Pete answers this 
and many more questions in his review. 

Next we have the HP 1 50. More than a year ago, we published a product 
preview of a new computer from Hewlett-Packard. This 8088-based desktop 
machine with a revolutionary touch panel caused a bit of a stir. Now that the 
dust has settled, the initial bugs have been fixed, and some more useful soft- 
ware has become available it is time to ask what this machine can really do. 
We engaged one of our top reviewers, Mark Haas, to put this diminutive 
desktop through its paces. The results are pretty interesting. 

Of course all computers— even the two mentioned above— are useless with- 
out software. So next we look at two word-processor programs for the IBM 
PC: Leading Edge and MultiMate. One of them has been billed as the most 
powerful word-processing package ever for the IBM PC. The other is recom- 
mended by many top consultants. C I Puotinen, who has written two books 
on word processors, gives a detailed look at these word processors and com- 
pares them to that reliable standby— WordStar. If you are thinking about serious 
word processing on the IBM PC, this is a "must read" article. 

But wait— that's not all. Another relatively recent arrival on the IBM word- 
processor scene is Samna. In its fairly short time on the market, Samna has 
attracted a lot of attention. We recently received Samna Word III, the top-of- 
the-line version, which has some very advanced features. We gave this package 
to a veteran wordsmith, Rubin Rabinovitz. Later in this issue Rubin gives Samna 
Word III a detailed examination. 

For those more interested in writing programs than letters, we have a com- 
parison of two FORTH systems for the IBM PC: polyFORTH and PC/FORTH. 
Ernie Tfello compares these two packages and gives his recommendations. 

And whether you are writing programs, letters, or shopping lists— whether 
you are using an IBM, Apple II, or Kaypro— you need a printer to see what 
you've written. This month we offer a look at two printers: one an inexpen- 
sive dot-matrix machine and the other an inexpensive daisy-wheel model. First, 
the Mannesmann Tklly Spirit 80 is a low-cost printer that competes directly 
with the Epson RX-80. Mark Welch, our resident news writer, gives this machine 
a close look. Finally, the Brother HR-1 5 is a popular low-cost daisy-wheel printer 
that has a number of interesting options. In fact, one of the options is a key- 
board that turns the printer into a typewriter. For this product review, we again 
enlist the efforts of Pete Callamaras. Pete examines whether this printer can 
do what everyone claims it can, and how well. 

— Rich Malloy, Product-Revew Editor 



NOVEMBER 1984 • BYTE 259 



Now you can get personal 
^withaDal 




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260 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



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CALL TOLL FREE: 

1-800-222-4528 




REVIEWER'S NOTEBOOK 



WITH ALL THE ATTENTION being 
paid to the IBM Personal Computer 
(PC) AT another powerful machine 
may be overlooked: the Compaq 
DeskPro. This machine offers perfor- 
mance that is just a mite slower than 
the AT a 10-megabyte hard disk, and 
even a tape cartridge for safe backup 
of the hard-disk data. Also, unlike the 
AT it seems to be very compatible 
with the PC hardware and software. 
And at $7200 for a full configuration, 
it is quite competitive with the AT 

In our tests, we found the DeskPro 
to be just 2 5 percent slower than the 
AT (The IBM PC is, by comparison, 
1 50 percent slower than the AT.) As 
for compatibility the DeskPro seems 
to run rings around the AT. Every IBM 
PC software package we tested so far 
works, even Microsoft's Flight 
Simulator. The IBM PC expansion 
boards that may not work with the AT 
apparently do work with the DeskPro 
The top-of-the-line DeskPro also 
comes with 640K bytes of memory 
and serial and parallel ports. But the 
most important advantage of the 
DeskPro is its integral tape-cartridge 
drive for backing up data on the hard 
disk. The DeskPro is the first major 
desktop system to feature this impor- 
tant device. 

Of course, the AT remains a potent 
competitor. The AT has a fast 20- 
megabyte hard-disk drive (as op- 
posed to the DeskPro's 10 megabyte), 
a 1200K-byte floppy drive, and the 
ability to address (in XENIX) up to 3 
megabytes of memory. But a fully 
equipped AT with a third-party tape- 
cartridge unit will cost about $8200. 
The DeskPro is only about $7200. 

Compaq, by the way, was one of the 
first companies to come out with a 
reliable, well-cushioned hard disk in 
a transportable computer. Of course, 
I refer to the Compaq Plus, which was 
reviewed here last July. 



Another IBM PC-clone manufac- 
turer, Corona Data Systems from 
Thousand Oaks, California, has come 
out with a similar transportable: the 
Corona Portable PC XT. The Corona 
features the same high-resolution 
display and the same IBM PC com- 
patibility as its desktop version (see 
November 1983 BYTE, page 308). This 
machine, which costs $4340 in a com- 
plete configuration (with added color 
graphics capability), worked very well 
here for a few weeks, but unfortunate- 
ly, the computer's display suddenly 
died two weeks ago. Corona, however, 
quickly sent us a replacement. 

We should note that the failure rate 
among evaluation computers is rela- 
tively high, probably even higher than 
that among computers bought by the 
general public. Computers from all 
manufacturers— including the Big 
Guys—are subject to failure at one 
time or another. Part of the problem 
is that the machine that is sent to us 
is usually one of the first units off the 
assembly line, before the early bugs 
have been worked out. Another fac- 
tor may be just the luck of the draw: 
a faulty chip or a damaging voltage 
surge on the power line. Ideally, we 
would like to purchase 10 units of 
each type and perform comprehen- 
sive stress testing on each, but this 
would be prohibitively expensive. The 
most we can do is mention cautious- 
ly if a given machine has failed or not, 
and what the manufacturer has done 
to replace the unit. We then hope that 
the reader will evaluate such informa- 
tion in the proper statistical light. That 
is, the results of a statistical test of one 
unit are fairly meaningless by them- 
selves but may be useful in a larger 
sample. The focus of our reviews is 
therefore on factors that will not vary 
from one machine to another, e.g., the 
speed of the operating system. For 
statistical tests, we hope that our 



Review Feedback section will give in- 
formation based on large samples, 
and we hope our readers will relay to 
us their particular experiences, both 
positive and negative. 

And with that disclaimer, let me 
mention another IBM PC clone that 
recently had problems in our testing. 
The ITT Xtra PC, which I mentioned 
here last month and which had been 
working here flawlessly for the past 
few weeks, suddenly stopped work- 
ing, lb its credit, ITT quickly sent us 
a replacement. 

As for software, not a week seems 
to go by without our hearing some 
more good news about Borland Inter- 
national a software house in Scotts 
Valley, California. Most of the time we 
have been hearing rave reviews about 
its TUrbo Pascal, the $50 Pascal com- 
piler for CP/M and MS-DOS machines 
that runs loops around the higher- 
priced compilers. Well, two weeks ago 
we received Sidekick, a $50 accessory 
program for the IBM PC that runs 
under your regular application pro- 
grams and can be called into action 
at any time. Sidekick includes several 
Macintosh-like features, such as a 
notepad and calculator, but Sidekick's 
version of these products is really 
spiffy. The calculator can do calcu- 
lations in octal, hexadecimal, and 
binary. And the "notepad" is actually 
a proficient word processor. However, 
this product is copy-protected and 
thus cannot be loaded on a hard disk 
or on all floppy disks. 

What was the good news about 
Borland last week you ask? Well, they 
have come out with an unprotected 
version of Sidekick for a little more 
money ($80). Companies like Borland 
could put us reviewers out of busi- 
ness. They give us almost nothing to 
complain about. I can't wait to see 
what this week brings. 

— Rk/t Malloy, Product-Review Editor 



NOVEMBER 1984 -BYTE 261 




SYSTEM REVIEW 



T/teHP 150 Computer 



Easy to use 
but difficult 



by Mark Haas 



Hewlett-Packard, a company that is 
probably best known for its scien- 
tific and engineering products- 
programmable calculators, plotters of ex- 
tO program ceptional quality and minicomputers— is 
now making its presence known in the 
lucrative business market with its latest crea- 
tion, the HP 1 50. Using a design employ- 
ing a unique software enhancement to the 
popular MS-DOS operating system (called 
PAM which 1 will discuss in detail later) and 
a touch-sensitive screen, HP hopes to cash 
in on the feature most business users are 
demanding— ease of use. 

The basic HP 150 is composed of only 
two units: the system processor/display unit 
and the keyboard. However, most of the HP 
1 50s sold also include a 9121 disk-drive unit 
housing two 3!/2-inch Sony microfloppy-disk 
drives (see photo 1). Other disk-drive sys- 
tems, including hard-disk systems, are also 
available. The HP 1 50, like other HP com- 
puters, uses the Hewlett-Packard Interface 
Bus (HPIB), also known as the IEEE-488 bus, 
to expand the system. The HPIB is used to 
connect the 9121 disk-drive unit to the 
system unit. 

The system processor/display unit mea- 
sures about 12 by 11 by 13 inches. It con- 
tains the system processor board, the 9-inch 
CRT (cathode-ray tube) and associated 
video circuitry, the touchscreen, and, on the 
system I tested, an optional thermal printer. 
The system board contains a 16-/8-bit 8088 
microprocessor (16-bit internal data bus, 
8-bit external data bus) operating at 8 MHz, 
2 56K bytes of dynamic RAM (random- 
access read/write memory), and 160K bytes 
of ROM (read-only memory). Up to 384K 
bytes of RAM can be added through the 
use of a plug-in memory board, bringing the 
total RAM to 640K bytes. Also contained 
on the system board are two RS-232C ports, 
an HPIB port, and two expansion slots. 



Mark Haas is technical director of 

Osborne/McG raw-Hill, a Berkeley, 

California, publisher of computer 

books. He may be contacted at 

2600 Tenth St., Berkeley, CA 

94710, 



ThE Display Screen 

Without the disk drives, the HP 1 50 can be 
thought of as a terminal. All the character- 



istics of the display screen can also be 
thought of in that sense. The display screen 
on the HP 1 50 is actually composed of two 
independent screens: a 27-line by 80-char- 
acter text screen and an optional 512- by 
390-dot graphics display. These displays can 
be set up as windows into even larger areas. 

The normal virtual-text screen comprises 
48 lines, or two physical screens. The screen 
always displays the current line. The first 24 
lines of text may scroll off the top of the 
display, but they are not lost. The computer 
reserves the bottom three lines of the physi- 
cal display for a status line and the softkeys 
(touchscreen versions of function keys), 
leaving 24 lines available for text on the 
screen. The status line provides information 
on the state of various functions. It displays 
the time, lets you know when the Caps Lock 
is on, indicates whether the keypad is 
numeric or graphic, and gives you other 
information. 

Characters are very well formed and easy 
to read, even on this smaller-than-average 
display screen. A variety of attributes are 
available, including half intensity, underline, 
inverse, blinking, security (where nothing 
shows on the screen— used for passwords), 
and something called background inverse. 
Several alternate character sets are pro- 
vided for line drawing (useful in designing 
forms) and math symbols, as well as foreign- 
character sets that include umlauts, tildes, 
and other diacritical marks. 

The HP 1 50's graphics capabilities are im- 
pressive. Included in the large ROM are a 
number of routines for plotting on the 
graphics screen. In the graphics mode the 
numeric keypad to the right of the QWERTY 
keyboard assumes the role of a graphics 
keypad. It can be used to selectively turn 
on or off the text and graphics screens. Four 
keys become graphics cursor-control keys, 
allowing the graphics cursor easy move- 
ment to any point on the screen. 

Most of the graphics capabilities, however, 
are accessed through escape sequences. 
These can be entered directly from the key- 



262 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



board but are most useful when generated 
from a program. For example the sequence 
ESC *m 0A100.100E will draw a box from 
the lower left-hand corner of the screen (0,0) 
100 dots wide and 100 dots high and will 
fill it with the current pattern (which can be 
changed with another escape sequence). 
There are other sequences for line (vector) 
drawing, character-graphic definition, line- 
pattern definition, drawing modes, and set- 
ting of a relocatable origin. 

Tfext can also be generated on the 
graphics screen. Eight different text sizes, 
from about 1/32 inch to about 7/16 inch, can 
be produced and rotated 90, 180, and 270 
degrees. The text can also be slanted about 
30 degrees. Escape sequences are provided 
to control graphics text. 

System Configuration 

The HP 150 is a "soft" machine. That is, 
many of the operating characteristics can 
be changed through software control. In 
fact, just about everything the machine 
does can be controlled from the touch- 
screen. There are four main configuration 
screens built into the HP 1 50, and a fifth 
MS-DOS configuration program is supplied 
with the operating system. The system is a 
bit overwhelming at first, but the manual 
takes you through the initial configuration 
one step at a time and makes it seem easy. 

The Global Configuration screen (see 
photo 2) allows you to set such items as the 
type of keyboard being used (ASCII, 
Swedish, French, German, etc.), the key- 
board click on or off, and where the HP 1 50 
looks for the operating system (seven HPIB 
addresses and two accessory slots) when 
booting up. At power-up you can also 
decide whether the HP 1 50 will act like a 
terminal or a computer. 

TWo more screens allow you to configure 
the two serial ports. Here things really get 
complicated. You can set the usual charac- 
teristics such as bps (bits-per-second) rate, 
word length, parity, and stop bits, but then 
there is an additional assortment of items 



that most people have never dealt with 
before, shown in photos 3 and 4. If you have 
never had to decide whether the Terminal 
Ready line should be high or low, or 
whether the Receiver Ready or Secondary 
Carrier Detect control line is detected as 
- 1 2 V instead of + 1 2 V, you should leave 
these in their default state. If you under- 
stand these terms, this type of control can 
be very useful. 

I had no trouble using the configuration 
screens to connect the HP 1 50 as a terminal 
to a Radio Shack Model 100. I set the bps 
rate, etc., as usual, and left all the other set- 
tings alone. It worked fine except when I 
transmitted a file from the HP 1 50 to the 
Model 100 using XON/XOFF flow control. 
The HP 1 50 expects to see an XON charac- 

[continued] 




Photo 1: The HP 150 with a 9121 disk-drive unit. 



NOVEMBER 1984 • BYTE 263 



REVIEW: THE HP 150 



ter from the external device after 
every line is transmitted. The Model 
100 will send an XON character only 
after it has sent an XOFF character 
and has had a chance to catch up. The 
HP 1 50 would send the first line of a 
file to the Model 100 and then wait 
for an XON character. I had to 
manually send one from the Model 
100 so the next line of text would be 
sent and so on. Transmission going 
the other way, from the Model 100 to 
the HP 150, was no problem. 

The last built-in configuration 
screen, shown in photo 5, sets a varie- 
ty of terminal options. Most of the op- 
tions on this screen deal with func- 
tions that are important when using 
the HP 1 50 as a terminal connected 
to a larger computer. Hewlett-Packard 
has designed the HP 1 50 to be com- 
patible with its line of communica- 
tions terminals. All of these can com- 
municate with larger systems, in this 
case an HP 3000. From this screen 
you can control the cursor type (line 
or box), the bell (on or off), the defini- 
tion of the Return key, and more 
exotic things concerning block-mode 
transmission, graphics-emulation 
modes, etc. 

In an abstract sense, the configura- 
tion screens are easy to use. That is, 
changing the values of the various 
functions is easy; knowing what they 
mean is another thing. The screens 
often present you with somewhat 
cryptic abbreviations for the func- 
tions, such as InhDcTst(W), Xmitfnctn 
(A), and RR(CF)Recv. Unfortunately, 
these functions are not always clear- 
ly explained in the manual. But, to be 
fair, if you need to change these func- 
tions you probably already know 
what they mean. Otherwise, leaving 
them in their default states will usually 
suffice. 

The touchscreen is also used to con- 
figure MS-DOS. The configuration 
screen is divided into two parts, Sys- 
tem Devices (such as printers and 
plotters) and Disc Drives (see photo 
6). Using these utilities, you can 
specify where your peripherals are 
physically connected and relate these 
locations to the logical devices MS- 
DOS understands. Do you want 




Photo 2: The Global 
Configuration screen allows 
you to set up the basic 
functions of the HP 1 50. 



Photo 3: The configuration 
screens that allow you to 
configure ports 1 and 2 are 
identical and each can be 
configured as either full- 
duplex hard-wired, shown 
here, or full-duplex modem. 



COM1: on port 1? Okay. Do you want 
your printer (PTR1:) on port 1 too? No 
problem. Do you have a plotter on the 
HPIB? Just say so. Are you adding a 
hard disk you want to boot from? 
These can be done in straightforward 
procedures. 

Disk Drives 

Without some sort of mass-storage 
device connected to it, the HP 1 50 is 
really no more than a fancy terminal. 
Adding disk drives allows you to load 
programs and store data. The disk 



Photo 4: The full-duplex 
modem configuration, which 
is slightly less complicated 
than the full-duplex hard- 
wired configuration and has 
the receive and transmit 
signals reversed. 



drives supplied with the machine 1 
tested were contained in the 9121 
unit. This device contains two Sony 
3!/2-inch microfloppy-disk drives. Each 
single-sided drive can hold a disk con- 
taining up to 2 58K bytes of data, al- 
though a significant portion of this 
space is taken up by system files. 

Many other disk-drive combinations 
are available, including hard-disk and 
5 ! /4-inch drives, and most of these 
connect via the HPIB in daisy-chain 
form. The drive box is normally 
placed under the system processor/ 



264 BYTE* NOVEMBER 1984 



REVIEW: THE HP 150 



display unit. With this placement, 
however the keyboard must be 
located some distance in front of the 
machine, otherwise it interferes with 
disk insertion and removal. In all, you 
need about 24 inches of depth on 
your desktop to situate the machine 
properly. More space is recom- 
mended because if you don't have 
enough room you might find the key- 
board falling into your lap. 

Having used a Macintosh for some 
time this was not my first experience 
with 3!/2-inch disks. I like them very 
much. The rigid cases are more pro- 
tective than the flexible jackets on 
5i4-inch floppy disks— you can even 
use a ballpoint pen to write directly 
on them. The automatic shutter keeps 
misplaced fingers off the media sur- 
face and also helps keep dust off the 
disk. Disk storage is more convenient 
because the 3 /2-inch disks take up 
less space. 

The Keyboard 

The keyboard on the HP 150 is di- 
vided into seven sections, as shown 
in photo 7. The character-set group is 
the main keyboard, including the nor- 
mal QWERTY keyset. Above that are 
the terminal-control group (the Reset/ 
Break and Stop keys), the function- 
control group (Menu and User/System 
keys), and eight function keys. The edit 
group includes keys for inserting and 
deleting characters and lines, and the 
display-control group includes the 
cursor keys. The numeric/graphics 
group is at the right of the main key- 
board; it serves the dual role of nu- 
meric pad and graphics-control pad. 
The keyboard is meant to be tilted 
up toward the back when in use; a 
flap along the bottom of the unit 
swings down to accomplish this. The 
keys have a nice feel and are arranged 
in stepped rows. The Shift keys and 
the Return key are in the customary 
positions, although I found the Con- 
trol key a bit too close to the A key. 
Also, the Control and Caps keys on 
the HP 1 50 keyboard are in the op- 
posite position of the same keys on 
a terminal I use in the office. This led 
to some adjustment problems, but 
this is no fault of Hewlett-Packard's. It 




Photo 5: The terminal 
configuration screen controls 
the basic keyboard and 
display functions of the HP 150. 



Photo 6: Hewlett-Packard 
has further developed MS- 
DOS by providing the user 
with this handy configuration 
screen. Here the user can 
relate MS-DOS's logical 
device names (PRN:, 
COM2:, etc.) to the actual 
physical devices and where 
they are connected to the 
computer (port 1, HPIB, etc.). 




Photo 7: The keyboard of the HP 150 contains 107 keys arranged in seven groups. 
U connects to the back of the system processor/display unit with an RJ-1 1 plug. 



only points out the unfortunate lack 
of standards in the computer industry. 

Living with PAM 

RAM, short for Personal Applications 
Manager, is Hewlett-Packard's idea of 



ease of use. Technically speaking, 
PAM is an MS-DOS shell installed 
using the CONFIG.SYS file at boot 
time. PAM replaces the normal MS- 
DOS COMMAND.COM console-com- 

{continued} 



NOVEMBER 1984 'BYTE 265 



REVIEW: THE HP 150 



mand processor and presents the user 
with the screen shown in photo 8. 

Tbgether with the touchscreen, PAM 
lets novice users deal with the oper- 
ating system in a more friendly way. 
No command lines need to be 
entered. You. merely have to point to 
your desired application and then to 
the box in the lower left-hand corner 
of the screen labeled Start Applica- 
tion (or press the Fl key or the Return 
key). PAM then starts the application. 
Alternatively, you could point to the 
application with the cursor keys, mov- 
ing the small arrow over the applica- 
tion choice boxes, and then press the 
Select key and then the Return key to 
start an application. There's no need 
to be concerned with default drives 
and the like because the drive con- 
taining the application to be run 
becomes the default drive automati- 
cally. 

Applications appear with expanded 
titles of up to 13 characters, which 
makes it a little easier to determine 
what an application does. 

Besides running an application, 
PAM lets you set the time and date, 
log in new disks, perform a number 
of file-related operations, and turn 
your HP 1 50 into a dumb terminal. A 
simple help facility is also provided. 

You can access file-related com- 
mands by touching the File Manager 
box or by pressing the F5 key. The file 
manager (see photo 9) allows you to 
list the files in a directory choose a 
different directory (including subdirec- 
tories), print the contents of a file or 
directory, delete a file or directory 
from a disk, view the contents of a file 
on the screen, and copy and rename 
files. Throughout these procedures, 
you are guided by a combination of 
menus, prompt lines, and screens. Of 
course regular MS-DOS rules still 
apply; for example, you cannot delete 
a subdirectory if it is not empty (i.e., 
containing no files). As with other 
PAM functions, you can select files for 
whatever operation you are about to 
perform by pointing to the filename 
on the screen. Alternatively you can 
use the cursor keys to point to a file 
and press the Select key to select it. 

The dumb terminal is just that. It 



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would be useful if you could run an 
application while simultaneously be- 
ing connected to another system. But 
on this system, switching between the 
two is cumbersome; you have to end 
the application, return to PAM, select 
the terminal, press the Shift/Stop key 
to get back to PAM, and then reselect 
the application. From the terminal 
mode you can journey through a 
labyrinth of menus that will enable 
you to configure the communications 
capabilities of the HP 1 50. You can 
select bps rates and determine pro- 
tocols and many other parameters. 
However, I doubt anyone could do it 
without the manual sitting beside the 
machine. In fact, a separate manual is 
devoted to explaining all this in detail. 
When the PAM screen appears, it 
displays "installed" applications. Only 
installed applications can be accessed 
or run from PAM. This holds true even 
for MS-DOS. Installing an application 
is an interesting process that makes 
use of a utility program named, ap- 
propriately enough, Install. Install 
reads a special file associated with the 



Photo 8: The PAM screen. 
The highlighted box is the 
currently selected application. 
The small arrow over these 
boxes is controlled by the 
cursor keys and points to a 
new application. Touching the 
leftmost softkey would start 
the selected application. 



Photo 9: The file manager 
can be accessed from PAM 
or from most applications. \t 
relieves the user of having to 
enter MS-DOS comands to 
perform file and directory 
functions. 



application you want to be installed 
and then creates another file that tells 
PAM your application has been in- 
stalled. A number of files are moved 
around, and a number of disks may 
have to be swapped in and out as 
well. The installation procedure also 
ensures that the user is not running 
a program from the master copy of 
the disk. You are forced to move a 
program from one disk drive to an- 
other (either A to B or B to A), usual- 
ly by placing the master copy in drive 
A and a blank formatted disk in B. You 
can't install a program on the disk it 
resides on. Although there is definite- 
ly merit to this feature, it can be 
cumbersome when you are putting in 
your own application. 

Applications sold by Hewlett- 
Packard come ready to install. If you 
create your own application, for ex- 
ample a BASIC program, you must in- 
stall it manually. The documentation 
clearly explains this process. It in- 
volves creating an installation file- 
using EDLIN, WordStar, or some other 

{continued) 



266 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



AT A GLANCE 



Name 

HP 150 

Manufacturer 

Hewlett-Packard 
3000 Hanover St. 
Palo Alto, CA 94304 

Components 

Size: System unit, 12 by 11 by 
13 inches; disk drives, 12 3 /4 
by 3 by 11V4 inches; 
keyboard, 18 by 8% by V/2 
inches 

Processor; 8-MHz 8088 
Memory: 256K bytes RAM 
Display: 9-inch diagonal 
cathode-ray tube, 27 lines by 
80 characters, monochrome 
Keyboard: 107 keys, detached 
Mass storage: Two Sony 
3 1 /2-inch microfloppy disks, 
single sided, 258K bytes total 
disk space each drive 
Expansion capability: Two ex- 
pansion slots 

I/O interfaces: Two RS-232C 
ports, one Hewlett-Packard 
Interface Bus (HPIB), i.e., 
IEEE-488 parallel bus 

Operating System 

MS-DOS 2,01 

Software 

1-2-3, Memo-Maker 

Optional Hardware 

5 1 /4-inch floppy-disk drives 
and 5- and 15-megabyte hard 
disks, thermal printer, 384K- 
byte plug-in RAM board 

Documentation 

Users manual, terminal users 

guide 

Price 

$3495 with dual microfloppy- 
disk drives, $3795 with BASIC, 
$5850 with 5-megabyte hard- 
disk drive and one micro- 
floppy-disk drive, $6450 with 
15-megabyte hard-disk drive 
and one microfloppy-disk 
drive 





MEMORY SIZE (K BYTES) 

200 400 600 



DISK STORAGE (K BYTES) 
800 1000 400 800 1200 1600 2000 



"— --~T- 



n 



BUNDLED SOFTWARE PACKAGES PRICE ($1000) 

24 66 10 0246 8 10 





HP-150 ill IBM PC 



APPLE HE 



The Memory Size graph shows the standard 
and optional memory available for the com- 
puters under comparison. The graph of Disk 
Storage capacity shows the highest capacity 
of a single and dual floppy-disk drive for each 
system. The Bundled Software Packages graph 
shows the number of software packages in- 
cluded with each system. The Price graph 



shows the list price of a system with two high- 
capacity floppy-disk drives, a monochrome 
monitor, graphics and color-display capability, 
a printer port and a serial port; 256K bytes of 
memory (64K bytes for 8-bit systems), the stan- 
dard operating system for each system, and the 
standard BASIC interpreter for each system. 



NOVEMBER 1984 • BYTE 267 




The rear view shows two RS-232C ports and an IEEE-488 bus 
interface for expanding the system. 



DISK ACCESS IN BASIC (SEC) 
250 



The overhead view of the HP-150 system unit, which includes 
the display units as an integral component. 



BASIC PERFORMANCE (SEC) 
250 



200 



150 




100 



WRITE 



SYSTEM UTILITIES (SEC) 
50 



READ 



SIEVE 



CALCULATIONS 




SPREADSHEET (SEC) 
25 



40K FORMAT/DISK COPY 40K FILE COPY 

[" ■ HP-150 



The graph for Disk Access in BASIC shows how long it takes to write 
a 64K-byte sequential text file to a blank floppy disk and how long 
it takes to read this file. (For the program listings see June BYTE, 
page 327 and October BYTE, page 33.) The BASIC Performance 
graph shows how long it takes to run one iteration of the Sieve of 
Eratosthenes prime-number benchmark. In the same graph, the 
Calculations results show how long it takes to do 10,000 multiplica- 
tion and division operations using single-precision numbers. In the 
System Utilities graph, the Format/Disk Copy results could not be 




IBM PC 



obtained because the MS-DOS utility Disk Copy is not included with 
MS-DOS for the HP 150. Formatting and copying files are two distinct 
operations on the HP 150. The File Copy results show how long it 
takes to transfer a 40K-byte file using the system utilities. The Spread- 
sheet graph shows how long the computers take to load and 
recalculate a 25- by 25-cell spreadsheet where each cell equals 1.001 
times the cell to its left. The spreadsheet benchmark program is 
Microsoft Multiplan, but the HP 150's spreadsheet program is 
VisiCalc. DOS 3.3 was used with the Apple II. 



268 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



REVIEW: THE HP 150 



program— containing information 
about the application such as the 
names of all files needed by the ap- 
plication and their total size, and the 
title you want to appear on the PAM 
screen. Once this file is created, which 
takes about two minutes, you are 
ready to use the Install utility. The ap- 
plication program and the special in- 
stallation file must reside on the same 
disk. If the application needs other 
files, such as overlays, they can be in- 
stalled from other disks, but you must 
allow for this when creating the in- 
stallation file. Since you cannot install 
the program back on the same disk, 
you must either install it onto another 
disk or first copy all your files onto 
another disk and write them back 
onto the first one. Once the applica- 
tion is installed it cannot be copied 
onto another disk and run from PAM. 
It must be reinstalled from the master 
disk. Also, once you have installed an 
application, you cannot delete it from 
MS-DOS. You must again use the In- 
stall utility Otherwise, PAM will think 
the application still exists even though 
all visible files associated with it have 
been deleted. 

Another utility called Set Up PAM, 
lets you retitle applications and re- 
arrange their placement on the 
screen. It also lets you auto-start an 
application when booting the system. 

PAM's ease-of-use features do not 
come cheaply, however. The MS-DOS 
system files, plus the PAM files, leave 
you only 178K bytes of a blank for- 
matted disk's 2 58K-byte capacity If 
you want to have MS-DOS installed as 
an application under PAM, subtract 
another 17K bytes. 

Despite its benefits, PAM is tremen- 
dously frustrating for experienced 
users. It makes everything take longer 
because you have to tell it to look at 
the new disk each time one is in- 
serted. And with only 178K bytes on 
a disk, you change them often. For- 
tunately, PAM can be bypassed, leav- 
ing you to deal directly with the oper- 
ating system. 

Novice users (who would surely 
benefit from most of PAM's features) 
may have problems when PAM hands 
them over to the application and they 



no longer are protected from the 
operating system. 

T>iE Touchscreen 

Together with PAM, the HP 150's 
touchscreen provides you with an 
alternative form of data entry. Physi- 
cally the touchscreen is composed of 
a 9-inch screen surrounded by a 14 
by 2 1 (vertical by horizontal) element 
array of infrared LEDs (light-emitting 
diodes) and matching photodiodes, 
similar in many ways to the touch- 
screen designed by Steve Ciarcia (see 
"Let Your Fingers Do the Talking: Add 
a Noncontact Touch Scanner to Your 
Video Display" August 1978 BYTE, 
page 1 56). The operating system can 
detect a finger or pointing device in- 
terrupting the infrared beams and 
determine the location of the inter- 
ruption. 

The touchscreen has a resolution of 
1 line by 2 characters for a total of 40 
points horizontally and 24 points ver- 
tically This means that when you are 
using WordStar you will be able to 
place the cursor on any line by 
touching the screen, but only on alter- 
nate characters in a line. How does a 
14 by 21 array of LEDs distinguish a 
24 by 40 array of points on the 
screen? When your finger touches the 
HP 1 50's screen, it may interrupt one 
or two of the beams on each axis. Es- 
sentially this doubles the number of 
points that would be available if you 
could detect only single-beam inter- 
ruptions. However, if you have thin 
fingers, you may find that placing the 
cursor on one of the in-between 
points is difficult to accomplish 
because the space within which your 
finger will interrupt two beams may 



Together with PAM, 
the HP 150's 
touchscreen provides 
you with an alternative 
form of data entry. 



be very small indeed. This is especial- 
ly true in the vertical axis where the 
LEDs are placed farther apart. Using 
the eraser end of a pencil will inter- 
rupt only one beam at a time on each 
axis and result in half the resolution 
(i.e., only every other line and every 
fourth character on a WordStar 
screen). 

I found the touchscreen to be 
moderately sensitive to the way I 
lifted my finger from the screen after 
touching it, especially when it was 
working at its full resolution (for ex- 
ample when using WordStar). To 
assure accurate cursor placement, 
you must withdraw your finger from 
the screen perpendicularly. In most, 
but not all cases, touching the screen 
lets you select an item or point, and 
removing your finger initiates an ac- 
tion or sets a point. Thus, it is possible 
to touch the screen and then, without 
lifting the finger, drag the cursor to the 
proper location. Tbo much skew when 
releasing your finger from the screen 
results in additional cursor move- 
ment. 

The touchscreen also senses eight 
softkeys along the bottom of the 
screen. These correspond to the eight 
functions keys across the top of the 
keyboard, and the two may be used 

{continued) 



Table 1 : The benchmark results for 


word-processing tests run 


on the HP 150 


using "WordStar. The comparison was 


with the IBM PC only, 


unlike the At A 


Glance tests which measured the HP 


150 against the PC and the Apple II. 


Al! times are in seconds. 






Word Processing with WordStar 


HP 150 


IBM PC 


Document load 


11.1 


9.9 


Document save 


25.4 


24.2 


Search 


13.0 


10.5 


Scroll 


71.7 


41.2 



NOVEMBER 1984 • BYTE 269 



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REVIEW: THE HP 150 



interchangeably. The softkeys are pro- 
grammed by the running application, 
and they take on different meanings 
for each application. The softkeys can 
be thought of as a menu. Some keys 
perform functions; their legends ap- 
pear in uppercase letters. Others lead 
to other menus; their legends appear 
in lowercase letters. 

As with most menu systems, the 
softkeys are helpful at first, but they 
tend to slow you down as you gain ex- 
perience. They can also get in the way. 
When using the touchscreen with 
WordStar I inadvertently activated 
one of the softkeys when I wanted to 
point to a spot on the bottom line of 
text. Fortunately, none of the softkeys 
selected in this manner resulted in 
anything more than another level of 
menu appearing. It was annoying but 
not disastrous. 

Overall I found cursor positioning 
via the touchscreen of limited use I 
also found that using the touchscreen 
to select items has limitations as well 
as benefits. For instance, when using 
VisiCalc adapted for the HP 1 50. a 
help menu lets you select from a full 
screen of items. All you have to do is 
touch one of about 20 lines on the 
screen. But touching one line exactly 
not the line above or below, is almost 
impossible. When using VisiCalc, 
merely touching the screen usually 
sends you off to the wrong help 
screen. This is a problem with Visi- 
Calc, because the selection and ac- 
tivation should be two steps instead 
of one, as with other Hewlett-Packard 
software. 

It is nice to be able to select the file 
you want to edit by pointing at it. 
When selecting other functions in 
WordStar, however, I suspect most 
users will prefer to use keyboard com- 
mands. For example, a common 
WordStar sequence is Control-B 
Control-Q P, which re-forms a para- 
graph and returns the cursor to its 
previous location. This is a fairly fast, 
simple keyboard sequence. The same 
procedure using the softkeys or 
function keys requires selecting the 
following sequence: format and find 
(F4), re-form paragraph (F7), main 
menu (F8), cursor movement (F6), 



other keys (Fl), previous cursor (F4), 
main menu (F8). 

Software 

Along with the HP 150, I received 
several optional software packages in- 
cluding the WordStar and VisiCalc 
programs I've mentioned. I also re- 
ceived a communications package 
called DSN/Link, a version of Micro- 
soft BASIC, a program called Tfext 
Charts, and, of course, MS-DOS. Using 
these packages I was able to run the 
standard BYTE benchmarks. 

The BASIC that Hewlett-Packard 
offers is Microsoft BASIC-86. It is 
essentially the same as MBASIC the 
8-bit CP/M version. As a result, there 
are no commands to access the 
graphics capabilities (i.e., LINE, CIR- 
CLE, PSET, etc.), perform screen oper- 
ations (LOCATE, CLS, etc.), or commu- 
nicate through any of the operating 
system's logical devices (OPEN 



The BASIC that 
Hewlett-Packard offers 
is Microsoft BASIC-86. 

COM1:, etc.): all things I've come to 
expect with 16-bit BASICS. You can 
only access the HP ISO's graphics 
capabilities through escape se- 
quences. The manual tells you how to 
use these escapes; for example, it tells 
you how to use the DEF FN command 
to create your own graphics com- 
mands. However, this process is a bit 
clumsy. (Editor's Note: Hewlett-Packard was 
in the process of introducing GW BASIC for 
both the HP 1 50 and the HP 1 10 when this 
review was written. If all has gone as planned, 
the new BASIC should be available now] 
BYTE has established a set of 
benchmarks for testing a variety of 
system functions. These tests combine 

{continued) 



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Circle 137 on inquiry card. 



NOVEMBER 1984 • BYTE 271 



Mimic introduces instant evolution! 
Meet the Spartan™— the missing link 
that turns your Commodore 64™ 
into a whole new apple. 
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REVIEW: THE HP 1 50 



the abilities of both the hardware and 
software. The complete results of 
these benchmarks are shown in the 
,l At a Glance" graphs, with additional 
benchmarks for word processing 
shown in table 1. 

I was unable to run the Format/Disk 
Copy test in the System Utilities 
benchmark because the Disk Copy 
utility is not included with MS-DOS for 
the HP 150. Formatting and copying 
files are two distinct operations in the 
standard HP 1 50 world. 

VisiCalc on the HP 150 has the 
added feature of being able to let you 
select cells by pointing to them. Of 
course if a cell is off screen, you have 
to use keyboard commands to select 
it. The softkeys make it easier to learn 
to use VisiCalc, but as I've stated, 
once you become familiar with the 
program's functions, you'll probably 
want to use keyboard commands, 
rather than the touchscreen, to evoke 
them. 

I performed two benchmark tests 
with VisiCalc: I loaded a standard 
spreadsheet and recalculated it (the 
results are shown in the Spreadsheet 
graph). The standard spreadsheet is 
a 2 5- by 2 5-cell array where each cell 
is equal to 1.001 times the cell to its 
left. The first cell in rows 2 through 2 5 
is equal to 1.001 times the last cell in 
the preceding row. Multiplan on the 
IBM PC is significantly faster than Visi- 
Calc on the HP 150. 

The word-processing benchmarks in 
table 1 were performed using Hewlett- 
Packard's latest release of WordStar, 
version 3.3B, which replaced the 
significantly slower version 3.30. I 
have already commented on some of 
WordStar's features as adapted to the 
HP 1 50. TWo of the nicer ones are its 
ability to let you select the file you 
want to edit by pointing at the file- 
name, and to let you move the cursor 
on the screen by pointing. As the 
figures in table 1 show, this new ver- 
sion of WordStar on the HP 1 50 holds 
its own against the IBM in all but one 
of the tests. 

With the exception of the scroll 
benchmark, the times clocked for the 
HP 1 50 were fairly close to the times 
for the IBM. The document-load time 



of 11.1 seconds is only 12 percent 
slower than that of the IBM, the docu- 
ment-save time of 2 5.4 seconds is 
only 5 percent slower, the search time 
of 13 seconds is 24 percent slower, 
and the scroll time of 71.7 seconds is 
74 percent slower. The benchmark 
times are based on loading a docu- 
ment immediately after starting Word- 
Star, saving the document immediate- 
ly after loading it, searching im- 
mediately after loading, and scrolling 
immediately after loading. Subse- 
quent times for the same operations, 
however, improved substantially. 
Loading the document after saving it 
(not directly after starting WordStar) 
provided a load time of only 7.5 sec- 
onds. Repeated saving of the docu- 
ment resulted in a time of 18 seconds. 
Jumping back to the beginning of the 
document after the search test and 
repeating the search resulted in a time 
of only 4.6 seconds. But nothing im- 



proved the scrolling time. I think the 
subsequent times more closely repre- 
sent the times you can expect when 
working with a document. The bench- 
marks don't show the superior times 
the HP 150 provides when you move 
the cursor to a random point or move 
it horizontally or vertically within a 
screen, or when you enter the name 
of the file to edit. But I still wonder 
why a processor identical to the one 
in the IBM PC, running nearly 80 per- 
cent faster, runs an application more 
slowly than the IBM PC does. 

As the slow times of the bench- 
marks show, the 8-MHz processor is 
busy doing things other than running 
the application. Pure processing times 
were good, as shown by the single- 
precision Calculations and Sieve 
results. But screen-oriented tasks are 
particularly slow, probably because of 
some sort of overhead. At first I 

{continued) 






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Circle 138 on inquiry card. 



NOVEMBER 1984 'BYTE 273 



Circuit-Board-Design 
Without the Tedium 



smARTWORK™ lets the design 

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on the IBM Personal Computer. 

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smARTWORK™ trans- 
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for printed-circuit-board artwork. 
Display modes include both sin- 
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dual-layer color. 



What makes smARTWORK™ 
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ductors. smARTWORK™ can 
automatically find and draw 
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the route. 

WINTEKCORPOR 

274 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 




smARTWORK™ is the only low- 
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D Quick correction and revision 

□ Production-quality 2X artwork 
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□ Prototype-quality 2X artwork 
from dot-matrix printer 

□ Easy to learn and operate, 
yet capable of sophisticated 
layouts 

D Single-sided and double- 
sided printed-circuit boards 
up to 10 x 16 inches 

D Multicolor or black-and- 
white display 

□ 32 user selectable color 
combinations; coincident 
points can be displayed 
in contrasting 
colors. 

□ Can use optional Micro- 
soft Mouse as pointing 
device 




Twice scale 
hardcopy of your 
artwork is produced using 
the Epson dot-matrix printers or the 
Houston Instrument DMP-41 pen- 
and-ink plotter. Quick 1X check plot 
is also available from Epson printers. 




Dual-layer color display of a 2" by 4" 
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System Requirements 

D IBM PC or XT with 192K RAM, 2 disk 
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D Epson MX-80/MX-100 or FX-80/ 
FX-100 dot-matrix printer 

□ Houston Instrument DMP-41 
pen-and-ink plotter (optional) 

□ Microsoft Mouse (optional) 




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Circle 425 on inquiry card. 



REVIEW: THE HP 150 



thought it might be because of the 
touchscreen, but apparently the 
touchscreen is interrupt driven and 
does not affect the timings simply by 
being on or off. Whatever the cause 
of these delays, it seems ease of use 
has its price. 

DSN/Link is a communications 
package designed to allow the HP 1 50 
to communicate with an HP 3000 or 
another HP 1 50. It can be used for 
general-purpose communications, 
too. I found it to be of limited use in 
my situation. If I had an HP 3000, I 
could have used DSN/Link to access 
it automatically and perform a 
number of wonderful tasks. DSN/Link 
can be controlled by command files 
created with any text processor. The 
commands allow the program to carry 
on a dialogue with the host computer 
to enable automatic log-on sequences 
and other automatic procedures. But 
programming DSN/Link is not easy, 
and the control it gives you is limited. 

Tfext Chart is a nice little graphics 
package that shows off the HP 150's 
graphics capabilities, but its perfor- 
mance is a little slow, mainly because 
of constant disk accesses. 

[Editor's Note: After this review was writ- 
ten, Hewlett-Packard began bundling lotus 
Development Corporation's 1-2-3 and 
Hewlett-Packard's Memo-Maker word pro- 
cessor with the HP 150.] 

Documentation 

The manuals accompanying the HP 
1 50 do a good job of explaining a fair- 
ly complex system. They are well writ- 
ten and provide necessary back- 
ground information— telling you why 
things are being done not just how 
to do them. The directions on setting 
up your computer and installing the 
peripherals are excellent. 

Some of the software manuals were 
not as good as the system documen- 
tation. The BASIC manual may be a 
good introduction to BASIC, but it 
fails as a reference guide. Commands 
are scattered about and arranged by 
function rather than alphabetically; 
this manual is even worse than the 
original Microsoft manual. There is an 
index, which is the best way to find 
anything. The VisiCalc manual is 



rather cryptic and could have in- 
cluded more examples. The new 
WordStar manual is a big improve- 
ment over previous editions. 

Conclusions 

A fellow I spoke with who has been 
programming HP 1 50s for some time 
summed up the system nicely when 
he said that the HP 1 50 is a good "ap- 
plication engine" but difficult to pro- 
gram. If all you intend to do is buy an 
application and run it, this machine 
will make life easy for you. If you want 
to use all of the HP 150's features, 
there's a lot there to play with, but you 
may find it's not as accessible as you'd 
like. (Editor's Note: This may change when 
the new GW BASIC is available]. 

The HP 1 50 is an extremely flexible 
machine that can become part of a 
much larger system of computers. 
Direct links with HP 3000s, links to 
other peripherals through the HPIB 



1/ you want to use all of 
the HP 150's features, 

there's a lot there to play 
with, but you may find 
it's not as accessible as 
you would like. 



and through the Hewlett-Packard In- 
terface Loop (HPIL), a wide assort- 
ment of sophisticated peripherals in- 
cluding the new Laserjet printer and 
the famous HP plotters, and the abili- 
ty to emulate a number of graphics 
terminals assure the HP 150 a share 
in Hewlett-Packard's traditional 
market. Whether Hewlett-Packard's 
concept of ease of use will help it to 
penetrate the business market re- 
mains to be seen. ■ 



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Circle 139 on inquiry card. 



NOVEMBER 1984 'BYTE 275 




IBM PC 



compatibility 
on a budget 



by Peter V. 
Callamaras 



Peter V. Callamaras (POB 408, 
Scott AFB, IL 62225) is an officer 
in the Air Force. The recipient of 
degrees in computer technology and 
biological sciences, he recently 
received his master's degree in 
systems management. He has been 
interested in computers since 1966 
and used to be the service-depart- 
ment manager of a computer store. 



SYSTEM REVIEW 

The Columbia 
Multipersonal Computer-VP 



For me, choosing a computer system 
depends largely on the amount of 
software available for it. Thus, when 
I decided to buy a second computer, I 
wanted one that was either Apple or IBM 
compatible. Since I already had an Apple 
it seemed reasonable to add the IBM capa- 
bility 

Because I needed a system I could use 
both at work and home, I decided to get 
a transportable machine. 

Money was also a large consideration. 
The cost of an IBM system consisting of 
what I considered a minimum configura- 
tion— 12 8K bytes of RAM (random-access 
read/write memory), two floppy-disk drives, 
graphics, and both serial- and parallel- 
output ports— was too high, so I decided to 
look at IBM PC clones. 

I wanted to buy from a manufacturer I felt 
would be around for a while— that narrowed 
the field a bit. Additionally, I wanted to find 
out how much it was going to cost to get 
suitable software for my new system and 
what sort of software compatibility I could 
expect between my Apple and the IBM PC- 
compatible. 

I eventually decided to buy a Columbia 
Data Products' Multipersonal Computer-VP 
portable (see photo 1). The VP not only met 
all my hardware criteria, but it came with 
all the software I needed to handle almost 
any task. And at $2495, it was priced well 
below any other similar system without 
software. 

Hardware 

The VP is housed in a metal cabinet with 
a built-in handle. Since the computer weighs 
32 pounds, you are not going to want to 
move it often. However, I plan to leave it at 
work most of the time and take it home only 
on weekends or evenings when I have work 
to do at home. 

The system unit measures 18 by 16 by 8 
inches with the cover on, or 18 by 14 by 8 
inches with the cover off. It comes with 
128K bytes of RAM (expandable to 2 56K 



bytes) resident on the motherboard, two 
floppy-disk drives with 360K bytes of stor- 
age capacity each, a detachable IBM PC- 
compatible keyboard, a 9-inch mono- 
chrome monitor, and two I/O (input/output) 
ports. There are two storage slots in the 
front of the unit; the power switch, reset 
button, and a built-in fan are on the back. 
During transport, the keyboard is stored in 
the removable front cover of the VP. You 
have to be careful when arranging the key- 
board's cable in the top cover because you 
run the risk of pinching the cord and 
possibly breaking some wires when you 
lock the cover down. 

Software 

The VP comes with an impressive array of 
software that lets you do just about any- 
thing you need to— word processing, file 
management, spreadsheets, graphics, com- 
munications, and personal financial man- 
agement. An arcade-type game is also pro- 
vided with the system. (See the "At a 
Glance" page for more information.) Addi- 
tionally you get the CP/M-86 and MS-DOS 
version 2.0 operating systems, Microsoft 
BASIC (GW BAS1C/BASICA), and Macro/86 
assembler. 

ThE Display 

The VP's 9-inch monitor (see photo 2) can 
be ordered with either a green or an amber 
phosphor (I prefer to use an amber moni- 
tor—the fact that I could get one with the 
VP was a major factor in my decision to buy 
it.) 

As is the case with the IBM PC, there are 
four display modes: two for text or charac- 
ters and two for graphics. The text-display 
modes are 5 by 7 matrix character, either 
40 columns by 2 5 lines or 80 columns by 
2 5 lines. The monochrome graphics display 
modes are either 320 by 200 pixels (low res- 
olution) or 640 by 200 pixels (high resolu- 
tion). 

The video-graphics display is supported 
by a separate 16K-byte RAM storage buf- 



276 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



fer that can hold eight pages in the 40 by 
2 5 mode and four pages in the 80 by 2 5 
mode. The video logic is directed by a 
separate Motorola 6845 CRT (cathode-ray 
tube) Controller. I found the display sharp 
and the graphics pleasing. 

Keyboard 

The keyboard is an 83-key unit separated 
into three general areas with auto-repeat on 
all keys (see photo 3). On the left side are 
10 function keys, in the middle is the QWER- 
TY keyboard, and on the right side is a 
numeric keypad. 

The keyboard is essentially the same as 
that found on the IBM PC, except the Caps 
Lock and Num Lock keys have LEDs (light- 
emitting diodes) built into them. The LEDs 
light up when you have either of these fea- 
tures selected. As on the IBM PC keyboard, 
the Return, Shift, and T&b keys have the in- 
ternational symbols on them. The function 
keys and the numeric keypad are also 
essentially the same as those found on the 
IBM machine. 

The feel of the keyboard takes some get- 
ting used to. The IBM PC has "breakaway" 
keys that offer your finger some initial 
resistance and then, at a certain point, 
release and give you a response. The VP, 
on the other hand, does not have break- 
away keys and has a very light touch. Since 
I switch among computers often, I find the 
VP's light touch disconcerting. I have to get 
used to it all over again when I've been 
using other computers. With the auto- 
repeat feature on each key I often get a line 
of characters instead of the single character 
I wanted. 

Overall, the keyboard is solid and per- 
forms satisfactorily but it is unfortunate that 
Columbia didn't improve on the IBM PC 
keyboard by making its own more like the 
Selectric. 

Mass Storage 

The standard VP comes with two half- 
height, 5^-inch floppy-disk drives. The 



double-sided double-density drives each 
hold 360K bytes of data. I have no prob- 
lems with the drives and find them much 
quieter than the IBM PC drives. 

The disk-drive doors will not close unless 
you have inserted either a disk or a card- 
board protector first. 1 have heard that on 
some drives the two heads can hit each 
other if jarred during transit; thus it is a 
good idea to save the cardboard protectors 
to use when you move the computer. 

One unhandy aspect to the drives is that, 
although you can check the drive speed, 
you can't adjust it yourself. I haven't noticed 
any speed problems, but I wish the drive- 
speed adjustment were accessible to the 
user, since I have found that I have to ad- 
just the drive speed on my Apple 
periodically. 

TVie Motherboard 

The motherboard is located on the under- 
side of the metal plate that holds the CRT 
video-drive circuitry and the two disk drives. 
There are access holes cut into the plate for 

(continued) 




Photo 1: The Columbia Multipersonal Computer^?. 



NOVEMBER 1984 • BYTE 277 



REVIEW: THE VP 



the single expansion slot and the 
video connectors. The disk-drive cable 
slides around the front of the plate. 
This arrangement protects the 
motherboard if you happen to 
remove the top of the computer to 
work inside. There is also a place in 
the motherboard to plug in an addi- 



tional 128K-byte memory-expansion 
piggyback board. 

THE Processor 

The VP comes with a standard 16-/ 
8-bit 8088 microprocessor (16-bit in- 
ternal data bus, 8-bit external data 
bus) running at 4.77 MHz. You can 




Photo 2: The VP's display showing the 80<olumn text mode. 




•VVt'i t t V 1 ! 'i vv 

I II I ITT 1 I 




Photo 3: The VP's keyboard. Except for the Shift U>ck and Num lock key LEDs, 
the keyboard is laid out like the IBM PC's. 



also plug an 8087 arithmetic copro- 
cessor into the premounted socket 
that is wired in parallel with the 8088. 
Unfortunately you have to complete- 
ly disassemble the computer to do so. 

Memory 

The VP's RAM chips are standard 
4164s, which are automatically re- 
freshed every 2 microseconds. The 
chips are soldered onto the mother- 
board to prevent their being dis- 
lodged in transit. If you have trouble 
with a RAM chip, a service center will 
have to replace it. When you boot the 
system, you are offered the option of 
testing the memory. If you choose to 
do so, pressing the S key during the 
test lets you listen to a series of tones 
that indicate whether the specific 
location under test is okay If you hear 
a steady tone during the test, that 
memory location is bad. 

You may want to increase the 
motherboard memory to its full 2 56K- 
byte capacity. The process is relatively 
simple. Disassemble the computer, 
plug in the piggyback circuit board, 
change a couple of jumpers, and then 
button it up. 

Interfaces 

Both the parallel and serial interfaces 
use DB-2 5 connectors and are located 
on the rear of the unit with the power 
and reset switches. The parallel inter- 
face is Centronics compatible. The 
serial port is a standard asynchronous 
RS-232C interface with a 110- to 
19,200-bps (bits per second) range. 
The combination of the two built-in in- 
terfaces lets you plug in a variety of 
peripherals without adding any other 
hardware to the basic system. 

The VP also has one IBM PC-com- 
patible expansion slot. With only a 
single slot available choosing what to 
put into it can be very difficult. I chose 
a Quadlink board from Quadram. 

You can now get the necessary 
cable and speaker extension wires 
from Quadram to put a Quadlink in 
the VP. However, the Quadlink is 
primarily intended for use with Col- 
umbia desktop units. Because of the 
difference in the internal arrangement 

[continued) 



278 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



AT A GLANCE 



Name 

Columbia Multipersonal 
Computer-VP 

Manufacturer 

Columbia Data Products 
9150 Rumsey Rd. 
Columbia, MD 21045 
(301) 992-3400 

Components 

Size: 18 by 16 by 8 inches, 
32 pounds with cover, 18 by 
14 by 8 inches with cover 
removed 

Processor: 4.77 MHz, 
16-/8-bit 8088, socket for 8087 
coprocessor 
Memory: 128K bytes of 
system memory expandable 
to 256K bytes 
Display: 9-inch green or 
amber cathode-ray tube; 80 
columns by 25 rows or 40 
columns by 25 rows of 5- by 
7-pixel characters; 320- by 
200-pixel or 640- by 200-pixel 
graphics 

Keyboard: 83 keys, IBM PC- 
compatible; 10 function keys 
and 10- key numeric/cursor- 
control keypad; auto- repeat 
on all keys 

Mass storage: two internal 
5V4-inch floppy-disk drives, 
double-sided, double-density, 
360K bytes, IBM 
PC-compatible 
I/O: asynchronous serial 
interface, RS-232C, 110- to 
19,200-bps Centronics- 
compatible parallel printer port 
Expansion: one IBM PC- 
compatible expansion slot, 
128K-byte piggyback memory 
board ($295) 

Software 

MS-DOS 2.1, GW BASIC, TIM 

IV, Perfect Writer, Speller, Calc, 
Filer, Fast Graphs, 
Asynchronous Communica- 
tions, Space Commanders, 
and an AT. I. tutorials package 

Documentation 

All software manuals, 
117-page MPC-VP Operations 
Guide, tutorial 

Price 

$2495 

VP plus (with an additional 
256K bytes of RAM storage) 
available for $2695 




MEMORY SIZE (K BYTES) 

200 400 600 



DISK STORAGE (K BYTES) 
1000 400 800 1200 1600 2000 



M 



m 



m 



BUNDLED 




SOFTWARE PACKAGES 
! 4 6 


3 10 


I 


■ 


■ 


■ 


■ 


■ 


III; 








VsOVV/ 





PRICE {$ 1000) 
2 




COLUMBIA VP 



IBM PC 



APPLE HE 



The Memory Size graph shows the standard 
and optional memory available for the com- 
puters under comparison. The Disk Storage 
graph shows the highest capacity of a single 
floppy-disk drive for each system. The Bundled 
Software graph shows the number of packages 
included with each system. The Price graph 
shows the list price of a system with two high- 
capacity floppy-disk drives, a monochrome 



monitor, graphics and color-display capability, 
a printer port and a serial port, 256K bytes of 
memory (64K bytes for 8-bit systems), the stan- 
dard operating systems for the computers be- 
ing compared, and the standard BASIC inter- 
preter for each system. Note that the VP comes 
with graphics capability as standard but does 
not support color capabilities. 



NOVEMBER 1984 • BYTE 279 




The rear panel. The parallel and serial ports are at the lower 
right. The expansion slot protector plate is at the far left. 



The top view. The disk drive housing is at the top left. The 
expansion slot is below and to the left of the disk drive. 



DISK 
250 



200 



150 



100 



50 



ACCESS IN BASIC (SEC) 







212 " 












m 

y 




175 








y 

1 
























56 


46 




*fi 


30 \~7^ 




^■lll 






WRIT* 




READ 








SIEVE 



CALCULATIONS 



SYSTEM UTILITIES (SEC) 
50 



READSHEET (SEC) 





40K FORMAT/DISK COPY 



40K FILE COPY 



LOAD 



RECALCULATE 



COLUMBIA VP Iji&xj&jl IBM PC Y///X APPLE TIE 



The Disk Access in BASIC graph shows how long it takes to write 
a 64K-byte sequential text file to a blank floppy disk and how long 
it takes to read this file. (For the program listings, see June, page 
327 and October, page 33.) The Sieve bar in the BASIC Performance 
graph shows how long it fakes to run one iteration of the Sieve of 
Eratosthenes prime-number benchmark. The Calculations bar shows 
how long it takes to do 10,000 multiplication and division operations 



using single-precision numbers, The System Utilities graph shows 
how long it takes to format and copy a disk (adjusted time for 49K 
bytes of disk data) and to transfer a 40K-byte file using the system 
utilities. The Spreadsheet graph shows how long the computers take 
to load and recalculate a 25* by 25-cell spreadsheet where each 
cell equals 1.001 times the cell to its left. The spreadsheet program 
used was Microsoft Multiplan. DOS 3.3 was used for the Apple tests. 



280 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



REVIEW: THE VP 



I have found 
very few programs 
for the IBM PC 
that the VP cant run. 



of the portable, I ran into a problem 
getting the speaker extensions to 
reach far enough. Once the Quadlink 
was installed, the computer worked 
fine as a Columbia, but I was not able 
to get it to recognize Apple disks. Ap- 
parently this was common with the 
early software— Quadram has since 
revised its emulator software to fix the 
problem. 

Compatibility 

How compatible is the VP with the 
IBM PC? Happily, I have found very 
few programs written for the IBM PC 
that the VP can't run. If the program 
does not depend on specific IBM PC 
ROM (read-only memory) locations, 
there should be little problem in run- 
ning the program on the VP 

Flight Simulator (FS) from Microsoft 
is often used to check the level of IBM 
compatibility. The FS program ran fine 
on the VP, and the graphics the pro- 
gram generated were crisp and easy 
to see on the screen. I had no trou- 
ble flying the simulator (except that 
I crashed the plane a lot). The VP 
seems as close to 100 percent com- 
patible as it could be without using 
the IBM PC ROMs. Columbia has 
made available a list of over 500 pro- 
grams it has tested for compatibility 
with the VP 

I often use MicroPro products 
(WordStar, InfoStar. CalcStar, etc.), the 
PFS series from Software Publishing, 
AshtonTate's dBASE II, and 1-2-3 from 
Lotus Development. They all run fine 
on the VP, but 1-2-3 requires a mem- 
ory upgrade. If you have a specific ap- 
plication you need to use, you might 
want to try it on a VP at your dealer's 
first. 

Documentation 

You get two kinds of documentation 
with the VP: manuals accompanying 

{continued) 



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NOVEMBER 1984 -BYTE 281 



REVIEW: THE VP 




The fact that the VP 
can run MS-DOS and 
CP/M-86 makes it a 
very versatile system. 

the software and manuals that are 
devoted to the system itself. The soft- 
ware manuals are, for the most part, 
well done. Essentially, they are the 
standard commercial manuals that ac- 
company software packages with a 
Columbia Data Products cover and 
copyright notice. I didn't have any 
problem using any of them and I think 
even a novice user would be able to 
use them effectively. 

The documentation dedicated to 
the system consists of a short intro- 
ductory-type manual to get you up 
and running and a thicker MPC-VP 
Operations Guide. The tutorial is a short 
"follow these instructions exactly" 
manual that teaches you how to back 
up all the disks that accompany the 
system and describes the differences 
between the MS-DOS and CP/M-86 
operating systems. Due to serializa- 
tion requirements, you do not get the 
CP/M-86 operating system with the 
rest of the computer system at the 
time of purchase Tb get your copy of 
CP/M-86 you have to send a card to 
Columbia, which will then send you 
a disk containing the operating system 
and a small booklet (which was being 
rewritten at the time I was writing this 
review) describing the Columbia im- 
plementation of CP/M-86. 

The MPC-VP Operations Guide con- 
tains all the information you need to 
get the system up and running, plus 
sections on the company's theory of 
operation, troubleshooting, and 
maintenance. There are also indexes 
detailing specifications, pin-outs, ROM 
listings, peripherals, keyboard-code 
generation, and a guide to the soft- 
ware accompanying the system. 

For those of you who want more 
detailed information, there is a 
technical reference manual under 
development. It will cost approxi- 
mately $200. 1 looked at selected por- 
tions of the draft documentation and 

282 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



it is complete but probably unneces- 
sary for most users. Overall, the docu- 
mentation accompanying the VP is 
more than adequate for all levels of 
users. 

Technical Support 

Technical support for the VP includes 
standard dealer support, a customer- 
support division at Columbia, and 
system-maintenance support pro- 
vided by Bell & Howell Service 
Company. 

Bell & Howell provides on-site or 
depot (you bring it in) maintenance 
for Columbia products for an annual 
fee. This service is available nation- 
wide. For more information contact 
Bell & Howell at 6800 McCormick Rd„ 
Chicago, 1L 60645. 

Conclusions 

The Columbia Multipersonal Com- 
puter-VP is one of the best overall 
bargains on the market today. It is a 
transportable, albeit heavy computer 
that you can use wherever there is a 
wall plug. Included in the purchase 
price is all the software you will prob- 
ably ever need. The Perfect Software 
set of applications is good, if not 
flashy. 

The VP is compatible with most 
software designed for the IBM PC. I 
was able to run all of the popular 
business software I had for the IBM 
PC on it and had no problems. Al- 
though the software that comes with 
the system should meet the needs of 
the majority of users, if you have an 
IBM-format application package you 
would prefer to use, you should be 
able to run it on the VP 

The fact that the VP can run MS- 
DOS and CP/M-86 makes it a very ver- 
satile system. 

Admittedly, parts of the system 
could be better— the keyboard could 
be improved upon, another expan- 
sion slot could be added, and the unit 
as a whole could be lighter. But, con- 
sidering the VP's modest price, these 
are minor problems. 

If you need a second, or even a first, 
computer system that gives you por- 
tability and IBM PC compatibility, the 
VP is an exceptionally good value. ■ 



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Like all our display products, the WY-50 combines an unusually small footprint 
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The WY-50 offers full software and hardware compatibility 
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NOVEMBER 1984 • BYTE 



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SOFTWARE REVIEW 

Leading Edge 
and MultiMate 



Dedicated 

word 

processor 



might not be 
for everyone 

BY C J PUOTINEN 



A few short years ago, which is a 
long time in the world of com- 
puters, there were two approaches 
to word processing. You could use an of- 
fice word processor, a single-purpose com- 
puter whose keys were clearly labeled ac- 
prOgramS cording to function, or you could use a 
microcomputer with a program like Word- 
Star, which meant learning a confusing ar- 
ray of letter-key commands. 

The dedicated machines left little to 
chance. Unlike their microcomputer 
counterparts, they stored text automatical- 
ly and used a logical if restrictive approach 
to move, copy, and delete commands. The 
microcomputer programs made more 
demands on new users, but their com- 
mands could be more flexible and, in some 
cases, their execution times faster. 

The IBM Personal Computer's success 
offered software companies an opportuni- 
ty to design programs for a microcomputer 
widely used in business offices. Developers 
could take advantage of special-purpose 
keys in combination with the Control, Shift, 
and Alternate keys, practically eliminating 
the need for letter-key commands. 

Now a microcomputer could act like a 
dedicated word processor. Before you 
could say Wang Writer, dedication became 
a buzzword. Are the dedicated word pro- 
cessor programs the answer to a secretary's 
prayer? Are they fast, efficient, and easy to 
learn? In this review I will examine 
MultiMate and Leading Edge Word Process- 
ing, two programs riding the dedicated 
wave. 



THE Trailing Edge 

When the Leading Edge package appeared 
in late 1983, full-page, full-color advertise- 
ments hailed it as "the most powerful word 
processing package ever created for the 
IBM Personal Computer" and a model of 
sophistication and simplicity. Embracing the 
latest fads in word processing, Leading 
Edge splits the screen into two windows, 
uses layered menus, and emulates a dedi- 



C J Puotinen (POB M-52 5, 

Hoboken. NJ 07030) is the author 

of The Last Word on WordStar 

and Using the IBM Personal 

Computer: MultiMate. 



cated word processor so successfully that 
a typist need never encounter a DOS (disk 
operating system) command, even during 
installation. 

Its slick, colorful manual is the most 
graphically interesting I've seen, and so are 
its stand-up cue card, 91 -page training guide 
and disk, quick-reference card, and key- 
board template, 

I spent months looking forward to trying 
the Leading Edge word processor. Alas, the 
program offers little more than a pretty face. 
In a competitive market where speed and 
efficiency matter, it uses an awkward com- 
mand structure and confusing procedures. 
Worst of all, it's slow. Fortunately, its price 
has been lowered from $295 to $100. 

Learning the Program 

The Leading Edge tutorial disk provides 
short, simple memos that you correct as in- 
structed in five embarrassingly worded 
lessons. I can only wonder at the intended 
audience. 

"Congratulations. Your mild-mannered 
computer has emerged from the phone 
booth..." "Wow! My typing's on TV!" "Con- 
gratulations. Your typing is a television hit." 
"Congratulations. You're now a licensed 
return key operator." "When you want 
somebody to read what you've written on 
Leading Edge Word Processing, don't mail 
them the computer. Here's a much easier 
way" There's more, but I'll spare you. 

Color-coded cardboard dividers separate 
and label the manual's three main sections: 
essentials, functions, and etceteras. "Each 
section," says the introduction, "is an in- 
dependent unit. The manual is not meant 
to be read from cover to cover. It is de- 
signed so that you can find exactly what you 
want— when you want it." 

Well, that depends. There's no index, so 
reading the manual from cover to cover is 
the only way to locate most commands. You 
could spend a long time searching for the 
procedure for justifying the right margin (it's 

[continued) 



NOVEMBER 1984 -BYTE 287 



REVIEW: LEADING EDGE & MULTIMATE 



MultiMate's manual 
has been rated 
superior to most . . . 



in the Format Line section), deleting 
more than a single character (see Cut 
commands), entering boldface type 
(Fancy Print), and moving blocks of 
text (Paste commands). You don't 
move or copy document files; you "ar- 
chive" them. You don't copy text from 
one place to another; you "name 
paste" or "super name paste" it. 

The manual provides no narrative 
description or overview and its ex- 
planations are so curt and cryptic that 
deciphering commands can be a 
major task, especially for new users. 

Editor at Work 

Where most microcomputer pro- 
grams refer to disk drives, Leading 
Edge refers to Drawer A and Drawer 
B. Each drawer can hold up to 32 
folders and each folder up to 32 
documents. 

When you first open a folder, the 
program creates a standard docu- 
ment. Here's how the manual 
describes it: 

The LE Standard Document is auto- 
matically created by Leading Edge 
Word Processing. There is one stan- 
dard document per folder. It consists 
of a format line with a left margin of 
and a right margin of 80. You may 
choose to use this format as is or to 
assist you in establishing new formats 
for the creation of new documents. 
Establishing new formats may be useful 
for creating standard memos, letters, 
reports, etc. 

What the manual doesn't explain is 
that you can never erase a standard 
document, that you can edit this file 
any way you like, and that whatever 
you store in a standard document 
(text and/or format lines) will appear 
automatically in every new file you 
create within its folder. 

The filing system offers certain ad- 
vantages. Filenames can be a full 30 
characters long, including spaces. 
Folders can be treated as single units 



and copied from one disk to another 
moved, or erased; their contents can 
be rearranged as well. But clear disk 
labels are essential, for the DOS direc- 
tory command reveals nothing about 
a disk's contents; to review filenames, 
you have to load the program and 
consult its folder directories, a pro- 
cedure that involves menu changes. 

Looking at MultiMate 

In 1982, after adding IBM PCs to its 
collection of Wang word processors, 
Connecticut Mutual Life Insurance Co. 
hired a software-development com- 
pany to transform its microcomputers 
into Wang Writers. The development 
company, WH. Jones & Associates, 
agreed on the condition that it retain 
marketing rights to the program. In 
December 1982, WordMate made its 
debut. For trademark reasons and to 
reflect future enhancements, Word- 
Mate became MultiMate; the develop- 
ment company, which changed its 
name to SoftWord Systems, recently 
became Multimate International. 

Though MultiMate cannot do every- 
thing the Wang does, it comes as 
close as can be expected for a pro- 
gram requiring 2 56Kbytes of RAM. 
As a result, it is easy for novice users 
to learn, especially those who have 
Wang experience. In fact, MultiMate 
owes much of its success to the wide 
base of office workers already trained 
on that equipment. 

Command Structure 

MultiMate comes with a color-coded 
keyboard chart and matching tem- 
plate. Stick-on labels used in previous 
releases have been discontinued. 

On the color charts, the Control key 
is orange and the Alternate key is 
green. Keys are labeled on the charts 
with both color and function. 

For example, the F2 key carries four 
labels. On the top of the key it says 
PgComb above the F2 and PgBrk 
below it. On the front side, it says 
Repag on an orange stripe and PgLgth 
on a green one. Initiates can decipher 
this key at a glance: F2 by itself sets 
a page break; Shift-F2 combines the 
page you're on with the next page, as- 
suming you enter the command from 



the page's last line; Ctrl-F2 starts 
automatic repagination to adjust the 
length of edited pages; and Alt-F2 lets 
you change a document's lines-per- 
page setting. 

Documentation 

MultiMate's manual is easy to use, 
with instructions at left, explanations 
at right, and a built-in easel that posi- 
tions the book for easy reading. An 
introduction offers basic information 
and definitions; a chapter called "Get- 
ting Started" explains the keyboard, 
command structure, and start-up pro- 
cedures; and four training lessons in- 
troduce the program. A reference sec- 
tion takes up most of the manual and 
provides more detailed instructions. 
These are necessary for those com- 
mands described briefly in the train- 
ing lessons or not at all on the tutorial 
disk accompanying version 3.22, 
MultiMate's latest release. A glossary 
and index complete the manual. 

MultiMate's documentation has 
been well received and rated superior 
to most, but that has more to do with 
the sorry state of computer documen- 
tation than writing talent. There are ir- 
ritating inconsistencies in this pro- 
gram and its documentation, and 
some procedures aren't adequately 
described. 

You enter some commands with the 
Return key, others with the F10 key, 
and some with either. The Escape key 
cancels most but not all commands. 
For example, to cancel a replacement 
command, you type the number 3; 
the program ignores the Escape key 

Practically every command that re- 
quires user input displays the previ- 
ously typed entry, and MultiMate con- 
tinues to display the old name as you 
type the new one. This creates con- 
fusion because in some but not all 
cases, you must erase surviving char- 
acters from the old name before 
entering the command. If the two en- 
tries are so similar that you need to 
change only a single character, you 
must remember that search/replace 
commands ignore displayed charac- 
ters to the right of the cursor, while 
nearly every other command includes 

[continued) 



288 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



AT A GLANCE 



Product 

Leading Edge Word 
Processing 

Manufacturer 

Leading Edge Products 
21 Highland Circle 
Needham, MA 02194 
(617) 449-6762 

Computer 

IBM PC, XT, or compatible; 
256K bytes RAM 

Price 

$100; $150 with mail-merge 
program 



Product 

MultiMate Professional Word 
Processor 3.22 

Manufacturer 

M ultimate International 

Corporation 
52 Oakland Ave. N 
East Hartford, CT 06108 
(203) 522-2116 

Computer 

IBM PC, XT, or compatible; 
256K bytes RAM 

Price 

$495, includes spelling 
checker and tutorial disk 



LOAD (SEC) 
50 



40 



30 



20 



10 



42 



* Va 



SAVE (SEC) 
25 



20 



15 



10 



SCROLL (SEC) 
150 



SVRCH (SEC) 



60 



138 



44 



31 




LEADING EDGE XMM MULTIMATE 



WORDSTAR 3.3 



The graphs show the results, in seconds, of per- 
forming various standard word- processing 
functions using a 4000-word text file. The Load 
graph shows the time required to load the file 
from disk to memory. The Save graph shows 
the time required to save the file on disk. The 
Scroll graph illustrates the time required to scroll 



manually from the file's first line to its last line. 
The Search graph shows the timing results for 
a search starting at the beginning of the file and 
looking for its last word. The times are for 
Leading Edge Word Processing, MultiMate 3.2, 
and WordStar 3.3 running on an IBM PC with 
dual disk drives and PC-DOS 2.0. 



NOVEMBER 1984 • BYTE 289 













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REVIEW: LEADING EDGE & MULTIMATE 



them. Several of the help screens suf- 
fer from typographical errors, and 
some, written for previous releases, 
are no longer accurate. 

The documentation is strongest 
when it describes routine commands, 
such as those used in short reports 
and correspondence; it's weakest in 
descriptions of complicated com- 
mands and procedures, and it makes 
no mention of program inconsisten- 
cies. Worse, it doesn't mention bugs, 
and MultiMate suffers from several. 
Some are harmless or merely irritat- 
ing. One can wreck your files. 

Repagination 

When you add new material or erase 
old material, pages change length. To 
correct imbalances and let you refor- 
mat material for legal-sized paper or 
short forms, MultiMate has an auto- 
matic repagination command. 

It works without a hitch if the file 
contains heading or footing com- 
mands on the first page only or none 
at all, if the document uses the same 
format throughout, and if the page 
length hasn't been shortened. 

I set a wide, single-spaced format at 
the beginning of a file and a narrow, 
double-spaced format in the middle 
of the first page. Before using the 
automatic repagination command, I 
typed and edited several additional 
pages, all using the double-spaced 
format. During automatic repagina- 
tion, MultiMate inserted spurious for- 
mat lines on every page, sometimes 
the wide format line, sometimes the 
narrow one. Nearly every unauthor- 
ized format line divided a sentence or 
paragraph. Each inserted a hard 
carriage-return symbol at the end of 
the text line preceding it, and in some 
cases these symbols were impossible 
to erase. 

I developed a tedious routine for re- 
moving the symbols; if the delete 
command worked, I saved the page 
and returned to try another one. But 
sometimes the program refused to let 
me back in. "Cannot load this page," 
said the screen. Once this message 
appeared instead: "Out of record 
space— press any key to continue." 
This happened in a short file on a disk 



with 124K bytes available. When I did 
as instructed, part of the format line 
at the top of page 1 disappeared and 
the screen filled with upside-down 
question marks. The Escape key 
brought no relief, and the program ig- 
nored my reboot command. To 
resume the edit session, I had to shut 
the power off and start over. 

The repagination command doesn't 
like headings or footings, either. Each 
heading occupies at least three lines 
(one for the "start heading" symbol, 
one for the heading's text, and one for 
the "end heading" symbol). The same 
is true for footings, and either can be 
up to five lines long. But MultiMate 
can't tell the difference between a 
heading/footing command and regular 
text, so when automatic repagination 
encounters these commands on any 
page but page 1, it rearranges them. 
Your page 3 footing might appear 
near the top of page 4, or a page 
break might separate its parts. 

Changing the lines-per-page setting 
generates a different problem. Exper- 
imenting with a long file of alpha- 
betical entries, I shortened the page 
length from 55 lines of text to 40. 
Automatic repagination sent text from 
page 1 to the end of the file, material 
from the middle came to the front, 
and several paragraphs from what 
had been the end were scattered 
through the file. 

Because MultiMate saves every 
page as you leave it, the results of 
automatic repagination are perma- 
nent. If my file doesn't pass the three- 
part checklist (one format setting only 
no headings or footings after page 1, 
and no revised page length), I re- 
paginate by hand. It's a slow pro- 
cedure, but it doesn't have any bugs. 

By the time this article appears, 
Multimate International might have re- 
paired the repagination command in 
version 3.3, scheduled for late sum- 
mer release— but this defect was a 
problem in version 3.11 and should 
have been solved in version 3.2. 

As disturbing as I found some of 
MultiMate's tendencies, they inconve- 
nience few of the program's users, 
most of whom type only routine cor- 

(continued) 



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NOVEMBER 1984 -BYTE 291 



REVIEW: LEADING EDGE & MULTIMATE 



respondence and short reports. It's 
when you deal with long or compli- 
cated files that you run risks. 

Inside Document Files 

Both MultiMate and Leading Edge 
make extensive use of the IBM PC's 
function keys, reconfigure text auto- 
matically, and store material con- 
tinuously Both provide merge print 
programs, but MultiMate supplies a 
spelling checker as well. 

Leading Edge uses more menus 
and more layers of menus than Multi- 
Mate and it ignores the Return key in 
favor of the Execute key Leading 
Edge's name for the gray plus (+) key 
on the IBM's numeric keypad. 

To give credit where it's due, Lead- 
ing Edge outperforms MultiMate in a 
number of categories. The approach 
to onscreen formatting is similar, but 
MultiMate uses more embedded 
commands and does not display a 
justified right margin. Because Lead- 
ing Edge recognizes the difference 
between alphanumeric characters and 
format symbols such as hard return 
or tab indent characters, it preserves 
the format symbols as you overtype 
old screen text. MultiMate can't tell 
the difference, so it's easy to erase for- 
mat symbols accidentally, a situation 
made more confusing by the im- 
mediate reconfiguration of surviving 



screen text. Leading Edge is a refresh- 
ing change from MultiMate and a hun- 
dred other programs because it sends 
the cursor straight up and down the 
screen instead of zigzagging, even 
when it moves to an empty line. 

Both programs store text contin- 
uously, a feature I find inconvenient 
for creative projects or manuscripts 
requiring extensive revision. If you like 
a file's previous version better, you 
can't restore it by canceling your edit 
session. Since MultiMate saves each 
page as you leave it, you can cancel 
a single page if desired. Leading Edge 
saves to disk 10 seconds after you 
stop typing, which can be disconcert- 
ing, and it interrupts a busy typing 
session frequently. 

MultiMate is the more page- 
oriented program; it sets pages auto- 
matically and treats each page as a 
separate subfile. To see a new page, 
you must leave the old one. Leading 
Edge displays page-break lines and 
lets you see more than one page at 
a time. No page-break lines appear 
until you return to the beginning of a 
document and enter the repagination 
command, and the program does not 
update page breaks as you add or 
remove text. In general, Leading 
Edge's pagination is more convenient 
than MultiMate's because it doesn't 
have page-length limitations, it can 



Tkble 1 : Summary of search/replace command options. 




Search/Replace Commands 


Leading Edge 


MultiMate 


WordStar 


Display search string before 
executing command 


no 


yes 


yes 


Search forward 


yes 


yes 


yes 


Search backward 


no 


no 


yes 


Single search/replace (does not 
repeat automatically) 


no 


no 


yes 


Automatic global replace 
(repeats automatically) 


forward 
only 


forward 
only 


yes 


Discretionary global replace 
(repeats automatically) 


no 


forward 
only 


yes 


Ignore case, match case 


yes 


yes 


yes 


Find nth appearance 


no 


no 


yes 


Make replacement n times 


no 


no 


yes 


Match whole words only 


no 


no 


yes 



display individual headings and 
footings after repagination, and it 
doesn't make a production out of 
moving from one page to another. 
Even considering these advantages, 
however, Leading Edge is harder to 
understand, slower, and less conve- 
nient than MultiMate. 

Printing Attributes 

Leading Edge's fancy print category 
includes underlining, double underlin- 
ing, boldface type, wide boldface, 
double wide print, subscripts, super- 
scripts, italics, strike-through, color 
monitor selections, and color printing. 

You can enter the appropriate com- 
mand before typing text or type first 
and apply attributes later in a block 
procedure. Automatic underlining is 
the only single-keystroke attribute 
command; the others require seven 
keystrokes and two menus. Though 
the underline appears on mono- 
chrome monitors, underlined charac- 
ters display on color monitors in in- 
verse video. The advantage to this 
escapes me because all other at- 
tributes display on either monitor as 
inverse video. You can request a 
screen notation defining attributes, 
but only one message can appear at 
a time. If you use a variety of at- 
tributes, you must visit each word 
separately and enter two or more 
commands to determine which words 
are boldface subscripts, for example, 
and which are italicized superscripts. 

Though automatic attributes sound 
convenient, the screen can't keep up 
as you type. When I attempted to 
enter three lines of italic text, I filled 
the keyboard buffer, which made the 
screen beep, and then waited while 
the characters appeared at the rate of 
two per second. It takes less time to 
type the material first, then mark it as 
a block and apply the desired at- 
tributes. WordStar and MultiMate 
don't handicap the user, and Multi- 
Mate offers more versatile underline 
commands. 

Mystery Search Command 

WordStar and MultiMate display your 
search string as you type. The string 

[continued] 



292 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



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REVIEW: LEADING EDGE & MULTIMATE 



remains on the screen until you 
cancel or execute the command, giv- 
ing you plenty of time to verify it and 
make changes. Leading Edge doesn't 
subscribe to this user-friendly 
philosophy. 

Whether you press the Execute key 
or not, the program starts its search 
as soon as you type the string's first 
character. As if this weren't confusing 
enough, it displays only the string's 
first character until it matches that 
character, then it displays the next 
character as well, and so on. Not until 
the cursor stops at an exact match 
does the entire string display on the 
search line. If the program can't find 
an exact match, it never does display 
the string; instead, a "Cancel search/ 
replace" message appears. You can't 
tell whether you typed the string cor- 
rectly. 

Both programs offer automatic 
global replacements (see table 1), 
though Leading Edge's command se- 
quence is by far the more awkward. 
WordStar and MultiMate provide dis- 
cretionary (yes/no) global commands; 
Leading Edge requires you to press 
a key each time you want to repeat 
the command. 

Unlike Leading Edge, WordStar and 
MultiMate provide numerous screen 
prompts and yes/no verification mes- 
sages at possible replacements. 
Unless the Leading Edge manual or 
cue card is beside you, it's hard to 
remember the commands for special 
wild cards, ignoring case, and global 



replacements. Even a simple search/ 
replace command requires several 
steps: position the cursor at the 
beginning of the file or where you 
want the search to begin; press the F7 
(search) key; type the word or phrase 
to be replaced; when the cursor stops 
at the first match, press Shift-F7; type 
the replacement word or phrase; 
press the Execute key. 

The command repeats automatical- 
ly. To confirm the offered replacement 
and go to the next appearance, press 
the Execute key again, lb go to the 
next appearance without making the 
offered replacement, press F7. 

If Leading Edge's search/replace 
commands are confusing and awk- 
ward, their speed adds injury to insult. 
In a 4000-word benchmark file, Lead- 
ing Edge needed 1 minute and 2 sec- 
onds to find a word that WordStar 
located in 4 seconds. But more stun- 
ning (I ran the test twice to confirm 
this) was its automatic global replace- 
ment of a word that appeared 400 
times. WordStar completed the task in 
21 seconds with its screen display 
suppressed. I thought MultiMate was 
slow at 6 minutes 2 5 seconds. Lead- 
ing Edge took 30 minutes 40 seconds. 

Cut and Paste 

Leading Edge doesn't use the familiar 
nomenclature of block commands, 
such as move, copy, and delete. The 
cut command erases a block of high- 
lighted text. The paste command in- 
serts previously cut text at the cursor. 



Table 2: Benchmark results for beading Edge Word Processing and MultiMate 
3.2 compared to WordStar 3.3. Ail times are in seconds. 


Procedure 


Leading Edge 


MultiMate 


WordStar 


Load, a file 


42 




4 


7 


Save a file 


3 




8 


22 


Scroll from top to bottom 
of file 


44 




138 


31 


Search for last word 
in a file 


62 




49 


4 


Load program from DOS 


20 




16 


8 


Move to end of file 


5 




6 


7 


Move to beginning of file 


1 




6 


1 



A named cut is given a one-letter 
label as it's erased; a named paste in- 
serts the specified named cut. lb copy 
a block of text, you must erase it first, 
then restore it at the original position 
and insert it at the new location. 

The super name paste command 
moves text from one window to the 
other. 

Boilerplate 

Like many new programs, and unlike 
WordStar, MultiMate and Leading 
Edge provide special commands for 
storing and inserting boilerplate text 
and for entering frequently used key- 
stroke sequences automatically. 

The library is MultiMate's boiler- 
plate mechanism, and its key pro- 
cedures store keystrokes. Leading 
Edge includes both functions in its 
glossary command. 

Both programs name their entries: 
MultiMate allows up to three charac- 
ters and Leading Edge limits the name 
to a single letter. 

The programs are similar in key- 
stroke execution but worlds apart in 
handling of text— and the automatic 
insertion of text is what word process- 
ing is all about. When called for, Multi- 
Mate's library entries appear all at 
once. Leading Edge, which goes out 
of its way to do things differently, 
brings the text in one line at a time. 
I prepared the same 500-word page 
of text as a MultiMate library entry 
and a Leading Edge glossary file. It 
took MultiMate less than 4 seconds 
to execute the command and insert 
the text, but Leading Edge needed 1 
minute 27 seconds. 

Benchmark TtSTS 

Using the same 4000-word bench- 
mark file for each program, I tested 
WordStar 3.3, MultiMate 3.2, and 
Leading Edge 1.1 with standard BYTE 
procedures plus a few of my own (see 
table 2). I ran the tests on an IBM Per- 
sonal Computer with dual disk drives 
and 256K bytes of RAM. 

In the move-to-end-of-file test, Lead- 
ing Edge took 5 seconds to go from 
the first line of the benchmark file to 
the last, WordStar required 7 seconds, 

[continued) 



294 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



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REVIEW: LEADING EDGE & MULTIMATE 



and MultiMate used 6 seconds. Mov- 
ing from the file's last line to its first 
took Leading Edge 1.5 seconds, Word- 
Star 1 second, and MultiMate 6 sec- 
onds. In this category, the perfor- 
mance differences are negligible 

Document saving times are hard to 
compute for Leading Edge and Multi- 
Mate because they save text automat- 
ically MultiMate saves every page as 
you leave it, a procedure that takes 5 
to 7 seconds. Leading Edge saves text 
when you stop typing and at frequent 
intervals throughout a busy edit ses- 
sion. I timed the programs as they 
closed the benchmark file and re- 
turned to the main menu. Leading 
Edge needed 3 seconds and Multi- 
Mate 8. WordStar saved the file and 
returned to the main menu in 22 sec- 
onds. 

For program loading, WordStar 
loads from disk in 8 seconds. Multi- 
Mate and Leading Edge take longer 
and the loading procedure includes 
an extra keystroke; both display 
copyright messages and "Press any 
key to continue." MultiMate's mini- 
mum loading time was 16 seconds, 
Leading Edge's 20 seconds. 

Loading times for the benchmark 
file varied dramatically. It took Word- 
Star 7 seconds to load the benchmark 
file, MultiMate 4 seconds (3 to display 
the document summary screen and 1 
to display the file), and Leading Edge 



took 42 seconds. Leading Edge makes 
a backup copy not when you leave a 
file but when you enter it again, and 
the procedure makes a real racket. 
The longer the file, the more the disk 
drive sounds like a demented 
mechanical calculator. 

Using the down-arrow key to scroll 
manually through the document is an- 
other benchmark test. WordStar was 
the fastest program, going from first 
to last lines in 31 seconds. Leading 
Edge's 44 seconds might be slower, 
but MultiMate needed 2 minutes 18 
seconds to complete the test. 

The last BYTE benchmark test is a 
search command; it begins at the file's 
first line and looks for the file's last 
word, which appears only once. Word- 
Star found the word in 4 seconds, 
MultiMate in 49, and Leading Edge in 
1 minute 2 seconds. As mentioned, 
the global replacement comparison is 
even more dramatic. 

lb show that Leading Edge's pace 
isn't my imagination, I ran some ad- 
ditional tests. For example, WordStar 
deletes a line instantaneously; Lead- 
ing Edge leaves the line onscreen for 
a full 2 seconds after you enter the 
appropriate cut command, and it 
spends another second updating the 
screen. 

No matter where you are in a Word- 
Star file, you can enter the "go to end 
of file" command, and the cursor 



Table 3: Summary of save/store command options. 






Functions 


Leading Edge 


MultiMate 


WordStar 


Saves file on disk 


saves text 
continuously 


saves 
each page 
as you 
leave it 


on 
command 


Makes backup file 


when loading 
file (used only 
to overwrite 
current version 
if damaged) 


no 


yes, when 
saving; user 
can rename 
and edit 
file 


Abandon edit command lets you 
cancel edit session, restore 
original version of file 


no 


no 


yes 


Program can generate, edit 
ASCII files 


no no 
(conversion programs 
provided) 


yes 



moves directly to the file's last line. 
Enter this command in a Leading 
Edge file and the cursor moves to the 
top of the last page, pauses, and con- 
tinues to the end. If you're already on 
the last page, this program scrolls up 
to the top of the page and pauses 
before moving down to the end, a 
procedure that consumes half a 
minute on long pages. 

Merge and Print 

MultiMate's built-in merge program 
might not be the fastest in town, but 
compared to Leading Edge's, it's a 
model of simplicity. Someone already 
familiar with records, fields, delimiters, 
nonhyphenated field specifiers, and 
hyphenated field specifiers might be 
able to follow the Leading Edge pro- 
cedure, but its documentation seems 
designed to confuse novice users. 

MultiMate's merge program is easy 
to understand and use, and it doesn't 
require file conversion. Leading Edge 
merge files must be converted to 
ASCII format before printing. 

Printing is a straightforward opera- 
tion once you decipher the Leading 
Edge print menu. Each line is a menu 
item, lb change a value, you move the 
highlighting up or down, press the Ex- 
ecute key, type the correction, and 
press Execute again. Printing begins 
when you move highlighting back to 
the top line (or the second line for 
merge printing) and press the Execute 
key. 

Dedicated word processors were 
designed for busy offices, and it's in 
the printing department, where time 
is money, that MultiMate leaves both 
Leading Edge and WordStar behind. 
WordStar and Leading Edge let you 
print one file while editing another, 
but MultiMate uses a printer queue/ 
spooler that frees the operator from 
waiting for one file to finish printing 
before entering the next file's print 
command. 

With MultiMate you can delay the 
print session to a specific time, enter 
the commands for printing a dozen 
files one after another, rearrange files 
in the queue, and go out to lunch 
while the printer carries out your com- 

{continued) 



296 BYTE • NOVEMBER 1984 



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